Imbruvica

Imbruvica

ibrutinib

Manufacturer:

Janssen

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Ibrutinib.
Description
Each hard capsule contains 140 mg of ibrutinib.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Capsule content: croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium laurilsulfate.
Capsule shell: gelatin, titanium dioxide (E171).
Printing ink: shellac, iron oxide black (E172), propylene glycol.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antineoplastic agents, protein kinase inhibitors. ATC code: L01XE27.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Ibrutinib is a potent, small-molecule inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Ibrutinib forms a covalent bond with a cysteine residue (Cys-481) in the BTK active site, leading to sustained inhibition of BTK enzymatic activity. BTK, a member of the Tec kinase family, is an important signalling molecule of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) and cytokine receptor pathways. The BCR pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of several B-cell malignancies, including MCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, and CLL. BTK's pivotal role in signalling through the B-cell surface receptors results in activation of pathways necessary for B-cell trafficking, chemotaxis and adhesion. Preclinical studies have shown that ibrutinib effectively inhibits malignant B-cell proliferation and survival in vivo as well as cell migration and substrate adhesion in vitro.
Lymphocytosis: Upon initiation of treatment, a reversible increase in lymphocyte counts (i.e., ≥ 50% increase from baseline and an absolute count > 5,000/mcL), often associated with reduction of lymphadenopathy, has been observed in about three fourths of patients with CLL treated with IMBRUVICA. This effect has also been observed in about one third of patients with relapsed or refractory MCL treated with IMBRUVICA. This observed lymphocytosis is a pharmacodynamic effect and should not be considered progressive disease in the absence of other clinical findings. In both disease types, lymphocytosis typically occurs during the first month of IMBRUVICA therapy and typically resolves within a median of 8.0 weeks in patients with MCL and 14 weeks in patients with CLL. A large increase in the number of circulating lymphocytes (e.g., > 400,000/mcL) has been observed in some patients.
In vitro platelet aggregation: In an in vitro study, ibrutinib demonstrated inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Ibrutinib did not show meaningful inhibition of platelet aggregation using other agonists of platelet aggregation.
Effect on QT/QTc interval and cardiac electrophysiology: The effect of ibrutinib on the QTc interval was evaluated in 20 healthy male and female subjects in a randomised, double-blind thorough QT study with placebo and positive controls. At a supratherapeutic dose of 1680 mg, ibrutinib did not prolong the QTc interval to any clinically relevant extent. The largest upper bound of the 2-sided 90% CI for the baseline adjusted mean differences between ibrutinib and placebo was below 10 ms. In this same study, a concentration dependent shortening in the QTc interval was observed (-5.3 ms [90% CI: -9.4, -1.1] at a Cmax of 719 ng/mL following the supratherapeutic dose of 1680 mg).
Clinical efficacy and safety: MCL: The safety and efficacy of IMBRUVICA in patients with relapsed or refractory MCL were evaluated in a single open-label, multi-center phase 2 study (PCYC-1104-CA) of 111 patients. The median age was 68 years (range: 40 to 84 years), 77% were male and 92% were Caucasian. Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 3 or greater were excluded from the study. The median time since diagnosis was 42 months, and median number of prior treatments was 3 (range: 1 to 5 treatments), including 35% with prior high-dose chemotherapy, 43% with prior bortezomib, 24% with prior lenalidomide, and 11% with prior autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant. At baseline, 39% of patients had bulky disease (≥ 5 cm), 49% had high-risk score by Simplified MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI), and 72% had advanced disease (extranodal and/or bone marrow involvement) at screening.
IMBRUVICA was administered orally at 560 mg once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Tumour response was assessed according to the revised International Working Group (IWG) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) criteria. The primary endpoint in this study was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR). Responses to IMBRUVICA are shown in Table 1. (See Table 1.)

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The efficacy data was further evaluated by an Independent Review Committee (IRC) demonstrating an ORR of 69%, with a 21% complete response (CR) rate and a 48% partial response (PR) rate. The IRC estimated median DOR was 19.6 months.
The overall response to IMBRUVICA was independent of prior treatment including bortezomib and lenalidomide or underlying risk/prognostic factors, bulky disease, gender or age.
The safety and efficacy of IMBRUVICA were demonstrated in a randomised phase 3, open-label, multicenter study including 280 patients with MCL who received at least one prior therapy (Study MCL3001). Patients were randomised 1:1 to receive either IMBRUVICA orally at 560 mg once daily for 21 days or temsirolimus intravenously at 175 mg on Days 1, 8, 15 of the first cycle followed by 75 mg on Days 1, 8, 15 of each subsequent 21-day cycle. Treatment on both arms continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The median age was 68 years (range, 34; 88 years), 74% were male and 87% were Caucasian. The median time since diagnosis was 43 months, and median number of prior treatments was 2 (range: 1 to 9 treatments), including 51% with prior high-dose chemotherapy, 18% with prior bortezomib, 5% with prior lenalidomide, and 24% with prior stem cell transplant. At baseline, 53% of patients had bulky disease (≥ 5 cm), 21% had high-risk score by Simplified MIPI, 60% had extranodal disease and 54% had bone marrow involvement at screening.
Progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by IRC according to the revised International Working Group (IWG) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) criteria. Efficacy results for Study MCL3001 are shown in Table 2 and the Kaplan-Meier curve for PFS in Figure 1. (See Table 2.)

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A smaller proportion of patients treated with ibrutinib experienced a clinically meaningful worsening of lymphoma symptoms versus temsirolimus (27% versus 52%) and time to worsening of symptoms occurred more slowly with ibrutinib versus temsirolimus (HR 0.27, p < 0.0001). (See Figure 1.)

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CLL: Patients previously untreated for CLL: A randomised, multicenter, open-label phase 3 study (PCYC-1115-CA) of IMBRUVICA versus chlorambucil was conducted in patients with treatment-naïve CLL who were 65 years of age or older. Patients between 65 and 70 years of age were required to have at least one comorbidity that precluded the use of frontline chemo-immunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab. Patients (n = 269) were randomised 1:1 to receive either IMBRUVICA 420 mg daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity, or chlorambucil at a starting dose of 0.5 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 of each 28-day cycle for a maximum of 12 cycles, with an allowance for intrapatient dose increases up to 0.8 mg/kg based on tolerability. After confirmed disease progression, patients on chlorambucil were able to crossover to ibrutinib.
The median age was 73 years (range, 65 to 90 years), 63% were male, and 91% were Caucasian. Ninety one percent of patients had a baseline ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 and 9% had an ECOG performance status of 2. The study enrolled 269 patients with CLL. At baseline, 45% had advanced clinical stage (Rai Stage III or IV), 35% of patients had at least one tumor ≥ 5 cm, 39% with baseline anemia, 23% with baseline thrombocytopenia, 65% had elevated β2 microglobulin > 3500 mcg/L, 47% had a CrCL < 60 ml/min, and 20% of patients presented with del11q.
Progression free survival (PFS) as assessed by IRC according to International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) criteria indicated an 84% statistically significant reduction in the risk of death or progression in the IMBRUVICA arm. Efficacy results for Study PCYC-1115-CA are shown in Table 3 and the Kaplan-Meier curves for PFS and OS are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.
There was a statistically significant sustained platelet or hemoglobin improvement in the ITT population in favor of ibrutinib versus chlorambucil. In patients with baseline cytopenias, sustained hematologic improvement was: platelets 77.1% versus 42.9%; hemoglobin 84.3% versus 45.5% for ibrutinib and chlorambucil respectively. (See Table 3 and Figures 2 and 3.)

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Patients with CLL who received at least one prior therapy: The safety and efficacy of IMBRUVICA in patients with CLL were demonstrated in one uncontrolled study and one randomised, controlled study. The open-label, multi-center study (PCYC-1102-CA) included 51 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL, who received 420 mg once daily. IMBRUVICA was administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The median age was 68 years (range: 37 to 82 years), median time since diagnosis was 80 months, and median number of prior treatments was 4 (range: 1 to 12 treatments), including 92.2% with a prior nucleoside analog, 98.0% with prior rituximab, 86.3% with a prior alkylator, 39.2% with prior bendamustine and 19.6% with prior ofatumumab. At baseline, 39.2% of patients had Rai Stage IV, 45.1% had bulky disease (≥ 5 cm), 35.3% had deletion 17p and 31.4% had deletion 11q.
ORR was assessed according to the 2008 IWCLL criteria by investigators and IRC. At a median duration follow up of 16.4 months, the ORR by IRC for the 51 relapsed or refractory patients was 64.7% (95% CI: 50.1%; 77.6%), all PRs. The ORR including PR with lymphocytosis was 70.6%. Median time to response was 1.9 months. The DOR ranged from 3.9 to 24.2+ months. The median DOR was not reached.
A randomised, multi-center, open-label phase 3 study of IMBRUVICA versus ofatumumab (PCYC-1112-CA) was conducted in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. Patients (n = 391) were randomised 1:1 to receive either IMBRUVICA 420 mg daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity, or ofatumumab for up to 12 doses (300/2,000 mg). Fifty-seven patients randomised to ofatumumab crossed over following progression to receive IMBRUVICA. The median age was 67 years (range: 30 to 88 years), 68% were male, and 90% were Caucasian. All patients had a baseline ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. The median time since diagnosis was 91 months and the median number of prior treatments was 2 (range: 1 to 13 treatments). At baseline, 58% of patients had at least one tumour ≥5 cm. Thirty-two percent of patients had deletion 17p and 31% had 11q deletion.
Progression free survival (PFS) as assessed by an IRC according to IWCLL criteria indicated a 78% statistically significant reduction in the risk of death or progression for patients in the IMBRUVICA arm. Analysis of OS demonstrated a 57% statistically significant reduction in the risk of death for patients in the IMBRUVICA arm. Efficacy results for Study PCYC-1112-CA are shown in Table 4. (See Table 4.)

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The efficacy was similar across all of the subgroups examined, including in patients with and without deletion 17p, a pre-specified stratification factor (Table 5). (See Table 5.)

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The Kaplan-Meier curve for PFS is shown in Figure 4. (See Figure 4.)

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Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Ibrutinib is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with a median Tmax of 1 to 2 hours. Absolute bioavailability in fasted condition (n = 8) was 2.9% (90% CI = 2.1 - 3.9) and doubled when combined with a meal. Pharmacokinetics of ibrutinib does not significantly differ in patients with different B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib exposure increases with doses up to 840 mg. The steady state AUC observed in patients at 560 mg is (mean ± standard deviation) 953 ± 705 ng h/mL. Administration of ibrutinib in fasted condition resulted in approximately 60% of exposure (AUClast) as compared to either 30 minutes before, 30 minutes after (fed condition) or 2 hours after a high fat breakfast.
Ibrutinib has a pH dependent solubility, with lower solubility at higher pH. In fasted healthy subjects administered a single 560 mg dose of ibrutinib after taking omeprazole at 40 mg once daily for 5 days, compared to ibrutinib alone, geometric mean ratios (90% CI) were 83% (68-102%), 92% (78-110%), and 38% (26-53%) for AUC0-24, AUClast, and Cmax, respectively.
Distribution: Reversible binding of ibrutinib to human plasma protein in vitro was 97.3% with no concentration dependence in the range of 50 to 1,000 ng/mL. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vd, ss/F) was approximately 10,000 L.
Metabolism: Ibrutinib is metabolised primarily by CYP3A4 to produce a dihydrodiol metabolite with an inhibitory activity towards BTK approximately 15 times lower than that of ibrutinib. Involvement of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of ibrutinib appears to be minimal.
Therefore, no precautions are necessary in patients with different CYP2D6 genotypes.
Elimination: Apparent clearance (CL/F) is approximately 1,000 L/h. The half-life of ibrutinib is 4 to 13 hours. After a single oral administration of radiolabeled [14C]-ibrutinib in healthy subjects, approximately 90% of radioactivity was excreted within 168 hours, with the majority (80%) excreted in the faeces and < 10% accounted for in urine. Unchanged ibrutinib accounted for approximately 1% of the radiolabeled excretion product in faeces and none in urine.
Special populations: Elderly: Population pharmacokinetics indicated that age does not significantly influence ibrutinib clearance from the circulation.
Paediatric population: No pharmacokinetic studies were performed with IMBRUVICA in patients under 18 years of age.
Gender: Population pharmacokinetics data indicated that gender does not significantly influence ibrutinib clearance from the circulation.
Race: There are insufficient data to evaluate the potential effect of race on ibrutinib pharmacokinetics.
Body weight: Population pharmacokinetics data indicated that body weight (range: 41-146 kg; mean [SD]: 83 [19 kg]) had a negligible effect on ibrutinib clearance.
Renal impairment: Ibrutinib has minimal renal clearance; urinary excretion of metabolites is < 10% of the dose. No specific studies have been conducted to date in subjects with impaired renal function. There are no data in patients with severe renal impairment or patients on dialysis (see Dosage & Administration).
Hepatic impairment: Ibrutinib is metabolised in the liver. A hepatic impairment trial was performed in non-cancer subjects administered a single dose of 140 mg of medicinal product under fasting conditions. The effect of impaired liver function varied substantially between individuals, but on average a 2.7-, 8.2-, and 9.8-fold increase in ibrutinib exposure (AUClast) was observed in subjects with mild (n = 6, Child-Pugh class A), moderate (n = 10, Child-Pugh class B) and severe (n = 8, Child-Pugh class C) hepatic impairment, respectively. The free fraction of ibrutinib also increased with degree of impairment, with 3.0, 3.8 and 4.8% in subjects with mild, moderate and severe liver impairment, respectively, compared to 3.3% in plasma from matched healthy controls within this study. The corresponding increase in unbound ibrutinib exposure (AUCunbound, last) is estimated to be 4.1-, 9.8-, and 13-fold in subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively (see Dosage & Administration).
Co-administration with CYP substrates: In vitro studies indicated that ibrutinib is a weak reversible inhibitor toward CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and intestinal (but not hepatic) CYP3A4 and does not display clinically relevant time-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The dihydrodiol metabolite of ibrutinib is a weak inhibitor toward CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6. The dihydrodiol metabolite is at most a weak inducer of CYP450 isoenzymes in vitro. Although ibrutinib is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate, it does not have a clinically relevant effect on its own exposure.
Co-administration with transport substrates/inhibitors: In vitro studies indicated that ibrutinib is not a substrate of P-gp, nor other major transporters, except OCT2. The dihydrodiol metabolite and other metabolites are P-gp substrates. Ibrutinib is an in vitro inhibitor of P-gp and BCRP (see Interactions).
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: The following adverse effects were seen in studies of 13-weeks duration in rats and dogs. Ibrutinib was found to induce gastrointestinal effects (soft faeces/diarrhoea and/or inflammation) and lymphoid depletion in rats and dogs with a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 30 mg/kg/day in both species. Based on mean exposure (AUC) at the 560 mg/day clinical dose, AUC ratios were 2.6 and 21 at the NOAEL in male and female rats, and 0.4 and 1.8 at the NOAEL in male and female dogs, respectively. Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) (60 mg/kg/day) margins in the dog are 3.6-fold (males) and 2.3-fold (females). In rats, moderate pancreatic acinar cell atrophy (considered adverse) was observed at doses of ≥ 100 mg/kg in male rats (AUC exposure margin of 2.6-fold) and not observed in females at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (AUC exposure margin of 21.3-fold). Mildly decreased trabecular and cortical bone was seen in female rats administered ≥ 100 mg/kg/day (AUC exposure margin of 20.3-fold). All gastrointestinal, lymphoid and bone findings recovered following recovery periods of 6-13 weeks. Pancreatic findings partially recovered during comparable reversal periods.
Juvenile toxicity studies have not been conducted.
Carcinogenicity/genotoxicity: Ibrutinib was not carcinogenic in a 6-month study in the transgenic (Tg.rasH2) mouse at oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day with an exposure margin of approximately 23 (males) to 37 (females) times the human AUC of ibrutinib at a dose of 560 mg daily.
Ibrutinib has no genotoxic properties when tested in bacteria, mammalian cells or in mice.
Reproductive toxicity: In pregnant rats, ibrutinib at a dose of 80 mg/kg/day was associated with increased post-implantation loss and increased visceral (heart and major vessels) malformations and skeletal variations with an exposure margin 14 times the AUC found in patients at a daily dose of 560 mg. At a dose of ≥ 40 mg/kg/day, ibrutinib was associated with decreased foetal weights (AUC ratio of ≥ 5.6 as compared to daily dose of 560 mg in patients). Consequently the foetal NOAEL was 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.3 times the AUC of ibrutinib at a dose of 560 mg daily) (see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
In pregnant rabbits, ibrutinib at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day or greater was associated with skeletal malformations (fused sternebrae) and ibrutinib at a dose of 45 mg/kg/day was associated with increased post-implantation loss. Ibrutinib caused malformations in rabbits at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.0 times the exposure (AUC) in patients with MCL administered ibrutinib 560 mg daily and 2.8 times the exposure in patients with CLL receiving ibrutinib dose 420 mg per day). Consequently the foetal NOAEL was 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.7 times the AUC of ibrutinib at a dose of 560 mg daily) (see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
Fertility: No effects on fertility or reproductive capacities were observed in male or female rats up to the maximum dose tested, 100 mg/kg/day (HED16 mg/kg/day).
Indications/Uses
IMBRUVICA as a single agent is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
IMBRUVICA as a single agent is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
IMBRUVICA as a single agent is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) who have received at least one prior therapy.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Treatment with this medicinal product should be initiated and supervised by a physician experienced in the use of anticancer medicinal products.
Posology: Mantle cell lymphoma: The recommended dose for the treatment of MCL is 560 mg (four capsules) once daily.
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: The recommended dose for the treatment of CLL is 420 mg (three capsules) once daily.
Treatment should continue until disease progression or no longer tolerated by the patient.
Dose adjustments: Moderate and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors increase the exposure of ibrutinib (see Precautions and Interactions).
The IMBRUVICA dose should be lowered to 280 mg once daily (two capsules) when used concomitantly with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors.
The IMBRUVICA dose should be reduced to 140 mg once daily (one capsule) or withheld for up to 7 days when it is used concomitantly with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.
IMBRUVICA therapy should be withheld for any new onset or worsening grade ≥ 3 non-haematological toxicity, grade 3 or greater neutropenia with infection or fever, or grade 4 haematological toxicities. Once the symptoms of the toxicity have resolved to grade 1 or baseline (recovery), IMBRUVICA therapy may be reinitiated at the starting dose. If the toxicity reoccurs, the once daily dose should be reduced by one capsule (140 mg). A second reduction of dose by 140 mg may be considered as needed. If these toxicities persist or recur following two dose reductions, discontinue the medicinal product.
Recommended dose modifications are described as follows: See Table 6.

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Missed dose: If a dose is not taken at the scheduled time, it can be taken as soon as possible on the same day with a return to the normal schedule the following day. The patient should not take extra capsules to make up the missed dose.
Special populations: Elderly: No specific dose adjustment is required for elderly patients (aged ≥ 65 years).
Renal impairment: No specific clinical studies have been conducted in patients with renal impairment. Patients with mild or moderate renal impairment were treated in IMBRUVICA clinical studies. No dose adjustment is needed for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (greater than 30 mL/min creatinine clearance). Hydration should be maintained and serum creatinine levels monitored periodically. Administer IMBRUVICA to patients with severe renal impairment (< 30 mL/min creatinine clearance) only if the benefit outweighs the risk and monitor patients closely for signs of toxicity. There are no data in patients with severe renal impairment or patients on dialysis (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Hepatic impairment: Ibrutinib is metabolised in the liver. In a hepatic impairment study, data showed an increase in ibrutinib exposure (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). For patients with mild liver impairment (Child-Pugh class A), the recommended dose is 280 mg daily (two capsules). For patients with moderate liver impairment (Child-Pugh class B), the recommended dose is 140 mg daily (one capsule). Monitor patients for signs of IMBRUVICA toxicity and follow dose modification guidance as needed. It is not recommended to administer IMBRUVICA to patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C).
Severe cardiac disease: Patients with severe cardiovascular disease were excluded from IMBRUVICA clinical studies.
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of IMBRUVICA in children aged 0 to 18 years have not been established. No data are available.
Method of administration: IMBRUVICA should be administered orally once daily with a glass of water approximately at the same time each day. The capsules should be swallowed whole with water and should not be opened, broken, or chewed. IMBRUVICA must not be taken with grapefruit juice or Seville oranges (see Interactions).
Overdosage
There are limited data on the effects of IMBRUVICA overdose. No maximum tolerated dose was reached in the phase 1 study in which patients received up to 12.5 mg/kg/day (1,400 mg/day). In a separate study, one healthy subject who received a dose of 1,680 mg experienced reversible grade 4 hepatic enzyme increases [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)]. There is no specific antidote for IMBRUVICA. Patients who ingested more than the recommended dose should be closely monitored and given appropriate supportive treatment.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Use of preparations containing St. John's Wort is contraindicated in patients treated with IMBRUVICA.
Special Precautions
Bleeding-related events: There have been reports of haemorrhagic events in patients treated with IMBRUVICA, both with and without thrombocytopenia. These include minor haemorrhagic events such as contusion, epistaxis, and petechiae; and major haemorrhagic events, some fatal, including gastrointestinal bleeding, intracranial haemorrhage, and haematuria.
Patients were excluded from participation in IMBRUVICA phase 2 and 3 studies if they required warfarin or other vitamin K antagonists. Warfarin or other vitamin K antagonists should not be administered concomitantly with IMBRUVICA. Supplements such as fish oil and vitamin E preparations should be avoided. Use of IMBRUVICA in patients requiring other anticoagulants or medicinal products that inhibit platelet function may increase the risk of bleeding, and particular care should be taken if anticoagulant therapy is used.
IMBRUVICA should be held at least 3 to 7 days pre- and post-surgery depending upon the type of surgery and the risk of bleeding.
The mechanism for the bleeding-related events is not fully understood. Patients with congenital bleeding diathesis have not been studied.
Leukostasis: Cases of leukostasis have been reported in patients treated with IMBRUVICA. A high number of circulating lymphocytes (> 400,000/mcL) may confer increased risk. Consider temporarily holding IMBRUVICA. Patients should be closely monitored. Administer supportive care including hydration and/or cytoreduction as indicated.
Infections: Infections (including sepsis, neutropenic sepsis, bacterial, viral, or fungal infections) were observed in patients treated with IMBRUVICA. Some of these infections have been associated with hospitalisation and death. Most patients with fatal infections also had neutropenia. Patients should be monitored for fever, neutropenia and infections and appropriate anti-infective therapy should be instituted as indicated. Consider prophylaxis according to standard of care in patients who are at increased risk for opportunistic infections.
Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) including fatal ones have been reported following the use of ibrutinib within the context of a prior or concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. Physicians should consider PML in the differential diagnosis in patients with new or worsening neurological, cognitive or behavioral signs or symptoms. If PML is suspected then appropriate diagnostic evaluations should be undertaken and treatment suspended until PML is excluded. If any doubt exists, referral to a neurologist and appropriate diagnostic measures for PML including MRI scan preferably with contrast, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing for JC Viral DNA and repeat neurological assessments should be considered.
Cytopenias: Treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 cytopenias (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anaemia) were reported in patients treated with IMBRUVICA. Monitor complete blood counts monthly.
Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Cases of ILD have been reported in patients treated with IMBRUVICA. Monitor patients for pulmonary symptoms indicative of ILD. If symptoms develop, interrupt IMBRUVICA and manage ILD appropriately. If symptoms persist, consider the risks and benefits of IMBRUVICA treatment and follow the dose modification guidelines.
Cardiac arrhythmia: Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and cases of ventricular tachyarrhythmia have been reported in patients treated with IMBRUVICA. Cases of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter have been reported particularly in patients with cardiac risk factors, hypertension, acute infections, and a previous history of atrial fibrillation. Periodically monitor all patients clinically for cardiac arrhythmia. Patients who develop arrhythmic symptoms or new onset of dyspnoea, dizziness or fainting should be evaluated clinically and if indicated have an electrocardiogram (ECG) performed.
In patients who develop signs and/or symptoms of ventricular tachyarrhythmia, IMBRUVICA should be temporarily discontinued and a thorough clinical benefit/risk assessment should be performed before possibly restarting therapy.
In patients with preexisting atrial fibrillation requiring anticoagulant therapy, alternative treatment options to IMBRUVICA should be considered. In patients who develop atrial fibrillation on therapy with IMBRUVICA a thorough assessment of the risk for thromboembolic disease should be undertaken. In patients at high risk and where alternatives to IMBRUVICA are non-suitable, tightly controlled treatment with anticoagulants should be considered.
Tumour lysis syndrome: Tumour lysis syndrome has been reported with IMBRUVICA therapy. Patients at risk of tumour lysis syndrome are those with high tumour burden prior to treatment. Monitor patients closely and take appropriate precautions.
Non-melanoma skin cancer: Non-melanoma skin cancers were reported more frequently in patients treated with IMBRUVICA than in patients treated with comparators in pooled comparative randomised phase 3 studies. Monitor patients for the appearance of non-melanoma skin cancer.
Viral reactivation: Cases of hepatitis B reactivation have been reported in patients receiving IMBRUVICA. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) status should be established before initiating treatment with IMBRUVICA. For patients who test positive for HBV infection, consultation with a physician with expertise in the treatment of hepatitis B is recommended. If patients have positive hepatitis B serology, a liver disease expert should be consulted before the start of treatment and the patient should be monitored and managed following local medical standards to prevent hepatitis B reactivation.
Drug-drug interactions: Co-administration of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with IMBRUVICA may lead to increased ibrutinib exposure and consequently a higher risk for toxicity. On the contrary, co-administration of CYP3A4 inducers may lead to decreased IMBRUVICA exposure and consequently a risk for lack of efficacy. Therefore, concomitant use of IMBRUVICA with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided whenever possible and co-administration should only be considered when the potential benefits clearly outweigh the potential risks. Patients should be closely monitored for signs of IMBRUVICA toxicity if a CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used (see Dosage & Administration and Interactions). If a CYP3A4 inducer must be used, closely monitor patients for signs of IMBRUVICA lack of efficacy.
Women of childbearing potential: Women of childbearing potential must use a highly effective method of contraception while taking IMBRUVICA (see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Fatigue, dizziness and asthenia have been reported in some patients taking IMBRUVICA and should be considered when assessing a patient's ability to drive or operate machines.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Women of child-bearing potential/Contraception in females: Based on findings in animals, IMBRUVICA may cause foetal harm when administered to pregnant women. Women should avoid becoming pregnant while taking IMBRUVICA and for up to 3 months after ending treatment. Therefore, women of child-bearing potential must use highly effective contraceptive measures while taking IMBRUVICA and for three months after stopping treatment. It is currently unknown whether ibrutinib may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, and therefore women using hormonal contraceptives should add a barrier method.
Pregnancy: IMBRUVICA should not be used during pregnancy. There are no data from the use of IMBRUVICA in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical saftey data under Actions).
Breast-feeding: It is not known whether ibrutinib or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Breast-feeding should be discontinued during treatment with IMBRUVICA.
Fertility: No effects on fertility or reproductive capacities were observed in male or female rats up to the maximum dose tested, 100 mg/kg/day (Human Equivalent Dose [HED]16 mg/kg/day) (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). No human data on the effects of ibrutinib on fertility are available.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: The safety profile is based on pooled data from 981 patients treated with IMBRUVICA in three phase 2 clinical studies and four randomised phase 3 studies and from post-marketing experience. Patients treated for MCL in clinical studies received IMBRUVICA at 560 mg once daily and patients treated for CLL in clinical studies received IMBRUVICA at 420 mg once daily. All patients in clinical studies received IMBRUVICA until disease progression or no longer tolerated.
The most commonly occurring adverse reactions (≥ 20%) were diarrhoea, neutropenia, haemorrhage (e.g., bruising), musculoskeletal pain, nausea, rash, and pyrexia. The most common grade 3/4 adverse reactions (≥ 5%) were neutropenia, pneumonia, thrombocytopenia and febrile neutropenia.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: Adverse reactions in patients treated with ibrutinib for B-cell malignancies and post-marketing adverse reactions are listed as follows by system organ class and frequency grouping. Frequencies are defined as follows: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. (See Table 7.)

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Description of selected adverse reactions: Discontinuation and dose reduction due to adverse reactions: Of the 981 patients treated with IMBRUVICA for B-cell malignancies, 5% discontinued treatment primarily due to adverse reactions. These included pneumonia, atrial fibrillation and haemorrhage. Adverse reactions leading to dose reduction occurred in approximately 6% of patients.
Elderly: Of the 981 patients treated with IMBRUVICA, 62% were 65 years of age or older. Grade 3 or higher pneumonia occurred more frequently among elderly patients treated with IMBRUVICA (13% of patients age ≥ 65 versus 7% of patients < 65 years of age).
Drug Interactions
Ibrutinib is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4).
Agents that may increase ibrutinib plasma concentrations: Concomitant use of IMBRUVICA and medicinal products that strongly or moderately inhibit CYP3A4 can increase ibrutinib exposure and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided.
Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors: Co-administration of ketoconazole, a very strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, in 18 fasted healthy subjects, increased exposure (Cmax and AUC) of ibrutinib by 29- and 24-fold, respectively. Simulations using fasted conditions suggested that the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor clarithromycin may increase the AUC of ibrutinib by a factor of 14. In patients with B-cell malignancies taking IMBRUVICA with food, co-administration of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor voriconazole increased Cmax by 6.7-fold and AUC by 5.7-fold. Strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, clarithromycin, telithromycin, itraconazole, nefazodon, cobicistat, voriconazole and posaconazole) should be avoided. If the benefit outweighs the risk and a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used, reduce the IMBRUVICA dose to 140 mg (one capsule) for the duration of the inhibitor use or withhold IMBRUVICA temporarily (for 7 days or less). Monitor patient closely for toxicity and follow dose modification guidance as needed (see Dosage & Administration and Precautions).
Moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors: In patients with B-cell malignancies taking IMBRUVICA with food, co-administration of the CYP3A4 inhibitor erythromycin increased Cmax by 3.4-fold and AUC by 3.0-fold. If a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor (e.g., fluconazole, erythromycin, amprenavir, aprepitant, atazanavir, ciprofloxacin, crizotinib, diltiazem, fosamprenavir, imatinib, verapamil, amiodarone and dronedarone) is indicated, reduce IMBRUVICA dose to 280 mg (two capsules) for the duration of the inhibitor use. Monitor patient closely for toxicity and follow dose modification guidance as needed (see Dosage & Administration and Precautions).
Mild CYP3A4 inhibitors: Simulations using fasted conditions suggested that the mild CYP3A4 inhibitors azithromycin and fluvoxamine may increase the AUC of ibrutinib by < 2-fold. No dose adjustment is required in combination with mild inhibitors. Monitor patient closely for toxicity and follow dose modification guidance as needed.
Co-administration of grapefruit juice, containing CYP3A4 inhibitors, in eight healthy subjects, increased exposure (Cmax and AUC) of ibrutinib by approximately 4- and 2-fold, respectively. Grapefruit and Seville oranges should be avoided during IMBRUVICA treatment, as these contain moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4 (see Dosage & Administration).
Agents that may decrease ibrutinib plasma concentrations: Administration of IMBRUVICA with inducers of CYP3A4 can decrease ibrutinib plasma concentrations.
Co-administration of rifampicin, a strong CYP3A4 inducer, in 18 fasted healthy subjects, decreased exposure (Cmax and AUC) of ibrutinib by 92 and 90%, respectively. Avoid concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, rifampicin, phenytoin). Preparations containing St. John's Wort are contraindicated during treatment with IMBRUVICA, as efficacy may be reduced. Consider alternative agents with less CYP3A4 induction. If the benefit outweighs the risk and a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducer must be used, monitor patient closely for lack of efficacy (see Contraindications and Precautions). Mild inducers may be used concomitantly with IMBRUVICA, however, patients should be monitored for potential lack of efficacy.
Ibrutinib has a pH dependent solubility, with lower solubility at higher pH. A lower Cmax was observed in fasted healthy subjects administered a single 560 mg dose of ibrutinib after taking omeprazole at 40 mg once daily for 5 days (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). There is no evidence that the lower Cmax would have clinical significance, and medicinal products that increase stomach pH (e.g., proton pump inhibitors) have been used without restrictions in the pivotal clinical trials.
Agents that may have their plasma concentrations altered by ibrutinib: Ibrutinib is a P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitor in vitro. As no clinical data are available on this interaction, it cannot be excluded that ibrutinib could inhibit intestinal P-gp and BCRP after a therapeutic dose. To minimise the potential for an interaction in the GI tract, oral narrow therapeutic range, P-gp or BCRP substrates such as digoxin or methotrexate should be taken at least 6 hours before or after IMBRUVICA. Ibrutinib may also inhibit BCRP in the liver and increase the exposure of medicinal products that undergo BCRP-mediated hepatic efflux, such as rosuvastatin.
Based on in vitro data, ibrutinib is a weak reversible inhibitor towards CYP3A4 at the intestinal level and may therefore increase the exposure to CYP3A4 substrates sensitive to gut CYP3A metabolism. No clinical data are available on this interaction. Caution should be exercised if co-administering ibrutinib with CYP3A4 substrates administered orally with narrow therapeutic range (such as dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, cyclosporine, sirolimus and tacrolimus).
Based on in vitro data, ibrutinib is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and may have the potential to affect the expression of other enzymes and transporters regulated via the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), e.g. CYP2C9, CYP2C19, UGT1A1 and MRP2. The clinical relevance is not known, but the exposure to substrates of CYP2B6 (such as efavirenz and bupropion) and of co-regulated enzymes may be reduced upon co-administration with ibrutinib.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal: Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Storage
Store below 30°C.
Shelf-Life: 2 years.
ATC Classification
L01XE27 - ibrutinib ; Belongs to the class of protein kinase inhibitors, other antineoplastic agents. Used in the treatment of cancer.
Presentation/Packing
Hard cap 140 mg (white opaque, 22 mm in length, marked with "ibr 140 mg" in black ink) x 90's, 120's.
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