Jardiance Duo

Jardiance Duo

empagliflozin + metformin

Manufacturer:

Boehringer Ingelheim

Distributor:

DKSH

Marketer:

Boehringer Ingelheim
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Empagliflozin, metformin hydrochloride.
Description
Jardiance Duo 5mg/ 500mg film-coated tablets: Each tablet contains 5 mg empagliflozin and 500 mg metformin hydrochloride.
Jardiance Duo 12.5mg/ 500mg film-coated tablets: Each tablet contains 12.5 mg empagliflozin and 500 mg metformin hydrochloride.
Jardiance Duo 12.5mg/ 850mg film-coated tablets: Each tablet contains 12.5 mg empagliflozin and 850 mg metformin hydrochloride.
Jardiance Duo 12.5mg/ 1000mg film-coated tablets: Each tablet contains 12.5 mg empagliflozin and 1000 mg metformin hydrochloride.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Jardiance Duo 5 mg/ 500 mg: Tablet core: Maize starch, Copovidone, Colloidal anhydrous silica, Magnesium stearate.
Film-coating: Hypromellose 2910, Macrogol 400, Titanium dioxide, Iron oxide yellow, Talc.
Jardiance Duo 12.5 mg/ 500 mg, 12.5 mg/ 850 mg, 12.5 mg/ 1000 mg: Tablet core: Maize starch, Copovidone, Colloidal anhydrous silica, Magnesium stearate.
Film-coating: Hypromellose 2910, Macrogol 400, Titanium dioxide, Iron oxide black, Iron oxide red, Talc.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs. ATC code: A10BD20.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Empagliflozin: Empagliflozin is a reversible competitive inhibitor of SGLT2 with an IC50 of 1.3 nM. It has a 5000-fold selectivity over human SGLT1 (IC50 of 6278 nM), responsible for glucose absorption in the gut.
SGLT2 is highly expressed in the kidney, whereas expression in other tissues is absent or very low. It is responsible as the predominant transporter for re-absorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulation. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hyperglycaemia a higher amount of glucose is filtered and reabsorbed.
Empagliflozin improves glycaemic control in patients with T2DM by reducing renal glucose re-absorption. The amount of glucose removed by the kidney through this glucuretic mechanism is dependent upon the blood glucose concentration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Through inhibition of SGLT2 in patients with T2DM and hyperglycaemia, excess glucose is excreted in the urine.
In patients with T2DM, urinary glucose excretion increased immediately following the first dose of empagliflozin and is continuous over the 24 hour dosing interval. Increased urinary glucose excretion was maintained at the end of 4-week treatment period, averaging approximately 78 g/day with 25 mg empagliflozin once daily. Increased urinary glucose excretion resulted in an immediate reduction in plasma glucose levels in patients with T2DM.
Empagliflozin improves both fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels.
The insulin independent mechanism of action of empagliflozin contributes to a low risk of hypoglycaemia.
The effect of empagliflozin in lowering blood glucose is independent of beta cell function and insulin pathway. Improvement of surrogate markers of beta cell function including Homeostasis Model Assessment-β (HOMA-β) and proinsulin to insulin ratio were noted. In addition urinary glucose excretion triggers calorie loss, associated with body fat loss and body weight reduction.
The glucosuria observed with empagliflozin is accompanied by mild diuresis which may contribute to sustained and moderate reduction of blood pressure (BP).
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin hydrochloride is a biguanide with antihyperglycaemic effects, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. It does not stimulate insulin secretion and therefore does not produce hypoglycaemia.
Metformin hydrochloride may act via 3 mechanisms: reduction of hepatic glucose production by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis; in muscle, by increasing insulin sensitivity, improving peripheral glucose uptake and utilisation; and delay of intestinal glucose absorption.
Metformin hydrochloride stimulates intracellular glycogen synthesis by acting on glycogen synthase.
Metformin hydrochloride increases the transport capacity of all types of membrane glucose transporters (GLUTs) known to date.
In humans, independently of its action on glycaemia, metformin hydrochloride has favourable effects on lipid metabolism. This has been shown at therapeutic doses in controlled, medium or long-term clinical studies: metformin hydrochloride reduces total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Clinical Trials: A total of 10224 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated in 9 double-blind, placebo or active-controlled clinical studies, of at least 24 weeks duration, of which 2947 patients received empagliflozin 10 mg and 3703 received empagliflozin 25 mg as add-on to metformin therapy.
Treatment with empagliflozin in combination with metformin with or without other background (pioglitazone, sulfonylurea, DPP-4 inhibitors, and insulin) led to clinically relevant improvements in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). Administration of empagliflozin 25 mg resulted in a higher proportion of patients achieving HbA1c goal of <7% and fewer patients needing glycaemic rescue compared to empagliflozin 10 mg and placebo. There was a clinically meaningful improvement in HbA1c in all subgroups of gender, race, geographic region, time since diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and body mass index (BMI). In patients aged 75 years and older, numerically lower reductions in HbA1c were observed with empagliflozin treatment. Higher baseline HbA1c was associated with a greater reduction in HbA1c. Empagliflozin in combination with metformin in drug-naïve patients led to clinically meaningful reductions in HbA1c, FPG, body weight and BP.
Empagliflozin as add on to metformin therapy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 24 weeks duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in patients not sufficiently treated with metformin.
Treatment with empagliflozin resulted in statistically significant improvements in HbA1c and body weight, and clinically meaningful reductions in FPG and BP compared to placebo (Table 1).
In the double-blind placebo-controlled extension of this study, reductions of HbA1c (change from baseline of -0.62% for empagliflozin 10 mg, -0.74% for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.01% for placebo), body weight (change from baseline of -2.39 kg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -2.65 kg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.46 kg for placebo) and BP (systolic BP: change from baseline of -5.2 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -4.5 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.8 mmHg for placebo, diastolic BP: change from baseline of -2.5 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -1.9 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.5 mmHg for placebo) were sustained up to Week 76. (See Table 1.)

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Empagliflozin and metformin combination therapy in drug-naïve patients: A factorial design study of 24 weeks duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in drug-naïve patients. The majority of patients had been diagnosed with diabetes for up to a year (55.8%) or for between one and five years (28.6%). Their mean age was 52.6 years and mean BMI was 30.37 kg/m2. Treatment with empagliflozin in combination with metformin (5 mg and 500 mg; 5 mg and 1000 mg; 12.5 mg and 500 mg, and 12.5 mg and 1000 mg given twice daily) provided statistically significant improvements in HbA1c and led to significantly greater reductions in FPG and body weight compared to the individual components. A greater proportion of patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥7.0% and treated with empagliflozin in combination with metformin achieved a target HbA1c <7% compared to the individual components (see Tables 2 and 3).

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Empagliflozin as add on to a combination of metformin and sulfonylurea therapy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 24 weeks duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in patients not sufficiently treated with a combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea. Treatment with empagliflozin resulted in statistically significant improvements in HbA1c and body weight and clinically meaningful reductions in FPG and BP compared to placebo (Table 4).
In the double-blind placebo-controlled extension of this study, reductions of HbA1c (change from baseline of -0.74% for empagliflozin 10 mg, -0.72% for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.03% for placebo), body weight (change from baseline of -2.44 kg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -2.28 kg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.63 kg for placebo) and BP (systolic BP: change from baseline of -3.8 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -3.7 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -1.6 mmHg for placebo, diastolic BP: change from baseline of -2.6 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -2.3 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -1.4 mmHg for placebo) were sustained up to Week 76. (See Table 4.)

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2 hour post-prandial glucose: Treatment with empagliflozin as add-on to metformin or metformin plus sulfonylurea resulted in clinically meaningful improvement of 2-hour post-prandial glucose (meal tolerance test) at 24 weeks [add-on to metformin: -2.55 mmol/L for empagliflozin 10 mg (n=52), -2.48 mmol/L for empagliflozin 25 mg (n=58), 0.33 mmol/L for placebo (n=57); add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea: -1.98 mmol/L for empagliflozin 10 mg (n=44), -2.03 mmol/L for empagliflozin 25 mg (n=46), -0.13 mmol/L for placebo (n=35)].
Empagliflozin as add on to a combination of pioglitazone therapy (+/- metformin): The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in combination with pioglitazone, with or without metformin (75.5% of all patients were on metformin background) was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 24 weeks duration. Empagliflozin in combination with pioglitazone (mean dose ≥30 mg) with or without metformin resulted in statistically significant reductions in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and body weight and clinically meaningful reductions in BP compared to placebo (Table 5).
In the double-blind placebo-controlled extension of this study, reductions of HbA1c (change from baseline of -0.61% for empagliflozin 10 mg, -0.70% for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.01% for placebo), body weight (change from baseline of -1.47 kg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -1.21 kg for empagliflozin 25 mg and +0.50 kg for placebo) and BP (systolic BP: change from baseline of -1.7 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -3.4 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg and +0.3 mmHg for placebo, diastolic BP: change from baseline of -1.43 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -2.0 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg and +0.2 mmHg for placebo) were sustained up to Week 76. (See Table 5.)

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Empagliflozin and linagliptin as add on therapy to metformin: In a factorial design study, patients inadequately controlled on metformin, 24-weeks treatment with both doses of empagliflozin 10 mg and 25 mg administered together with linagliptin 5 mg provided statistically significant improvements in HbA1c and FPG compared to linagliptin 5 mg and also compared to empagliflozin 10 or 25 mg. Compared to linagliptin 5mg, both doses of empagliflozin plus linagliptin 5 mg provided statistically significant reductions in body weight and blood pressure. A greater proportion of patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥7.0% and treated with empagliflozin plus linagliptin achieved a target HbA1c of <7% compared to linagliptin 5 mg (Table 6).
After 24 weeks' treatment with empagliflozin+linagliptin, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced, -5.6/-3.6 mmHg (p<0.001 versus linagliptin 5 mg for SBP and DBP) for empagliflozin 25 mg+linagliptin 5 mg and -4.1/-2.6 mmHg (p<0.05 versus linagliptin 5 mg for SBP, n.s. for DBP) for empagliflozin 10 mg+linagliptin 5 mg. Clinically meaningful reductions in blood pressure were maintained for 52 weeks, -3.8/-1.6 mmHg (p<0.05 versus linagliptin 5 mg for SBP and DBP) for empagliflozin 25 mg/linagliptin 5 mg and -3.1/-1.6 mmHg (p<0.05 versus linagliptin 5 mg for SBP, n.s. for DBP) for empagliflozin 10 mg/linagliptin 5 mg.
After 24 weeks, rescue therapy was used in 1 (0.7%) patient treated with empagliflozin 25 mg/linagliptin 5 mg and in 3 (2.2%) patients treated with empagliflozin 10 mg/linagliptin 5 mg, compared to 4 (3.1%) patients treated with linagliptin 5 mg and 6 (4.3%) patients treated with empagliflozin 25 mg and 1 (0.7%) patient treated with empagliflozin 10 mg. (See Table 6.)

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Empagliflozin in patients inadequately controlled on metformin and linagliptin: In patients inadequately controlled on metformin and linagliptin 5 mg, 24-weeks treatment with both empagliflozin/linagliptin 10 mg/5 mg and empagliflozin/linagliptin 25 mg/5 mg provided statistically significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG and body weight compared to placebo+linagliptin 5 mg. A statistically significantly greater number of patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥7.0% and treated with both doses of empagliflozin achieved a target HbA1c of <7% compared to placebo+linagliptin 5 mg (Table 7). After 24 weeks' treatment with empagliflozin, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced, -2.6/-1.1 mmHg (n.s. versus placebo for SBP and DBP) for empagliflozin 25 mg+linagliptin 5 mg and -1.3/-0.1 mmHg (n.s. versus placebo for SBP and DBP) for empagliflozin 10 mg+linagliptin 5 mg.
After 24 weeks, rescue therapy was used in 4 (3.6%) patients treated with empagliflozin 25 mg+linagliptin 5 mg and in 2 (1.8%) patients treated with empagliflozin 10 mg+linagliptin 5 mg, compared to 13 (12.0%) patients treated with placebo+linagliptin 5 mg. (See Table 7.)

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In a prespecified subgroup of patients with baseline HbA1c greater or equal than 8.5% the reduction from baseline in HbA1c with empagliflozin 25 mg+linagliptin 5 mg was -1.3% at 24 weeks (p<0.0001 versus placebo+linagliptin 5 mg) and with empagliflozin 10 mg+linagliptin 5 mg -1.3% at 24 weeks (p<0.0001 versus placebo+linagliptin 5 mg).
Empagliflozin 2-year data, as add on to metformin in comparison to glimepiride: In a study comparing the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin 25 mg versus glimepiride (1-4 mg) in patients with inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone, treatment with empagliflozin daily resulted in superior reduction in HbA1c, and a clinically meaningful reduction in FPG, compared to glimepiride (Table 8). Empagliflozin daily resulted in a statistically significant reduction in body weight, systolic and diastolic BP (change from baseline in diastolic BP of -1.8 mmHg for empagliflozin and +0.9 mmHg for glimepiride, p<0.0001).
Treatment with empagliflozin resulted in statistically significantly lower proportion of patients with hypoglycaemic events compared to glimepiride (2.5% for empagliflozin, 24.2% for glimepiride, p<0.0001). (See Table 8.)

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Empagliflozin as add on to basal insulin therapy: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin as add on to basal insulin with or without concomitant metformin and/or sulfonylurea therapy (79.8% of all patients were on metformin background) was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 78 weeks duration. During the initial 18 weeks the insulin dose was to be kept stable, but was adjusted to achieve a FPG <6.10 mmol/L in the following 60 weeks.
At week 18, empagliflozin provided statistically significant improvement in HbA1c compared to placebo. A greater proportion of patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥7.0% achieved a target HbA1c of <7% compared to placebo. At 78 weeks, empagliflozin resulted in a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c and insulin sparing compared to placebo (Table 9).
At week 78, empagliflozin resulted in a reduction in FPG (-0.58 mmol/L for empagliflozin 10 mg, -0.97 mmol/L for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.30 mmol/L for placebo), body weight (-2.47 kg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -1.96 kg for empagliflozin 25 mg and +1.16 kg for placebo, p<0.0001), BP (systolic BP: -4.1 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -2.4 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg and 0.1 mmHg for placebo, diastolic BP: -2.9 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -1.5 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.3 mmHg for placebo). (See Table 9.)

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Empagliflozin as add on to MDI insulin therapy and metformin: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin as add-on to multiple daily insulin with or without concomitant metformin therapy (71.0% of all patients were on metformin background) was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 52 weeks duration. During the initial 18 weeks and the last 12 weeks, the insulin dose was kept stable, but was adjusted to achieve pre-prandial glucose levels <5.5 mmol/L, and post-prandial glucose levels <7.8 mmol/L between Weeks 19 and 40.
At Week 18, empagliflozin provided statistically significant improvement in HbA1c compared with placebo (Table 10). A greater proportion of patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥7.0% (19.5% empagliflozin 10 mg, 31.0% empagliflozin 25 mg) achieved a target HbA1c of <7% compared with placebo (15.1%).
At Week 52, treatment with empagliflozin resulted in a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c and insulin sparing compared with placebo and a reduction in FPG (change from baseline of -0.02 mmol/L for placebo, -1.09 mmol/L for empagliflozin 10 mg, and -1.31 mmol/L for empagliflozin 25 mg), body weight, and BP (systolic BP: change from baseline of -2.6 mmHg for placebo, -3.9 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg and -4.0 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg, diastolic BP: change from baseline of -1.0 mmHg for placebo, -1.4 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg and -2.6 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg). (See Table 10.)

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Empagliflozin twice daily versus once daily as add on to metformin therapy: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin twice daily versus once daily (daily dose of 10 mg and 25 mg) as add-on therapy in patients with insufficient glycaemic control on metformin monotherapy was evaluated in a double blind placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks duration. All treatments with empagliflozin resulted in significant reductions in HbA1c from baseline (total mean 7.8%) after 16 weeks of treatment compared with placebo. Empagliflozin twice daily dose regimens led to comparable reductions in HbA1c versus once daily dose regimens with a treatment difference in HbA1c reductions from baseline to week 16 of -0.02% (95% CI -0.16, 0.13) for empagliflozin 5 mg twice daily vs. 10 mg once daily, and -0.11% (95% CI -0.26, 0.03) for empagliflozin 12.5 mg twice daily vs. 25 mg once daily.
Patients with baseline HbA1c ≥9%: In a pre-specified analysis of subjects with baseline HbA1c ≥9.0%, treatment with empagliflozin 10 mg or 25 mg as add-on to metformin resulted in statistically significant reductions in HbA1c at Week 24 (adjusted mean change from baseline of -1.49% for empagliflozin 25 mg, -1.40% for empagliflozin 10 mg, and -0.44% for placebo).
Body weight: In a pre-specified pooled analysis of 4 placebo controlled studies, treatment with empagliflozin (68% of all patients were on metformin background) resulted in body weight reduction compared to placebo at week 24 (-2.04 kg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -2.26 kg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.24 kg for placebo) that was maintained up to week 52 (-1.96 kg for empagliflozin 10 mg, -2.25 kg for empagliflozin 25 mg and -0.16 kg for placebo).
Blood pressure: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo controlled study of 12 weeks duration in patients with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure on different antidiabetic (67.8% treated with metformin with or without other antidiabetic drugs including insulin) and up to 2 antihypertensive therapies (Table 11). Treatment with empagliflozin once daily resulted in statistically significant improvement in HbA1c, 24 hour mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring. Treatment with empagliflozin provided reductions in seated systolic BP (change from baseline of -0.67 mmHg for placebo, -4.60 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg and -5.47 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg) and seated diastolic BP (change from baseline of -1.13 mmHg for placebo, -3.06 mmHg for empagliflozin 10 mg and -3.02 mmHg for empagliflozin 25 mg). (See Table 11.)

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In a pre-specified pooled analysis of 4 placebo-controlled studies, treatment with empagliflozin (68% of all patients were on metformin background) resulted in a reduction in systolic blood pressure (empagliflozin 10 mg -3.9 mmHg, empagliflozin 25 mg -4.3 mmHg) compared with placebo (-0.5 mmHg), and in diastolic blood pressure (empagliflozin 10 mg -1.8 mmHg, empagliflozin 25 mg -2.0 mmHg) compared with placebo (-0.5 mmHg), at week 24, that were maintained up to week 52.
Cardiovascular outcome: The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study is a multi-centre, multi-national, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of empagliflozin as adjunct to standard care therapy in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and one or more cardiovascular risk factors, including coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, history of myocardial infarction (MI), or history of stroke. The primary endpoint was the time to first event in the composite of CV death, nonfatal MI, or non-fatal stroke (Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE-3). Additional pre-specified endpoints addressing clinically relevant outcomes tested in an exploratory manner included CV death, the composite of heart failure requiring hospitalization or CV death, all-cause mortality and the composite of new or worsening nephropathy.
A total of 7020 patients were treated with empagliflozin (empagliflozin 10 mg: 2345, empagliflozin 25 mg: 2342, placebo: 2333) and followed for a median of 3.1 years.
The population was 72.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Asian, and 5.1% Black. The mean age was 63 years and 71.5% were male. At baseline, approximately 81% of patients were being treated with renin angiotensin system inhibitors, 65% with beta-blockers, 43% with diuretics, 89% with anticoagulants, and 81% with lipid lowering medication. Approximately 74% of patients were being treated with metformin at baseline, 48% with insulin and 43% with sulfonylurea.
About half of the patients (52.2%) had an eGFR of 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2, 17.8% of 45-60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 7.7% of 30-45 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean systolic BP was 136 mmHg, diastolic BP 76 mmHg, LDL 86 mg/dL, HDL 44 mg/dL, and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) 175 mg/g at baseline.
Reductions in risk of CV death and overall mortality: Empagliflozin is superior in reducing the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, or non-fatal stroke compared to placebo. The treatment effect reflected a reduction in cardiovascular death with no significant change in non-fatal MI, or non-fatal stroke (Table 12 and Figure 1).
Empagliflozin also improved overall survival (Table 12 and Figure 2), which was driven by a reduction in cardiovascular death with empagliflozin. There was no statistically significant difference between empagliflozin and placebo in non-cardiovascular mortality. (See Table 12 and Figures 1 and 2.)

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Reductions in risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization or CV death: Empagliflozin is superior in reducing the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure compared with placebo (see Table 13 and Figure 3).

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The cardiovascular benefits of empagliflozin observed were consistent across the subgroups depicted in Figure 4. (See Figure 4.)

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In the subgroup of patients who were on metformin at baseline, the effects on CV outcomes were consistent with the results observed in the entire study population of EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Diabetic kidney disease: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study population, the risk of new or worsening nephropathy [defined as onset of macroalbuminuria, doubling of serum creatinine, and initiation of renal replacement therapy (i.e. hemodialysis)] was significantly reduced in empagliflozin group compared to placebo (Table 14 and Figure 5).
Empagliflozin compared with placebo showed a significantly higher occurrence of sustained normo- or microalbuminuria in patients with baseline macroalbuminuria (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.40, 2.37). (See Table 14 and Figure 5.)

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Treatment with empagliflozin preserved eGFR and eGFR increased during the post treatment 4-week follow up. However, the placebo group showed a gradual decline in GFR during the course of the study with no further change during 4-week follow up. (see Figure 6.)

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In the subgroup of patients who were on metformin at baseline, the effects on these renal outcomes were consistent with the results observed in the entire study population of EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Thorough QTc study: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, crossover study of 30 healthy subjects no increase in QTc was observed with either 25 mg or 200 mg empagliflozin.
Pharmacokinetics: The results of bioequivalence studies in healthy subjects demonstrated that JARDIANCE DUO (empagliflozin/metformin hydrochloride) 5 mg/500 mg, 5 mg/850 mg, 5 mg/1000 mg, 12.5 mg/500 mg, 12.5 mg/850 mg, and 12.5 mg/1000 mg combination tablets are bioequivalent to co-administration of corresponding doses of empagliflozin and metformin as individual tablets.
Administration of 12.5 mg empagliflozin/1000 mg metformin under fed conditions resulted in a 9% decrease in AUC and a 28% decrease in Cmax for empagliflozin, when compared to fasted conditions. For metformin, AUC decreased by 12% and Cmax decreased by 26% compared to fasting conditions. The observed effect of food on empagliflozin and metformin is not considered to be clinically relevant. However, as metformin is recommended to be given with meals, JARDIANCE DUO is also proposed to be given with food.
The following statements reflect the pharmacokinetic properties of the individual active substances of JARDIANCE DUO.
Empagliflozin: Absorption: The pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin have been extensively characterised in healthy volunteers and patients with T2DM. After oral administration, empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations occurring at a median tmax 1.5 h post-dose. Thereafter, plasma concentrations declined in a biphasic manner with a rapid distribution phase and a relatively slow terminal phase. The steady state mean plasma AUC and Cmax were 1870 nmol.h/L and 259 nmol/L with empagliflozin 10 mg and 4740 nmol.h/L and 687 nmol/L with empagliflozin 25 mg once daily, respectively. Systemic exposure of empagliflozin increased in a dose-proportional manner. The single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics parameters of empagliflozin were similar suggesting linear pharmacokinetics with respect to time. There were no clinically relevant differences in empagliflozin pharmacokinetics between healthy volunteers and patients with T2DM.
The pharmacokinetics of 5 mg empagliflozin twice daily and 10 mg empagliflozin once daily were compared in healthy subjects. Overall exposure (AUCss) of empagliflozin over a 24-hour period with 5 mg administered twice daily was similar to 10 mg administered once daily. As expected, empagliflozin 5 mg administered twice daily compared with 10 mg empagliflozin once daily resulted in lower Cmax and higher trough plasma empagliflozin concentrations (Cmin).
Administration of 25 mg empagliflozin after intake of a high-fat and high calorie meal resulted in slightly lower exposure; AUC decreased by approximately 16% and Cmax decreased by approximately 37%, compared to fasted condition. The observed effect of food on empagliflozin pharmacokinetics was not considered clinically relevant and empagliflozin may be administered with or without food.
Distribution: The apparent steady-state volume of distribution was estimated to be 73.8 L, based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Following administration of an oral [14C]-empagliflozin solution to healthy subjects, the red blood cell partitioning was approximately 36.8% and plasma protein binding was 86.2%.
Metabolism: No major metabolites of empagliflozin were detected in human plasma and the most abundant metabolites were three glucuronide conjugates (2-O-, 3-O-, and 6-O-glucuronide). Systemic exposure of each metabolite was less than 10% of total drug-related material. In vitro studies suggested that the primary route of metabolism of empagliflozin in humans is glucuronidation by the uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7.
Elimination: The apparent terminal elimination half-life of empagliflozin was estimated to be 12.4 h and apparent oral clearance was 10.6 L/h based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis. The inter-subject and residual variabilities for empagliflozin oral clearance were 39.1% and 35.8%, respectively. With once-daily dosing, steady-state plasma concentrations of empagliflozin were reached by the fifth dose. Consistent with the half-life, up to 22% accumulation, with respect to plasma AUC, was observed at steady-state. Following administration of an oral [14C]-empagliflozin solution to healthy subjects, approximately 95.6% of the drug related radioactivity was eliminated in faeces (41.2%) or urine (54.4%). The majority of drug related radioactivity recovered in faeces was unchanged parent drug and approximately half of drug related radioactivity excreted in urine was unchanged parent drug.
Metformin hydrochloride: Absorption: After an oral dose of metformin, tmax is reached in 2.5 hours. Absolute bioavailability of a 500 mg or 850 mg metformin hydrochloride tablet is approximately 50-60% in healthy subjects. After an oral dose, the non-absorbed fraction recovered in faeces was 20-30%.
After oral administration, metformin hydrochloride absorption is saturable and incomplete. It is assumed that the pharmacokinetics of metformin hydrochloride absorption are non-linear.
At the recommended metformin hydrochloride doses and dosing schedules, steady state plasma concentrations are reached within 24 to 48 hours and are generally less than 1 microgram/mL. In controlled clinical trials, maximum metformin hydrochloride plasma levels (Cmax) did not exceed 5 microgram/mL, even at maximum doses.
Food decreases the extent and slightly delays the absorption of metformin hydrochloride. Following administration of a dose of 850 mg, a 40% lower plasma peak concentration, a 25% decrease in AUC (area under the curve) and a 35 minute prolongation of the time to peak plasma concentration were observed. The clinical relevance of these decreases is unknown.
Distribution: Plasma protein binding is negligible. Metformin hydrochloride partitions into erythrocytes. The blood peak is lower than the plasma peak and appears at approximately the same time. The red blood cells most likely represent a secondary compartment of distribution. The mean volume of distribution (Vd) ranged between 63-276 L.
Metabolism: Metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism.
Elimination: Renal clearance of metformin hydrochloride is >400mL/min, indicating that metformin hydrochloride is eliminated by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Following an oral dose, the apparent terminal elimination half-life is approximately 6.5 hours.
When renal function is impaired, renal clearance is decreased in proportion to that of creatinine and thus the elimination half-life is prolonged, leading to increased levels of metformin hydrochloride in plasma.
Pharmacokinetics in special patient groups: Paediatric: Empagliflozin: Studies characterising the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin in paediatric patients have not been performed.
Metformin hydrochloride: Single dose study: After single doses of metformin 500 mg, paediatric patients have shown a similar pharmacokinetic profile to that observed in healthy adults.
Multiple dose study: Data are restricted to one study. After repeated doses of 500 mg twice daily for 7 days in paediatric patients the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUC0-t) were reduced by approximately 33% and 40%, respectively compared to diabetic adults who received repeated doses of 500 mg twice daily for 14 days. As the dose is individually titrated based on glycaemic control, this is of limited clinical relevance.
Elderly: Empagliflozin: Age did not have a clinically meaningful impact on the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Metformin hydrochloride: Limited data from controlled pharmacokinetic studies of metformin hydrochloride in healthy elderly subjects suggest that total plasma clearance of metformin hydrochloride is decreased, the half-life is prolonged, and Cmax is increased, compared to healthy young subjects. From these data, it appears that the change in metformin hydrochloride pharmacokinetics with aging is primarily accounted for by a change in renal function.
JARDIANCE DUO treatment should not be initiated in patients ≥80 years of age unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced.
Body Mass Index (BMI): Empagliflozin: No dosage adjustment is necessary based on BMI. Body mass index had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Gender: Empagliflozin: No dosage adjustment is necessary based on gender. Gender had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin hydrochloride pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ significantly between normal subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes when analysed according to gender. Similarly, in controlled clinical studies in patients with type 2 diabetes, the antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin hydrochloride was comparable in males and females.
Race: Empagliflozin: No dosage adjustment is necessary based on race. Based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis, AUC was estimated to be 13.5% higher in Asian patients with a BMI of 25 kg/m2 compared to non-Asian patients with a BMI of 25 kg/m2.
Metformin hydrochloride: No studies of metformin hydrochloride pharmacokinetic parameters according to race have been performed. In controlled clinical studies of metformin hydrochloride in patients with type 2 diabetes, the antihyperglycaemic effect was comparable in white (n=249), black (n=51) and Hispanic (n=24) patients.
Renal impairment: Empagliflozin: In patients with mild (eGFR: 60 - <90mL/min/1.73m2), moderate (eGFR: 30 - <60mL/min/1.73m2), severe (eGFR: <30mL/min/1.73m2) renal impairment and patients with kidney failure/ESRD patients, AUC of empagliflozin increased by approximately 18%, 20%, 66%, and 48%, respectively, compared to subjects with normal renal function. Peak plasma levels of empagliflozin were similar in subjects with moderate renal impairment and kidney failure/ESRD compared to patients with normal renal function. Peak plasma levels of empagliflozin were roughly 20% higher in subjects with mild and severe renal impairment as compared to subjects with normal renal function. In line with the Phase I study, the population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the apparent oral clearance of empagliflozin decreased with a decrease in eGFR leading to an increase in drug exposure.
Metformin hydrochloride: In patients with decreased renal function (based on measured creatinine clearance), the plasma and blood half-life of metformin hydrochloride is prolonged and the renal clearance is decreased in proportion to the decrease in creatinine clearance.
Hepatic insufficiency: Empagliflozin: In subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment according to the Child-Pugh classification, AUC of empagliflozin increased approximately by 23%, 47%, and 75% and Cmax by approximately 4%, 23%, and 48%, respectively, compared to subjects with normal hepatic function. Based on pharmacokinetics, no dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with hepatic impairment.
Metformin hydrochloride: No pharmacokinetic studies of metformin hydrochloride have been conducted in subjects with hepatic insufficiency.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Genotoxicity: Empagliflozin: Empagliflozin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of genotoxicity studies, including the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay (bacterial reverse mutation), in vitro mouse lymphoma tk assays and in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assays.
Metformin hydrochloride: There was no evidence of a mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative.
Carcinogenicity: Empagliflozin: Two-year oral carcinogenicity studies were conducted in mice and rats. There was an increase in renal adenomas and carcinomas in male mice given empagliflozin at 1000 mg/kg/day. No renal tumours were seen at 300 mg/kg/day (11- and 28-times the exposure at the clinical dose of 12.5 and 5 mg twice daily, respectively). These tumours are likely associated with a metabolic pathway not present in humans, and are considered to be irrelevant to patients given clinical doses of empagliflozin. No drug-related tumours were seen in female mice or female rats at doses up to 1000 and 700 mg/kg/day, respectively, resulting in exposures at least 60 times that expected at the clinical dose of 5 or 12.5 mg empagliflozin twice daily. In male rats, treatment-related benign vascular proliferative lesions (haemangiomas) of the mesenteric lymph node, were observed at 700 mg/kg/day, but not at 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 26- and 65-times the exposure at the clinical dose of 12.5 mg and 5 mg twice daily, respectively). These tumours are common in rats and are unlikely to be relevant to humans.
Metformin hydrochloride: Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are both approximately 4 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg/day.
Indications/Uses
Glycaemic control: JARDIANCE DUO is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycaemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: when treatment with both empagliflozin and metformin is appropriate (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Trials under Actions and Dosage & Administration).
Inadequately controlled with metformin or empagliflozin alone.
Inadequately controlled with empagliflozin or metformin in combination with other glucose- lowering products including insulin.
Already treated with empagliflozin and metformin co-administered as separate tablets.
Prevention of cardiovascular events: Empagliflozin is indicated in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Trials under Actions).
To prevent cardiovascular deaths, empagliflozin should be used in conjunction with other measures to reduce cardiovascular risk in line with the current standard of care.
Dosage/Direction for Use
JARDIANCE DUO is film-coated tablets for oral administration.
Adults with normal renal function (GFR ≥ 90ml/min): The recommended dose is one JARDIANCE DUO tablet twice daily.
The dosage should be individualised on the basis of the patient's current regimen, effectiveness, and tolerability. The maximum recommended daily dose of JARDIANCE DUO is 25 mg of empagliflozin and 2000 mg of metformin (see Table 15 for additional dosing information).
JARDIANCE DUO should be given with meals to reduce the gastrointestinal undesirable effects associated with metformin.
Treatment naïve patients: The recommended starting dose is 5 mg/500 mg twice daily. If additional glycaemic control is required, adjust dosing based on effectiveness and tolerability while not exceeding the maximum recommended daily dose of 25 mg empagliflozin and 2000 mg metformin.
Patients switching from separate tablets of empagliflozin and metformin: Patients switching from separate tablets of empagliflozin (10 mg or 25 mg total daily dose) and metformin to JARDIANCE DUO, should receive the same daily dose of empagliflozin and metformin already being taken or the nearest therapeutically appropriate dose of metformin.
Patients not adequately controlled on the maximal tolerated dose of metformin alone or in combination with other products, including insulin: The recommended starting dose of JARDIANCE DUO should provide empagliflozin 5 mg twice daily (10 mg total daily dose) and the dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken. In patients tolerating a total daily dose of empagliflozin 10 mg, the dose can be increased to a total daily dose of empagliflozin 25 mg.
Combination use: When JARDIANCE DUO is used in combination with a sulfonylurea and/or insulin, a lower dose of sulfonylurea and/or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see Interactions and Adverse Reactions).
Renal impairment: No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild renal impairment.
A GFR should be assessed before initiation of treatment with metformin containing products and at least annually thereafter. In patients at increased risk of further progression of renal impairment and in the elderly, renal function should be assessed more frequently, e.g. every 3-6 months. (See Table 15.)

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Elderly Patients: Patients age 75 years and older may be at an increased risk of volume depletion, therefore, JARDIANCE DUO should be prescribed with caution in these patients. Therapeutic experience in patients aged 85 years and older is limited. Initiation of treatment in this population is not recommended (see Use in the Elderly under Precautions).
Paediatric population: JARDIANCE DUO is not recommended for use in children below 18 years due to lack of data on safety and efficacy.
Overdosage
Empagliflozin: During controlled clinical trials in healthy subjects, single doses of up to 800mg empagliflozin, equivalent to 32 times the maximum recommended daily dose, were well tolerated.
Metformin hydrochloride: Hypoglycaemia has not been seen with metformin hydrochloride doses for up to 85g, although lactic acidosis has occurred in such circumstances. High overdose of metformin hydrochloride or concomitant risks may lead to lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency and must be treated in hospital.
Treatment: In the event of an overdose, supportive treatment should be initiated as appropriate to the patient's clinical status. The most effective method to remove lactate and metformin hydrochloride is haemodialysis whereas removal of empagliflozin by haemodialysis has not been studied.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to active ingredients empagliflozin and/or metformin or to any of the excipients.
Any type of acute metabolic acidosis (such as lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis).
Diabetic pre-coma.
Patients with CKD stage 4 or 5 (severely impaired renal function including patients receiving dialysis; eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2 or ClCr < 30 ml/min) or eGFR persistently < 45 ml/min/ 1.73m2 or ClCr persistently < 45 ml/ min (CKD Stage 3B).
Acute conditions with the potential to alter renal function such as: dehydration, severe infection, shock, intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents (see Precautions).
Acute or chronic disease which may cause tissue hypoxia such as: cardiac or respiratory failure, recent myocardial infarction, shock, pulmonary embolism, acute significant blood loss, sepsis, gangrene, pancreatitis (see Precautions).
During or immediately following surgery where insulin is essential, elective major surgery.
Hepatic impairment, acute alcohol intoxication, alcoholism (due to metformin component).
Lactation.
Special Precautions
General: JARDIANCE DUO should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Diabetic ketoacidosis: Cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a serious life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalisation, have been reported in patients treated with empagliflozin, including fatal cases. In a number of reported cases, the presentation of the condition was atypical with only moderately increased blood glucose values, below 14 mmol/l (250mg/dl).
The risk of diabetic ketoacidosis must be considered in the event of non-specific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, excessive thirst, difficulty breathing, confusion, unusual fatigue or sleepiness.
Patients should be assessed for ketoacidosis immediately if these symptoms occur, regardless of blood glucose level. If ketoacidosis is suspected, JARDIANCE DUO should be discontinued, patient should be evaluated and prompt treatment should be instituted.
Patients who may be at higher risk of DKA while taking JARDIANCE DUO include patients on a very low carbohydrate diet (as the combination may further increase ketone body production), patients with an acute illness, pancreatic disorders suggesting insulin deficiency (e.g. type I diabetes, history of pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery), insulin dose reduction (including insulin pump failure), alcohol abuse, severe dehydration and patients with the history of ketoacidosis. JARDIANCE DUO should be used with caution in these patients. When reducing the insulin dose caution should be taken (see Dosage & Administration). In patients treated with JARDIANCE DUO consider monitoring for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinuing JARDIANCE DUO in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (e.g. prolong fasting due to acute illness or surgery). In these situations, consider monitoring of ketones, even if JARDIANCE DUO treatment has been interrupted.
Lactic acidosis: Lactic acidosis, a very rare but serious metabolic complication, most often occurs at acute worsening of renal function or cardiorespiratory illness or sepsis. Metformin accumulation occurs at acute worsening of renal function and increases the risk of lactic acidosis.
In case of dehydration (severe diarrhoea or vomiting, fever or reduced fluid intake), metformin should be temporarily discontinued and contact with a health care professional is recommended.
Medicinal products that can acutely impair renal function (such as antihypertensive, diuretics and NSAIDs) should be initiated with caution in metformin-treated patients. Other risk factors for lactic acidosis are excessive alcohol intake, hepatic insufficiency, inadequate controlled diabetes, ketosis, prolonged fasting, and any condition associated with hypoxia as well as concomitant use of medicinal products that may cause lactic acidosis (see Contraindications and Interactions).
Patient and/ or care-givers should be informed of the risk of lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is characterised by acidotic dyspnea, abdominal pain, muscle cramps, asthenia and hypothermia followed by coma. In case of suspected symptoms, the patient should stop taking metformin and seek immediate medical attention.
Diagnostic laboratory findings are decreased blood pH (< 7.35), increased plasma lactate levels ( > 5 mmol/L), and an increased anion gap and lactate/pyruvate ratio.
Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene): Postmarketing cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (also known as Fournier's gangrene), a rare, but serious and life-threatening necrotizing infection, have been reported in female and male patients with diabetes mellitus treated with SGLT2 inhibitors, including empagliflozin. Serious outcomes have included hospitalization, multiple surgeries, and death.
Patients treated with JARDIANCE DUO who present with pain or tenderness, erythema, swelling in the genital or perineal area, fever, malaise should be evaluated for necrotizing fasciitis. If suspected, JARDIANCE DUO should be discontinued and prompt treatment should be instituted (including broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical debridement if necessary).
Use in patients with renal impairment: Due to the mechanism of action, the efficacy of empagliflozin is dependent on renal function.
GFR should be assessed before treatment initiation and regularly thereafter (see Dosage & Administration). JARDIANCE DUO is contraindicated in patients with eGFR persistently <45 ml/min/1.73m2 and should be temporarily discontinued in the presence of conditions that alter renal function (see Contraindications).
Cardiac function: Patients with heart failure are more at risk of hypoxia and renal insufficiency. In patients with stable chronic heart failure, JARDIANCE DUO may be used with a regular monitoring of cardiac and renal function.
For patients with acute and unstable heart failure, JARDIANCE DUO is contraindicated due to the metformin component (see Contraindications).
Hepatic injury: Cases of hepatic injury have been reported with empagliflozin in clinical trials. A causal relationship between empagliflozin and hepatic injury has not been established.
Use in patients at risk for volume depletion: Based on the mode of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, osmotic diuresis accompanying therapeutic glucosuria may lead to a modest decrease in blood pressure. Therefore, caution should be exercised in patients for whom an empagliflozin-induced drop in blood pressure could pose a risk, such as patients with known cardiovascular disease, patients on anti-hypertensive therapy with a history of hypotension or patients aged 75 years and older.
In case of conditions that may lead to fluid loss (e.g. gastrointestinal illness), careful monitoring of volume status (e.g. physical examination, blood pressure measurements, laboratory tests including haematocrit) and electrolytes is recommended for patients receiving empagliflozin. Temporary interruption of treatment with JARDIANCE DUO should be considered until the fluid loss is corrected.
Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis: There have been postmarketing reports of serious urinary tract infections including urosepsis and pyelonephritis requiring hospitalisation in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including empagliflozin. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors increases the risk for urinary tract infections. Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections and treat promptly, if indicated (see Adverse Reactions).
Discontinuation of JARDIANCE DUO may be considered in cases of recurrent urinary tract infections.
Lower limb amputations: An increase in cases of lower limb amputation (primarily of the toe) has been observed in long-term clinical studies with another SGLT2 inhibitor. It is unknown whether this constitutes a class effect. Like for all diabetic patients it is important to counsel patients on routine preventive foot care.
Combination with glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues: Empagliflozin has not been studied in combination with glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues.
Administration of iodinated contrast agent: Intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media may lead to contrast induced nephropathy, resulting in metformin accumulation and an increased risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin should be discontinued prior to or at the time of the imaging procedure and not restarted until 48 hours afterwards, provided that renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be stable (see Interactions).
Surgery: JARDIANCE DUO must be discontinued at the time of surgery under general, spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Therapy may be restarted no earlier than 48 hours following surgery or resumption of oral nutrition and provided that renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be stable.
Vitamin B12 levels: In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29 weeks duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum Vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anaemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or Vitamin B12 supplementation. Measurement of haematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on JARDIANCE DUO and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed. Certain individuals (those with inadequate Vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal Vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum Vitamin B12 measurements at two- to three-year intervals may be useful.
Effect on ability to drive and use machines: No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.
Use in Children: Safety and effectiveness of JARDIANCE DUO in paediatric patients under 18 years have not been established.
Use in the Elderly: Patient aged 75 years and older may be at an increased risk of volume depletion, therefore, JARDIANCE DUO should be prescribed with caution in these patients (see Adverse Reactions). Therapeutic experience in patients aged 85 years and older is limited. Initiation of treatment in this population is not recommended.
As metformin is extracted by the kidney, JARDIANCE DUO should be used with caution as age increase. Monitoring of renal function is necessary to aid in prevention of metformin associated lactic acidosis, particularly in elderly patients.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Fertility: No studies on the effect on human fertility have been conducted with JARDIANCE DUO or its individual components.
Nonclinical studies in animals with the individual components do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to fertility.
Empagliflozin: Studies in rats at doses up to 700 mg/kg/day, do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to fertility. In female rats this dose was 90- and 155-fold the systemic AUC exposure anticipated with a human dose of 10 and 25 mg.
Metformin hydrochloride: Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparisons.
Pregnancy: There are limited data from the use of JARDIANCE DUO or its individual components in pregnant women.
It is recommended to avoid the use of JARDIANCE DUO during pregnancy unless clearly needed.
A study in pregnant rats did not reveal teratogenicity or other adverse effects on embryofetal development with co-administration of empagliflozin and metformin at oral doses up to 100/200 mg/kg/day, yielding exposures of approximately 35- and 14-times the clinical AUC exposure of empagliflozin associated with the 5 and 12.5 mg twice daily doses, respectively, and 4-times the clinical AUC exposure of metformin associated with the 1000 mg twice daily dose. At a dose of 300/600 mg/kg/day, associated with 49-times the exposure to empagliflozin and 8-times the exposure to metformin in humans at the maximum recommended dose, teratogenicity attributable to the metformin component was observed.
Empagliflozin: Empagliflozin administered during the period of organogenesis was not teratogenic at doses up to 300 mg/kg in the rat or rabbit, which corresponds to approximately 48- and 122-times or 128- and 325-times the clinical dose of empagliflozin based on AUC exposure associated with the 12.5 mg and 5 mg twice daily doses, respectively. Doses of empagliflozin causing maternal toxicity in the rat also caused the malformation of bent limb bones at exposures approximately 155- and 393-times the clinical dose associated with the 12.5 mg and 5 mg twice daily doses, respectively. Maternally toxic doses in the rabbit also caused increased embryofetal loss at doses approximately 139- and 353-times the clinical dose associated with the 12.5 mg and 5 mg twice daily doses, respectively.
Empagliflozin administered to female rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 20 resulted in reduced weight gain in offspring at ≥30 mg/kg/day yielding maternal exposures approximately 4- and 11-times those in humans associated with 12.5 mg and 5 mg twice daily doses, respectively.
Specialised studies in rats with other members of the pharmacological class have shown toxicity to the developing kidney in the time period corresponding to the second and third trimesters of human pregnancy. Similar effects have been seen for empagliflozin at approximately 11-times the clinical dose of empagliflozin based on AUC exposure associated with the 12.5 mg twice daily dose. These findings were absent after a 13 week drug-free recovery period.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin was not teratogenic in rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day associated with a systemic exposure 4 times that in patients at the maximum recommended human dose (2000 mg metformin per day). At higher doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, associated with 11 and 23 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD), teratogenicity of metformin was observed in the rat which was mostly evident as an increase in the incidence of skeletal malformations.
Lactation: Metformin is excreted into human breast milk. No adverse effects were observed in breastfed newborns/infants. It is unknown whether empagliflozin is excreted in human milk.
Available nonclinical data in animals have shown excretion of empagliflozin in milk. Reduced body weight was observed in rats exposed to empagliflozin in utero and through the consumption of maternal milk (see Pregnancy as previously mentioned). Adverse effects on renal development have been observed in juvenile rats treated with other members of this pharmacological class. Similar effects were seen with empagliflozin but the findings were absent after a 13 week drug-free recovery. A risk to human newborns/infants cannot be excluded. It is recommended to discontinue breast feeding during treatment with JARDIANCE DUO.
Adverse Reactions
Adverse Reactions in Clinical Trials: A total of 12245 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated in clinical studies to evaluate the safety of empagliflozin plus metformin, of which 8199 patients were treated with empagliflozin plus metformin, either alone, or in addition to a sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, DPP4 inhibitors, or insulin. In these trials 2910 patients received treatment with empagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin and 3699 patients received treatment with empagliflozin 25 mg plus metformin for at least 24 weeks and 2151 or 2807 patients for at least 76 weeks.
The overall safety profile of empagliflozin plus metformin for patients enrolled in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study was comparable to the previously known safety profile.
Placebo controlled double-blind trials of 18 to 24 weeks of exposure included 3456 patients, of which 1271 were treated with empagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin and 1259 with empagliflozin 25 mg plus metformin.
The most frequently reported adverse event in clinical trials was hypoglycaemia, which depended on the type of background therapy used in the respective studies (Table 16).
No additional side effects were identified in clinical trials with empagliflozin plus metformin compared to the side effects of the single components.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: The adverse reactions are listed by absolute frequency. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), or very rare (<1/10,000), and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). (See Table 16.)

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Hypoglycaemia: The frequency of hypoglycaemia depended on the background therapy in the respective studies and was similar to placebo for empagliflozin as add-on to metformin and as add-on to pioglitazone +/-metformin, and as add-on with linagliptin + metformin. The frequency of patients with hypoglycaemia was increased in patients treated with empagliflozin compared to placebo when given as add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea, and as add-on to insulin +/- metformin and +/- sulfonylurea (Table 17).
Major hypoglycaemia (events requiring assistance): The overall frequency of patients with major hypoglycaemic events was low (<1%) and similar for empagliflozin and placebo on a background of metformin. The frequency of major hypoglycaemia depended on the background therapy in the respective studies. (See Dosage & Administration; see Table 17 as follows.)

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Urinary tract infection: The overall frequency of urinary tract infection adverse events was higher in patients treated with empagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin (8.8%) as compared to empagliflozin 25 mg plus metformin (6.6%) or placebo plus metformin (7.8%). Similar to placebo, urinary tract infection was reported more frequently for empagliflozin plus metformin in patients with a history of chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections. The intensity of urinary tract infections was similar to placebo. Urinary tract infection events were reported more frequently for empagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin compared with placebo in female patients, but not for empagliflozin 25 mg plus metformin. The frequencies of urinary tract infections were low for male patients and were balanced across treatment groups.
Vaginal moniliasis, vulvovaginitis, balanitis and other genital infection: Vaginal moniliasis, vulvovaginitis, balanitis and other genital infections were reported more frequently for empagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin (4.0%) and empagliflozin 25 mg plus metformin (3.9%) compared to placebo plus metformin (1.3%), and were reported more frequently for empagliflozin plus metformin compared to placebo in female patients. The difference in frequency was less pronounced in male patients. Genital tract infections were mild and moderate in intensity, none was severe in intensity.
Increased urination: As expected via its mechanism of action, increased urination (as assessed by preferred term search including pollakiuria, polyuria, nocturia) was observed at higher frequencies in patients treated with empagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin (3.0%) and empagliflozin 25 mg plus metformin (2.9%) compared to placebo plus metformin (1.4%). Increased urination was mostly mild or moderate in intensity. The frequency of reported nocturia was comparable between placebo and empagliflozin, both on a background of metformin (<1%).
Volume depletion: The overall frequency of volume depletion [including the predefined terms blood pressure (ambulatory) decreased, blood pressure systolic decreased, dehydration, hypotension, hypovolaemia, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope] was low and comparable to placebo [empagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin (0.6%), empagliflozin 25 mg plus metformin (0.3%) and placebo plus metformin (0.1%)]. The effect of empagliflozin on urinary glucose excretion is associated with osmotic diuresis, which could affect the hydration status of patients age 75 years and older. In patients ≥75 years of age volume depletion events have been reported in a single patient treated with empagliflozin 25 mg plus metformin.
Blood creatinine increased and glomerular filtration rate decreased: The overall frequency of patients with increased blood creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate was similar between empagliflozin and placebo as add-on to metformin (blood creatinine increased: empagliflozin 10 mg 0.5%, empagliflozin 25 mg 0.1%, placebo 0.4%; glomerular filtration rate decreased: empagliflozin 10 mg 0.1%, empagliflozin 25 mg 0%, placebo 0.2%).
In these placebo-controlled, double-blind studies up to 24 weeks, initial transient increases in creatinine (mean change from baseline after 12 weeks: empagliflozin 10 mg 0.02 mg/dL, empagliflozin 25 mg 0.02 mg/dL) and initial transient decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rates (mean change from baseline after 12 weeks: empagliflozin 10 mg -1.46 mL/min/1.73m2, empagliflozin 25 mg -2.05 mL/min/1.73m2) have been observed. In the long term studies, these changes were generally reversible during continuous treatment or after drug discontinuation (see Figure 6 in Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Trials under Actions for the eGFR course in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study).
Laboratory parameters: Haematocrit increased: In a pooled safety analysis of all trials with metformin background treatment, mean changes from baseline in haematocrit were 3.6% and 4.0% for empagliflozin 10 mg and 25 mg, respectively, compared to 0% for placebo. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study, haematocrit values returned towards baseline values after a follow-up period of 30 days after treatment stop.
Serum lipids increased: In a pooled safety analysis of all trials with metformin background treatment, mean percent increases from baseline for empagliflozin 10 mg and 25 mg versus placebo, respectively, were total cholesterol 5.0% and 5.2% versus 3.7%; HDL-cholesterol 4.6% and 2.7% versus -0.5%; LDL-cholesterol 9.1% and 8.7% versus 7.8%; triglycerides 5.4% and 10.8% versus 12.1%.
Drug Interactions
General: Co-administration of multiple doses of empagliflozin (50 mg once daily) and metformin hydrochloride (1000 mg twice daily) did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of either empagliflozin or metformin in healthy volunteers.
Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction studies with JARDIANCE DUO have not been performed; however, such studies have been conducted with empagliflozin and metformin alone.
Empagliflozin: Pharmacodynamic Interactions: Diuretics: Empagliflozin may add to the diuretic effect of thiazide and loop diuretics and may increase the risk of dehydration and hypotension.
Insulin and insulin secretagogues: Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulfonylureas, may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or an insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with empagliflozin (see Adverse Reactions and Dosage & Administration).
Interference with 1, 5-anhydroglucitol (1, 5-AG) Assay: Monitoring glycaemic control with 1, 5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1, 5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycaemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycaemic control.
Pharmacokinetic Interactions: In vitro assessment of drug interactions: Empagliflozin does not inhibit, inactivate, or induce CYP450 isoforms. In vitro data suggest that the primary route of metabolism of empagliflozin in humans is glucuronidation by the uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7. Empagliflozin does not notably inhibit UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, or UGT2B7. At therapeutic doses, the potential for empagliflozin to reversibly inhibit or inactivate the major CYP450 and UGT isoforms is remote. Drug-drug interactions involving the major CYP450 and UGT isoforms with empagliflozin and concomitantly administered substrates of these enzymes are therefore considered unlikely.
Empagliflozin is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), but it does not inhibit these efflux transporters at therapeutic doses. Based on in vitro studies, empagliflozin is considered unlikely to cause interactions with drugs that are P-gp substrates. Empagliflozin is a substrate of the human uptake transporters OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3, but not OAT1 and OCT2. Empagliflozin does not inhibit any of these human uptake transporters at clinically relevant plasma concentrations and, as such, drug-drug interactions with substrates of these uptake transporters are considered unlikely.
In vivo assessment of drug interactions: No clinically meaningful pharmacokinetic interactions were observed when empagliflozin was co-administered with other commonly used medicinal products. Based on results of pharmacokinetic studies no dose adjustment of empagliflozin is recommended when co-administered with commonly prescribed medicinal products.
Empagliflozin pharmacokinetics were similar with and without co-administration of glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, warfarin, verapamil, ramipril, simvastatin, in healthy volunteers and with or without co-administration of torasemide and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Increases in overall exposure (AUC) of empagliflozin were seen following co-administration with gemfibrozil (59%), rifampicin (35%), or probenecid (53%). These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Empagliflozin had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, warfarin, digoxin, ramipril, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, torasemide and oral contraceptives when co-administered in healthy volunteers.
Metformin hydrochloride: Contraindicated combinations: Iodinated contrast materials: JARDIANCE DUO must be discontinued either 48 hours before the test when renal function is known to be impaired, or from the time of the test when renal function is known to be normal (see Contraindications and Administration of iodinated contrast agent under Precautions).
Inadvisable combination: Alcohol: There is increased risk of lactic acidosis in acute alcohol intoxication (particularly in the case of fasting, malnutrition or hepatic impairment) due to the metformin component of JARDIANCE DUO (see Lactic acidosis under Precautions). Consumption of alcohol and medicinal products containing alcohol should be avoided. Alcohol may make the signs of hypoglycaemia less clear, and delayed hypoglycaemia can occur. The CNS depressant effect of alcohol plus hypoglycaemia can make driving or the operation of dangerous machinery much more hazardous.
Combination requiring precautions for use: Medicinal products with intrinsic hyperglycaemic activity e.g. glucocorticoids and tetracosactides (systemic and local routes), beta-2-agonists, danazol, chlorpromazine at high dosages of 100 mg per day and diuretics: More frequent blood glucose monitoring may be required, especially at the beginning of treatment. If necessary, adjust the metformin dosage during therapy with the respective medicinal product and upon discontinuation.
Diuretics, especially loop diuretics: May increase the risk of lactic acidosis due to their potential to decrease renal function.
ACE-inhibitors: ACE-inhibitors may decrease the blood glucose levels. Therefore, dose adjustment of JARDIANCE DUO may be necessary when such medicinal products are added or discontinued.
Calcium channel blockers: Calcium channel blockers may affect glucose control in diabetic patients; regular monitoring of glycaemic control is recommended.
Beta-blockers: Co-administration of metformin and beta-blockers may result in a potentiation of the anti-hyperglycaemic action. In addition, some of the premonitory signs of hypoglycaemia, in particular tachycardia, may be masked. Monitoring of blood glucose should be undertaken during dosage adjustment of either agent.
Cimetidine: Reduced clearance of metformin has been reported during cimetidine therapy, so a dose reduction should be considered.
Anticoagulants: Metformin increases the elimination rate of vitamin K antagonists. Consequently, the prothrombin time should be closely monitored in patients in whom metformin and vitamin K antagonists are being co-administered. Cessation of metformin in patients receiving vitamin K antagonists can cause marked increases in the prothrombin time.
Nifedipine: A single-dose, metformin-nifedipine drug interaction study in normal healthy volunteers demonstrated that co-administration of metformin and nifedipine increased plasma metformin Cmax and AUC by 20% and 9%, respectively, and increased the amount of metformin excreted in the urine. Tmax and half-life of metformin were unaffected. Nifedipine appears to enhance the absorption of metformin. Metformin had minimal effects on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine.
Organic cation transporters (OCT): Metformin is a substrate of both transporters OCT1 and OCT2.
Co-administration of metformin with: Substrates/inhibitors of OCT1 (such as verapamil) may reduce efficacy of metformin.
Inducers of OCT1 (such as rifampicin) may increase gastrointestinal absorption and efficacy.
Substrates/inhibitors of OCT2 (such as cimetidine, dolutegravir, crizotinib, olaparib, daclatasvir, vandetanib) may decrease the renal elimination of metformin and thus lead to an increase in metformin plasma concentration.
Therefore, caution is advised when these drugs are co-administered with metformin and a dose adjustment may be considered, particularly in patients with renal impairment.
Storage
Store below 30°C.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
A10BD20 - metformin and empagliflozin ; Belongs to the class of combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
5 mg/500 mg FC tab (orange yellow, oval, biconvex, one side debossed with Boehringer Ingelheim company symbol and "S5", the other side is debossed with "500") 60's. 12.5 mg/500 mg FC tab (pale brownish purple, oval, biconvex, one side debossed with Boehringer Ingelheim company symbol and "S12", the other side is debossed with "500") 60's. 12.5 mg/850 mg FC tab (pinkish white, oval, biconvex, one side debossed with Boehringer Ingelheim company symbol and "S12", the other side is debossed with "850") 60's. 12.5 mg/1,000 mg FC tab (dark brownish purple, oval, biconvex, one side debossed with Boehringer Ingelheim company symbol and "S12", the other side is debossed with "1000") 60's.
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