Jardiance

Jardiance

empagliflozin

Manufacturer:

Boehringer Ingelheim

Distributor:

DKSH
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Empagliflozin.
Description
Each tablet contains 10 mg or 25 mg empagliflozin.
Excipient with known effect: Each tablet contains lactose monohydrate equivalent to 154.3 mg (10 mg Empagliflozin) or 107.4 mg (25 mg Empagliflozin) lactose anhydrous.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Tablet core: Lactose monohydrate, Cellulose microcrystalline, Hydroxypropylcellulose, Croscarmellose sodium, Colloidal anhydrous sillica, Magnesium stearate.
Film coating (Opadry Yellow 02B38190): Hypromellose 2910, Titanium dioxide, Talc, Macrogol 400, Iron oxide yellow.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Drugs used in diabetes, Other blood glucose lowering drugs, excl. insulins. ATC Code: A10BK03.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Empagliflozin is a reversible, highly potent (IC50 of 1.3 nmol) and selective competitive inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2). Empagliflozin does not inhibit other glucose transporters important for glucose transport into peripheral tissues and is 5000 times more selective for SGLT2 versus SGLT1, the major transporter responsible for glucose absorption in the gut. SGLT2 is highly expressed in the kidney, whereas expression in other tissues is absent or very low. It is responsible, as the predominant transporter, for the reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulation. In patients with type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemia a higher amount of glucose is filtered and reabsorbed.
Empagliflozin improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes by reducing renal glucose reabsorption. The amount of glucose removed by the kidney through this glucuretic mechanism is dependent on blood glucose concentration and GFR. Inhibition of SGLT2 in patients with type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemia leads to excess glucose excretion in the urine.
In patients with type 2 diabetes, urinary glucose excretion increased immediately following the first dose of empagliflozin and is continuous over the 24 hour dosing interval. Increased urinary glucose excretion was maintained at the end of the 4-week treatment period, averaging approximately 78 g/day. Increased urinary glucose excretion resulted in an immediate reduction in plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Empagliflozin improves both fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels. The mechanism of action of empagliflozin is independent of beta cell function and insulin pathway and this contributes to a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Improvement of surrogate markers of beta cell function including Homeostasis Model Assessment-β (HOMA-β) was noted. In addition, urinary glucose excretion triggers calorie loss, associated with body fat loss and body weight reduction. The glucosuria observed with empagliflozin is accompanied by mild diuresis which may contribute to sustained and moderate reduction of blood pressure.
Clinical efficacy and safety: A total of 14,663 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated in 12 double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled clinical studies, of which 9,295 received empagliflozin (empagliflozin 10 mg: 4,165 patients; empagliflozin 25 mg: 5,130 patients). Five studies had treatment durations of 24 weeks; extensions of those and other studies had patients exposed to empagliflozin for up to 102 weeks.
Treatment with empagliflozin as monotherapy and in combination with metformin, pioglitazone, a sulphonylurea, DPP-4 inhibitors, and insulin lead to clinically relevant improvements in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Administration of empagliflozin 25 mg resulted in a higher proportion of patients achieving HbA1c goal of less than 7% and fewer patients needing glycaemic rescue compared to empagliflozin 10 mg and placebo. Higher baseline HbA1c was associated with a greater reduction in HbA1c.
Monotherapy: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin as monotherapy was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study of 24 weeks duration in treatment-naive patients. Treatment with empagliflozin resulted in a statistically significant (p<0.0001) reduction in HbA1c compared to placebo (Table 1) and a clinically meaningful decrease in FPG.
In a pre-specified analysis of patients (N=201) with a baseline HbA1c ≥8.5%, treatment resulted in a reduction in HbA1c from baseline of -1.44% for empagliflozin 10 mg, -1.43% for empagliflozin 25 mg, -1.04% for sitagliptin, and an increase of 0.01% for placebo.
In the double-blind placebo-controlled extension of this study, reductions of HbA1c, body weight and blood pressure were sustained up to Week 76. (See Table 1.)

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Combination therapy: Empagliflozin as add on to metformin, sulphonylurea, pioglitazone: Empagliflozin as add-on to metformin, metformin and a sulphonylurea, or pioglitazone with or without metformin resulted in statistically significant (p<0.0001) reductions in HbA1c and body weight compared to placebo (Table 2). In addition it resulted in a clinically meaningful reduction in FPG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to placebo.
In the double-blind placebo-controlled extension of these studies, reduction of HbA1c, body weight and blood pressure were sustained up to Week 76. (See Table 2.)

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In combination with metformin in drug-naive patients: A factorial design study of 24 weeks duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in drug-naive patients. Treatment with empagliflozin in combination with metformin (5mg and 500mg; 5mg and 1000mg; 12.5mg and 500mg and 12.5mg and 1000mg given twice daily) provided statistically significant improvement in HbA1c (Table 3) and led to greater reductions in FPG (compared to the individual components) and body weight (compared to metformin). (See Table 3.)

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Empaglilfozin in patients inadequately controlled with metformin and linagliptin: In patients inadequately controlled with metformin and linagliptin 5 mg, treatment with both empagliflozin 10 mg or 25 mg resulted in statistically significant (p<0.0001) reductions in HbA1c and body weight compared to placebo (Table 4). In addition it resulted in clinically meaningful reductions in FPG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to placebo. (See Table 4.)

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In a prespecified subgroup of patients with baseline HbA1c greater or equal than 8.5% the reduction from baseline in HbA1c was -1.3% with empagliflozin 10 mg or 25 mg at 24 weeks (p<0.0001) compared to placebo.
Empagliflozin 24 months data, as add on to metformin in comparison to glimepiride: In a study comparing the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin 25 mg versus glimepiride (up to 4 mg per day) in patients with inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone, treatment with empagliflozin daily resulted in superior reduction in HbA1c (Table 5), and a clinically meaningful reduction in FPG, compared to glimepiride. Empagliflozin daily resulted in a statistically significant reduction in body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a statistically significantly lower proportion of patients with hypoglycaemic events compared to glimepiride (2.5% for empagliflozin, 24.2% for glimepiride, p<0.0001). (See Table 5.)

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Add-on to insulin therapy: Empagliflozin as add on to multiple daily insulin: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin as add-on to multiple daily insulin with or without concomitant metformin therapy was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 52 weeks duration. During the initial 18 weeks and the last 12 weeks, the insulin dose was kept stable, but was adjusted to achieve pre-prandial glucose levels <100 mg/dl [5.5 mmol/l], and post-prandial glucose levels <140 mg/dl [7.8 mmol/l] between Weeks 19 and 40.
At Week 18, empagliflozin provided statistically significant improvement in HbA1c compared with placebo (Table 6).
At Week 52, treatment with empagliflozin resulted in a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c and insulin sparing compared with placebo and a reduction in FPG and body weight. (See Table 6.)

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Empagliflozin as add on to basal insulin: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin as add on to basal insulin with or without metformin and/or a sulphonylurea was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 78 weeks duration. During the initial 18 weeks the insulin dose was kept stable, but was adjusted to achieve a FPG <110 mg/dl in the following 60 weeks.
At week 18, empagliflozin provided statistically significant improvement in HbA1c (Table 7).
At 78 weeks, empagliflozin resulted in a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c and insulin sparing compared to placebo. Furthermore, empagliflozin resulted in a reduction in FPG, body weight, and blood pressure. (See Table 7.)

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Patients with renal impairment, 52 week placebo controlled data: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin as add on to antidiabetic therapy was evaluated in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study for 52 weeks. Treatment with empagliflozin led to a statistically significant reduction of HbA1c (Table 8) and clinically meaningful improvement in FPG, body weight and blood pressure compared to placebo at Week 24. The improvement in HbA1c, FPG, body weight, and blood pressure was sustained up to 52 weeks. (See Table 8.)

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Fasting plasma glucose: In four placebo-controlled studies, treatment with empagliflozin as monotherapy or add-on therapy to metformin, pioglitazone, or metformin plus a sulphonylurea resulted in mean changes from baseline in FPG of -20.5 mg/dl [-1.14 mmol/l] for empagliflozin 10 mg and -23.2 mg/dl [-1.29 mmol/l] for empagliflozin 25 mg compared to placebo (7.4 mg/dl [0.41 mmol/l]). This effect was observed after 24 weeks and maintained for 76 weeks.
2-hour post-prandial glucose: Treatment with empagliflozin as add-on to metformin or metformin and a sulphonylurea resulted in a clinically meaningful reduction of 2-hour post-prandial glucose (meal tolerance test) at 24 weeks (add-on to metformin: placebo +5.9 mg/dl, empagliflozin 10 mg: -46.0 mg/dl, empagliflozin 25 mg: -44.6 mg/dl, add-on to metformin and a sulphonylurea: placebo -2.3 mg/dl, empagliflozin 10 mg: -35.7 mg/dl, empagliflozin 25 mg: -36.6 mg/dl).
Patients with high baseline HbA1c >10%: In a pre-specified pooled analysis of three phase 3 studies, treatment with open-label empagliflozin 25 mg in patients with severe hyperglycaemia (N=184, mean baseline HbA1c 11.15%) resulted in a clinically meaningful reduction in HbA1c from baseline of 3.27% at week 24; no placebo or empagliflozin 10 mg arms were included in these studies.
Body weight: In a pre-specified pooled analysis of 4 placebo controlled studies, treatment with empagliflozin resulted in body weight reduction (-0.24 kg for placebo, -2.04 kg for empagliflozin 10 mg and -2.26 kg for empagliflozin 25 mg) at week 24 that was maintained up to week 52 (-0.16 kg for placebo, -1.96 kg for empagliflozin 10 mg and -2.25 kg for empagliflozin 25 mg).
Blood pressure: The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo controlled study of 12 weeks duration in patients with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure on different antidiabetic and up to 2 antihypertensive therapies. Treatment with empagliflozin once daily resulted in statistically significant improvement in HbA1c, and 24 hour mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure as determined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (Table 9). Treatment with empagliflozin provided reductions in seated SBP and DBP. (See Table 9.)

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In a pre-specified pooled analysis of 4 placebo-controlled studies, treatment with empagliflozin resulted in a reduction in systolic blood pressure (empagliflozin 10 mg: -3.9 mmHg; empagliflozin 25 mg: -4.3 mmHg) compared with placebo (-0.5 mmHg) and in diastolic blood pressure (empagliflozin 10 mg: -1.8 mmHg; empagliflozin 25 mg: -2.0 mmHg) compared with placebo (-0.5 mmHg) at week 24 that were maintained up to week 52.
Cardiovascular outcome: The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study is a multi-centre, multi-national, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of Jardiance as adjunct to standard care therapy in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and one or more cardiovascular risk factors, including coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, history of myocardial infarction (MI), or history of stroke. The primary endpoint was the time to first event in the composite of CV death, nonfatal MI, or non-fatal stroke [(Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE-3)]. Additional pre-specified endpoints addressing clinically relevant outcomes tested in an exploratory manner included CV death, the composite of heart failure requiring hospitalisation or CV death, all-cause mortality and the composite of new or worsening nephropathy.
A total of 7,020 patients were treated with Jardiance (empagliflozin 10 mg: 2,345, empagliflozin 25 mg: 2,342, placebo: 2,333) and followed for a median of 3.1 years. The population was 72.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Asian, and 5.1% Black. The mean age was 63 years and 71.5% were male. At baseline, approximately 81% of patients were being treated with renin angiotensin system inhibitors, 65% with beta-blockers, 43% with diuretics, 89% with anticoagulants, and 81% with lipid lowering medication. Approximately 74% of patients were being treated with metformin at baseline, 48% with insulin and 43% with sulphonylurea.
About half of the patients (52.2%) had an eGFR of 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2, 17.8% of 45-60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 7.7% of 30-45 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean systolic BP was 136 mmHg, diastolic BP 76 mmHg, LDL 86 mg/dL, HDL 44 mg/dL, and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) 175 mg/g at baseline.
Reductions in risk of CV death and all-cause mortality: Jardiance was superior in reducing the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, or non-fatal stroke compared to placebo. The treatment effect reflected a significant reduction in cardiovascular death with no significant change in non-fatal MI, or non-fatal stroke (Table 8 and Figure 1).
Jardiance also improved overall survival (Table 10 and Figure 2), which was driven by a reduction in cardiovascular death with Jardiance. There was no statistically significant difference between empagliflozin and placebo in non-cardiovascular mortality. (See Table 10, Figures 1 and 2.)

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Reductions in risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization or CV death: Jardiance significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure compared with placebo (Table 11 and Figure 3). (See Table 11 and Figure 3.)

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The cardiovascular benefits of Jardiance observed were consistent across the subgroups depicted in Figure 4. (See Figure 4.)

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Diabetic kidney disease: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study population, the risk of new or worsening nephropathy (defined as onset of macroalbuminuria, doubling of serum creatinine, and initiation of renal replacement therapy (i.e. hemodialysis)) was significantly reduced in empagliflozin group compared to placebo (Table 12 and Figure 5).
Jardiance compared with placebo showed a significantly higher occurrence of sustained normo- or microalbuminuria in patients with baseline macroalbuminuria (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.40, 2.37). (See Table 12 and Figure 5.)

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Treatment with empagliflozin preserved eGFR and eGFR increased during the post treatment 4-week follow up. However, the placebo group showed a gradual decline in GFR during the course of the study with no further change during 4-week follow up (see Figure 6).

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Thorough QTc study: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, crossover study of 30 healthy subjects, no increase in QTc was observed with either 25 mg or 200 mg empagliflozin.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: The pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin have been extensively characterised in healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes. After oral administration, empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations occurring at a median tmax of 1.5 hours post-dose. Thereafter, plasma concentrations declined in a biphasic manner with a rapid distribution phase and a relatively slow terminal phase. The steady state mean plasma AUC and Cmax were 1870 nmol.h/l and 259 nmol/l with empagliflozin 10 mg and 4740 nmol.h/l and 687 nmol/l with empagliflozin 25 mg once daily. Systemic exposure of empagliflozin increased in a dose-proportional manner. The single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of empagliflozin were similar suggesting linear pharmacokinetics with respect to time. There were no clinically relevant differences in empagliflozin pharmacokinetics between healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes.
Administration of empagliflozin 25 mg after intake of a high-fat and high calorie meal resulted in slightly lower exposure; AUC decreased by approximately 16% and Cmax by approximately 37% compared to fasted condition. The observed effect of food on empagliflozin pharmacokinetics was not considered clinically relevant and empagliflozin may be administered with or without food.
Distribution: The apparent steady-state volume of distribution was estimated to be 73.8 l based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis. Following administration of an oral [14C]-empagliflozin solution to healthy volunteers, the red blood cell partitioning was approximately 37% and plasma protein binding was 86%.
Metabolism: No major metabolites of empagliflozin were detected in human plasma and the most abundant metabolites were three glucuronide conjugates (2-, 3-, and 6-O glucuronide). Systemic exposure of each metabolite was less than 10% of total drug-related material. In vitro studies suggested that the primary route of metabolism of empagliflozin in humans is glucuronidation by the uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B7, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, and UGT1A9.
Elimination: Based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis, the apparent terminal elimination half-life of empagliflozin was estimated to be 12.4 hours and apparent oral clearance was 10.6 l/hour. The inter-subject and residual variabilities for empagliflozin oral clearance were 39.1% and 35.8%, respectively. With once-daily dosing, steady-state plasma concentrations of empagliflozin were reached by the fifth dose. Consistent with the half-life, up to 22% accumulation, with respect to plasma AUC, was observed at steady-state. Following administration of an oral [14C]-empagliflozin solution to healthy volunteers, approximately 96% of the drug-related radioactivity was eliminated in faeces (41%) or urine (54%). The majority of drug-related radioactivity recovered in faeces was unchanged parent drug and approximately half of drug-related radioactivity excreted in urine was unchanged parent drug.
Special populations: Renal impairment: In patients with mild (eGFR: 60 - < 90 ml/min/1.73m2), moderate (eGFR: 30 - < 60 ml/min/1.73m2) or severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and patients with kidney failure/end stage renal disease (ESRD), AUC of empagliflozin increased by approximately 18%, 20%, 66%, and 48%, respectively compared to subjects with normal renal function. Peak plasma levels of empagliflozin were similar in subjects with moderate renal impairment and kidney failure/ESRD compared to patients with normal renal function. Peak plasma levels of empagliflozin were roughly 20% higher in subjects with mild and severe renal impairment as compared to subjects with normal renal function. The population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the apparent oral clearance of empagliflozin decreased with a decrease in eGFR leading to an increase in drug exposure. Based on pharmacokinetics, no dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with renal insufficiency (see Dosage & Administration).
Hepatic impairment: In subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment according to the Child-Pugh classification, AUC of empagliflozin increased approximately by 23%, 47%, and 75% and Cmax by approximately 4%, 23%, and 48%, respectively, compared to subjects with normal hepatic function.
Body Mass Index: Body mass index had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis. In this analysis, AUC was estimated to be 5.82%, 10.4%, and 17.3% lower in subjects with BMI of 30, 35, and 45 kg/m2, respectively, compared to subjects with a body mass index of 25 kg/m2.
Gender: Gender had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Race: In the population pharmacokinetic analysis, AUC was estimated to be 13.5% higher in Asians with a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 compared to non-Asians with a body mass index of 25 kg/m2.
Elderly patients: Age did not have a clinically meaningful impact on the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Paediatric patients: Studies characterising the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin in paediatric patients have not been performed.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, genotoxicity, fertility and early embryonic development.
In long term toxicity studies in rodents and dogs, signs of toxicity were observed at exposures greater than or equal to 10-times the clinical dose of empagliflozin. Most toxicity was consistent with secondary pharmacology related to urinary glucose loss and electrolyte imbalances including decreased body weight and body fat, increased food consumption, diarrhea, dehydration, decreased serum glucose and increases in other serum parameters reflective of increased protein metabolism and gluconeogenesis, urinary changes such as polyuria and glucosuria, and microscopic changes including mineralisation in kidney and some soft and vascular tissues. Microscopic evidence of the effects of exaggerated pharmacology on the kidney observed in some species included tubular dilatation, and tubular and pelvic mineralisation at approximately 4-times the clinical AUC exposure of empagliflozin associated with the 25 mg dose.
Empagliflozin is not genotoxic.
In a 2 year carcinogenicity study, empagliflozin did not increase the incidence of tumors in female rats up to the highest dose of 700 mg/kg/day, which corresponds to approximately 72-times the maximal clinical AUC exposure to empagliflozin. In male rats, treatment-related benign vascular proliferative lesions (haemangiomas) of the mesenteric lymph node were observed at the highest dose, but not at 300 mg/kg/day, which corresponds to approximately 26-times the maximal clinical exposure to empagliflozin. Interstitial cell tumors in the testes were observed with a higher incidence in rats at 300 mg/kg/day and above, but not at 100 mg/kg/day which corresponds to approximately 18-times the maximal clinical exposure to empagliflozin. Both tumors are common in rats and are unlikely to be relevant to humans.
Empagliflozin did not increase the incidence of tumors in female mice at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day, which corresponds to approximately 62-times the maximal clinical exposure to empagliflozin. Empagliflozin induced renal tumors in male mice at 1000 mg/kg/day, but not at 300 mg/kg/day, which corresponds to approximately 11-times the maximal clinical exposure to empagliflozin. The mode of action for these tumors is dependent on the natural predisposition of the male mouse to renal pathology and a metabolic pathway not reflective of humans. The male mouse renal tumors are considered not relevant to humans.
At exposures sufficiently in excess of exposure in humans after therapeutic doses, empagliflozin had no adverse effects on fertility or early embryonic development. Empagliflozin administered during the period of organogenesis was not teratogenic. Only at maternally toxic doses, empagliflozin also caused bent limb bones in the rat and increased embryofetal loss in the rabbit.
In pre- and postnatal toxicity studies in rats, reduced weight gain of offspring was observed at maternal exposures approximately 4-times the maximal clinical exposure to empagliflozin. No such effect was seen at systemic exposure equal to the maximal clinical exposure to empagliflozin. The relevance of this finding to humans is unclear.
In juvenile toxicity study in the rat, when empagliflozin was administered from postnatal day 21 until postnatal day 90, non-adverse, minimal to mild renal tubular and pelvic dilation in juvenile rats was seen only at 100mg/kg/day, which approximates 11-times the maximum clinical dose of 25mg. The findings were absent after a 13 weeks drug-free recovery period.
Indications/Uses
Glycaemic control: Jardiance is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycaemic control in adults as: Monotherapy: When diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control in patients for whom use of metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance.
Add-on combination therapy: In combination with other glucose-lowering medicinal products including insulin, when these, together with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycaemic control (see Precautions, Interactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions for available data on different combinations).
Prevention of cardiovascular death: Jardiance is indicated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical efficacy and safety under Actions).
To prevent cardiovascular deaths, Jardiance should be used in conjunction with other measures to reduce cardiovascular risk in line with the current standard of care.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Posology: The recommended starting dose is 10 mg empagliflozin once daily for monotherapy and add-on combination therapy with other glucose-lowering medicinal products including insulin. In patients tolerating empagliflozin 10 mg once daily who have an eGFR ≥45 ml/min/1.73 m2 and need tighter glycaemic control, the dose can be increased to 25 mg once daily. The maximum daily dose is 25 mg (see as follows and Precautions).
When empagliflozin is used in combination with a sulphonylurea or with insulin, a lower dose of the sulphonylurea or insulin may be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see Interactions and Adverse Reactions).
Special populations: Patients with renal impairment: The glucose lowering efficacy of empagliflozin declines with decreasing renal function (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions Table 9). Renal function must be assessed prior to initiation of empagliflozin therapy and periodically thereafter. Empagliflozin is contraindicated in patient with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2), end-stage renal disease or patients on dialysis (see Contraindications). No dosage adjustment for empagliflozin is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment.
More intensive monitoring of glycaemic and renal biomarker and signs and symptoms of renal dysfunction is recommended if empagliflozin is used in patients with an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, especially if the eGFR is < 45 ml/min/1.73m2.
Jardiance should be discontinued if the eGFR fall to a level 30 ml/min/1,73 m2 (see Contraindications, Precautions, Adverse Reactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Patients with hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment is required for patients with hepatic impairment. Empagliflozin exposure is increased in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therapeutic experience in patients with severe hepatic impairment is limited and therefore not recommended for use in this population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Elderly patients: No dose adjustment is recommended based on age. In patients 75 years and older, an increased risk for volume depletion should be taken into account (see Precautions and Adverse Reactions). In patients aged 85 years and older, initiation of empagliflozin therapy is not recommended due to the limited therapeutic experience (see Precautions).
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of empagliflozin in children and adolescents has not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration: The tablets can be taken with or without food, swallowed whole with water. If a dose is missed, it should be taken as soon as the patient remembers. A double dose should not be taken on the same day.
Overdosage
In controlled clinical studies single doses of up to 800 mg empagliflozin (equivalent to 32 times the highest recommended daily dose) in healthy volunteers and multiple daily doses of up to 100 mg empagliflozin (equivalent to 4 times the highest recommended daily dose) in patients with type 2 diabetes did not show any toxicity. Empagliflozin increased urine glucose excretion leading to an increase in urine volume. The observed increase in urine volume was not dose-dependent and is not clinically meaningful.
Therapy: In the event of an overdose, treatment should be initiated as appropriate to the patient's clinical status. The removal of empagliflozin by haemodialysis has not been studied.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Patient with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2), end-stage renal disease and patients on dialysis.
Special Precautions
General: Jardiance should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Diabetic ketoacidosis: Cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a serious life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalisation, have been reported in patients treated with empagliflozin, including fatal cases. In a number of reported cases, the presentation of the condition was atypical with only moderately increased blood glucose values, below 14 mmol/l (250 mg/dl).
The risk of diabetic ketoacidosis must be considered in the event of non-specific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, excessive thirst, difficulty breathing, confusion, unusual fatigue or sleepiness.
Patients should be assessed for ketoacidosis immediately if these symptoms occur, regardless of blood glucose level. If ketoacidosis is suspected, Jardiance should be discontinued, patients should be evaluated and prompt treatment should be instituted.
Patients who may be at higher risk of ketoacidosis while taking Jardiance include patients with a very low carbohydrate diet (as the combination may further increase ketone body production), patients with an acute illness, pancreatic disorders suggesting insulin deficiency (e.g. type 1 diabetes, history of pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery), insulin dose reduction (including insulin pump failure), alcohol abuse, severe dehydration and patient with a history of ketoacidosis. Jardiance should be used with caution in these patients. When reducing the insulin dose (see Dosage & Administration), caution should be taken. In patients treated with Jardiance, consider monitoring for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinuing Jardiance in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (e.g. prolong fasting due to acute illness or surgery). In these situations, consider monitoring of ketones, even if Jardiance treatment has been interrupted.
Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene): Postmarketing cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (also known as Fournier's gangrene), a rare, but serious and life-threatening necrotizing infection, have been reported in female and male patients with diabetes mellitus treated with SGLT2 inhibitors, including empagliflozin. Serious outcomes have included hospitalization, multiple surgeries, and death.
Patients treated with Jardiance who present with pain or tenderness, erythema, swelling in the genital or perineal area, fever, malaise should be evaluated for necrotizing fasciitis. If suspected, Jardiance should be discontinued and prompt treatment should be instituted (including broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical debridement if necessary).
Use in patients with renal impairment: The glucose-lowering benefits of empagliflozin decreases with declining renal function and was not demonstrated to be statistically significant in subjects with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2 (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions Table 9).
Renal function should be assessed prior to initiation of empagliflozin and regularly thereafter.
Use of empagliflozin is contraindicated in patients with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2.
In patients with an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, more intensive monitoring of glycaemic and renal biomarker and signs and symptoms of renal dysfunction is recommended, especially if the eGFR is < 45 ml/min/1.73m2.
Monitoring of renal function is recommended prior to and following initiation of any concomitant drug which might have an impact on renal function.
Discontinuation of empagliflozin is recommended if the eGFR falls to < 30 ml/min/1.73m2 during treatment.
Hepatic injury: Cases of hepatic injury have been reported with empagliflozin in clinical trials. A causal relationship between empagliflozin and hepatic injury has not been established.
Use in patients at risk for volume depletion: Based on the mode of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, osmotic diuresis accompanying therapeutic glucosuria may lead to a modest decrease in blood pressure (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). Therefore, caution should be exercised in patients for whom an empagliflozin-induced drop in blood pressure could pose a risk, such as patients with known cardiovascular disease, patients on anti-hypertensive therapy with a history of hypotension or patients aged 75 years and older.
In case of conditions that may lead to fluid loss (e.g. gastrointestinal illness), careful monitoring of volume status (e.g. physical examination, blood pressure measurements, laboratory tests including haematocrit) and electrolytes is recommended for patients receiving empagliflozin. Temporary interruption of treatment with empagliflozin should be considered until the fluid loss is corrected.
Urinary tract infections: In the pooled placebo-controlled double-blind trials of 18 to 24 weeks duration, the overall frequency of urinary tract infection reported as adverse event was similar in patients treated with empagliflozin 25 mg and placebo and higher in patients treated with empagliflozin 10 mg (see Adverse Reactions). Postmarketing cases of complicated urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis or urosepsis have been reported in patients treated with empagliflozin. Temporary interruption of empagliflozin should be considered in patients with complicated urinary tract infections.
Lower limb amputations: An increase in cases of lower limb amputation (primarily of the toe) has been observed in long-term clinical studies with another SGLT2 inhibitor. It is unknown whether this constitutes a class effect. Like for all diabetic patients it is important to counsel patients on routine prevention foot-care.
Cardiac failure: Experience in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-II is limited, and there is no experience in clinical studies with empagliflozin in NYHA class III-IV.
Urine laboratory assessments: Due to its mechanism of action, patients taking Jardiance will test positive for glucose in their urine.
Lactose: The tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency, or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Effect on ability to drive and use machines: Jardiance has minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Patients should be advised to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia while driving and using machines, in particular when Jardiance is used in combination with a sulphonylurea and/or insulin.
Use in Elderly: The effect of empagliflozin on urinary glucose excretion is associated with osmotic diuresis, which could affect the hydration status. Patients aged 75 years and older may be at an increased risk of volume depletion. A higher number of these patients treated with empagliflozin had adverse reactions related to volume depletion as compared to placebo (see Adverse Reactions).
Therapeutic experience in patients aged 85 years and older is limited. Initiation of empagliflozin therapy in this population is not recommended (see Dosage & Administration).
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no data from the use of empagliflozin in pregnant women. Animal studies show that empagliflozin crosses the placenta during late gestation to a very limited extent but do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to early embryonic development. However, animal studies have shown adverse effects on postnatal development (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Jardiance during early pregnancy. Jardiance is not recommended during the second and third trimester of pregnancy.
Breast-feeding: No data in humans are available on excretion of empagliflozin into milk. Available toxicological data in animals have shown excretion of empagliflozin in milk. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Jardiance should not be used during breast-feeding.
Fertility: No studies on the effect on human fertility have been conducted for Jardiance. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to fertility (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: A total of 15,582 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in clinical studies to evaluate the safety of empagliflozin, of which 10,004 patients received empagliflozin, either alone or in combination with metformin, a sulphonylurea, pioglitazone, DPP-4 inhibitors, or insulin.
In 6 placebo-controlled trials of 18 to 24 weeks duration, 3,534 patients were included of which 1,183 were treated with placebo and 2,351 with empagliflozin. The overall incidence of adverse events in patients treated with empagliflozin was similar to placebo. The most frequently reported adverse reaction was hypoglycaemia when used with sulphonylurea or insulin (see description of selected adverse reactions).
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: Adverse reactions classified by system organ class and MedDRA preferred terms reported in patients who received empagliflozin in placebo-controlled studies are presented in the table as follows (Table 13).
The adverse reactions are listed by absolute frequency. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), or very rare (<1/10,000), and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). (See Table 13.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Description of selected adverse reactions: Hypoglycaemia: The frequency of hypoglycaemia depended on the background therapy in the respective studies and was similar for empagliflozin and placebo as monotherapy, add-on to metformin, add-on to pioglitazone with or without metformin, as add-on with linagliptin and metformin and as adjunct to standard care therapy and for the combination of empaglilfozin with metformin in drug–naive patients compared to those treated with empagliflozin and metformin as individual components. An increased frequency was noted when given as add-on to metformin and a sulphonylurea (empagliflozin 10 mg: 16.1%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 11.5%, placebo: 8.4%), and as add-on to basal insulin with or without metformin and with or without a sulphonylurea (empagliflozin 10 mg: 19.5%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 28.4%, placebo: 20.6% during initial 18 weeks treatment when insulin could not be adjusted; empagliflozin 10 mg and 25mg: 36.1%, placebo 35.3% over the 78-week trial) and add-on to MDI insulin with or without metformin (empagliflozin 10 mg: 39.8%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 41.3%, placebo: 37.2% during initial 18 weeks treatment when insulin could not be adjusted; empagliflozin 10 mg: 51.1%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 57.7%, placebo: 58% over the 52-week trial).
Major hypoglycaemia (event requiring assistance): No increase in major hypoglycaemia was observed with empagliflozin compared to placebo as monotherapy, add-on to metformin, add-on to metformin and a sulphonylurea, add-on to pioglitazone with or without metformin, add-on to linagliptin and metformin, as adjunct to standard care therapy and for the combination of empaglilfozin with metformin in drug-naive patients compared to those treated with empagliflozin and metformin as individual components. An increased frequency was noted when given as add-on to basal insulin with or without metformin and with or without a sulphonylurea (empagliflozin 10 mg: 0%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 1.3%, placebo: 0% during initial 18 weeks treatment when insulin could not be adjusted; empagliflozin 10 mg: 0%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 1.3%, placebo 0% over the 78-week trial) and add-on to MDI insulin with or without metformin (empagliflozin 10 mg: 0.5%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 0.5%, placebo: 0.5% during initial 18 weeks treatment when insulin could not be adjusted; empagliflozin 10 mg: 1.6%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 0.5%, placebo: 1.6% over the 52-week trial).
Vaginal moniliasis, vulvovaginitis, balanitis and other genital infection: Vaginal moniliasis, vulvovaginitis, balanitis and other genital infections were reported more frequently in patients treated with empagliflozin (empagliflozin 10 mg: 4.0%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 3.9%) compared to placebo (1.0%). These infections were reported more frequently in females treated with empagliflozin compared to placebo, and the difference in frequency was less pronounced in males. The genital tract infections were mild or moderate in intensity.
Increased urination: Increased urination (including the predefined terms pollakiuria, polyuria, and nocturia) was observed at higher frequencies in patients treated with empagliflozin (empagliflozin 10 mg: 3.5%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 3.3%) compared to placebo (1.4%). Increased urination was mostly mild or moderate in intensity. The frequency of reported nocturia was similar for placebo and empagliflozin (<1%).
Urinary tract infection: The overall frequency of urinary tract infection reported as adverse event was similar in patients treated with empagliflozin 25 mg and placebo (7.0% and 7.2%) and higher in empagliflozin 10 mg (8.8%). Similar to placebo, urinary tract infection was reported more frequently for empagliflozin in patients with a history of chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections. The intensity (mild, moderate, severe) of urinary tract infection was similar in patients treated with empagliflozin and placebo. Urinary tract infection was reported more frequently in females treated with empagliflozin compared to placebo; there was no difference in males.
Volume depletion: The overall frequency of volume depletion (including the predefined terms blood pressure (ambulatory) decreased, blood pressure systolic decreased, dehydration, hypotension, hypovolaemia, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope) was similar in patients treated with empagliflozin (empagliflozin 10 mg: 0.6%, empagliflozin 25 mg: 0.4%) and placebo (0.3%). The frequency of volume depletion events was increased in patients 75 years and older treated with empagliflozin 10 mg (2.3%) or empagliflozin 25 mg (4.3%) compared to placebo (2.1%).
Blood creatinine increased/Glomerular filtration rate decreased: The overall frequency of patients with increased blood creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate was similar between empagliflozin and placebo (blood creatinine increased: empagliflozin 10 mg 0.6%, empagliflozin 25 mg 0.1%, placebo 0.5%; glomerular filtration rate decreased: empagliflozin 10 mg 0.1%, empagliflozin 25 mg 0%, placebo 0.3%).
In placebo-controlled, double-blind studies up to 76 weeks, initial transient increases in creatinine (mean change from baseline after 12 weeks: empagliflozin 10 mg 0.02 mg/dL, empagliflozin 25 mg 0.01 mg/dL) and initial transient decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rates (mean change from baseline after 12 weeks: empagliflozin 10 mg -1.34 mL/min/1.73m2, empagliflozin 25 mg -1.37 mL/min/1.73m2) have been observed. These changes were generally reversible during continuous treatment or after drug discontinuation. (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Trials Figure 6 for the eGFR course in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study under Actions).
Drug Interactions
Pharmacodynamic interactions: Diuretics: Empagliflozin may add to the diuretic effect of thiazide and loop diuretics and may increase the risk of dehydration and hypotension (see Precautions).
Insulin and insulin secretagogues: Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulphonylureas, may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or an insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with empagliflozin (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
Interference with 1, 5-anhydroglucitol (1, 5-AG) Assay: Monitoring glycaemic control with 1, 5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1, 5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycaemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycaemic control.
Pharmacokinetic interactions: Effects of other medicinal products on empagliflozin: In vitro data suggest that the primary route of metabolism of empagliflozin in humans is glucuronidation by uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7. Empagliflozin is a substrate of the human uptake transporters OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3, but not OAT1 and OCT2. Empagliflozin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP).
Co-administration of empagliflozin with probenecid, an inhibitor of UGT enzymes and OAT3, resulted in a 26% increase in peak empagliflozin plasma concentrations (Cmax) and a 53% increase in area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
The effect of UGT induction on empagliflozin has not been studied. Co-medication with known inducers of UGT enzymes should be avoided due to a potential risk of decreased efficacy.
An interaction study with gemfibrozil, an in vitro inhibitor of OAT3 and OATP1B1/1B3 transporters, showed that empagliflozin Cmax increased by 15% and AUC increased by 59% following co-administration. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Inhibition of OATP1B1/1B3 transporters by co-administration with rifampicin resulted in a 75% increase in Cmax and a 35% increase in AUC of empagliflozin. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Empagliflozin exposure was similar with and without co-administration with verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, indicating that inhibition of P-gp does not have any clinically relevant effect on empagliflozin.
Interaction studies suggested that the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin were not influenced by coadministration with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, warfarin, verapamil, ramipril, simvastatin torasemide and hydrochlorothiazide.
Effects of empagliflozin on other medicinal products: Based on in vitro studies, empagliflozin does not inhibit, inactivate, or induce CYP450 isoforms. Empagliflozin does not inhibit UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, or UGT2B7. Drug-drug interactions involving the major CYP450 isoforms or UGT with empagliflozin and concomitantly administered substrates of these enzymes are therefore considered unlikely.
Empagliflozin does not inhibit P-gp at therapeutic doses. Based on in vitro studies, empagliflozin is considered unlikely to cause interactions with drugs that are P-gp substrates. Co-administration of digoxin, a P-gp substrate, with empagliflozin resulted in a 6% increase in AUC and 14% increase in Cmax of digoxin. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Empagliflozin does not inhibit human uptake transporters such as OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in vitro at clinically relevant plasma concentrations and, as such, drug-drug interactions with substrates of these uptake transporters are considered unlikely.
Interaction studies conducted in healthy volunteers suggest that empagliflozin had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, simvastatin, warfarin, ramipiril, digoxin, diuretics and oral contraceptives.
Storage
Do not store above 30°C.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
A10BK03 - empagliflozin ; Belongs to the class of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 10 mg (round, pale yellow, biconvex, bevel-edged, debossed with "S10" on one side and the Boehringer Ingelheim logo on the other; tablet diameter: 9.1 mm) x 30's. 25 mg (oval, pale yellow, biconvex, debossed with "S25" on one side and the Boehringer Ingelheim logo on the other; tablet length: 11.1 mm, tablet width: 5.6 mm) x 30's.
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