Metabolism and nutrition disorders: In accordance with its pharmacological actions, the resin may give rise to hypokalaemia and hypercalcaemia, and their related clinical manifestations.
Cases of hypomagnesaemia have been reported.
Hypercalcaemia has been reported in well dialysed patients receiving calcium resin, and occasionally in patients with chronic renal failure. Many patients in chronic renal failure have low serum calcium and high serum phosphate, but some, who cannot be screened out beforehand, show a sudden rise in serum calcium to high levels after therapy with calcium resin. The risk emphasises the need for adequate biochemical control.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Gastric irritation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation and occasionally diarrhoea may occur. Gastrointestinal concretions (bezoars) following oral administration have been reported. Gastrointestinal stenosis and intestinal obstruction have also been reported, possibly, due to co-existing pathology or inadequate dilution of the resin.
Gastrointestinal ischemia, ischemic colitis, gastro-intestinal tract ulceration or necrosis, which could lead to intestinal perforation have been reported which is sometimes fatal. The majority of cases have been reported with concomitant use of Sorbitol.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Some cases of acute bronchitis and/or broncho-pneumonia associated with inhalation of particles of calcium polystyrene sulfonate have been described.