Fertility: No impact on fertility was detected in animal studies. No clinical data are available, potential risk for human is unknown.
Women of childbearing potential: Specialist advice should be given to women who are of childbearing potential. Treatment with levetiracetam should be reviewed when a woman is planning to become pregnant. As with all antiepileptic medicines, sudden discontinuation of levetiracetam should be avoided as this may lead to breakthrough seizures that could have serious consequences for the woman and the unborn child. Monotherapy should be preferred whenever possible because therapy with multiple antiepileptic medicines AEDs could be associated with a higher risk of congenital malformations than monotherapy, depending on the associated antiepileptics.
Pregnancy: A large amount of postmarketing data on pregnant women exposed to levetiracetam monotherapy (more than 1800, among which in more than 1500 exposure occurred during the first trimester) do not suggest an increase in the risk for major congenital malformations. Only limited evidence is available on the neurodevelopment of children exposed to levetiracetam monotherapy in utero. However, current epidemiological studies (on about 100 children) do not suggest an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders or delays.
Levetiracetam can be used during pregnancy, if after careful assessment it is considered clinically needed. In such case, the lowest effective dose is recommended.
Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect levetiracetam concentration.
Decrease in levetiracetam plasma concentrations has been observed during pregnancy. This decrease is more pronounced during the third trimester (up to 60% of baseline concentration before pregnancy). Appropriate clinical management of pregnant women treated with levetiracetam should be ensured.
Lactation: Levetiracetam is excreted in human breast milk. Therefore, breast-feeding is not recommended.
However, if levetiracetam treatment is needed during breastfeeding, the benefit/risk of the treatment should be weighed considering the importance of breastfeeding.