Pregnancy: Risk Summary: Limited available data with KOMBIGLYZE XR or saxagliptin in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data as follows].
No adverse developmental effects independent of maternal toxicity were observed when saxagliptin and metformin were administered separately or in combination to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis [see Data as follows].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6 to 10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1c greater than 7 and has been reported to be as high as 20 to 25% in women with an HbA1c greater than 10.
The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Clinical Considerations: Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk: Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Data: Animal Data: Saxagliptin: In embryo-fetal development studies, saxagliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis, corresponding to the first trimester of human pregnancy. No adverse developmental effects were observed in either species at exposures 1503-and 152-times the 5 mg clinical dose in rats and rabbits, respectively, based on AUC. Saxagliptin crosses the placenta into the fetus following dosing in pregnant rats.
In a prenatal and postnatal development study, no adverse developmental effects were observed in maternal rats administered saxagliptin from gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 at exposures up to 470-times the 5 mg clinical dose, based on AUC.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin hydrochloride did not cause adverse developmental effect when administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits up to 600 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. This represents an exposure of about 2-and 6-times a 2000 mg clinical dose based on body surface area (mg/m2) for rats and rabbits, respectively.
Saxagliptin and Metformin: Saxagliptin and metformin coadministered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis did not result in adverse developmental effects considered clinically relevant in either species. Doses tested in rats provided exposure up to 100-and 10-times clinical exposure, and doses tested in rabbits provided exposure up to 249-and 1-times clinical exposure relative to the clinical dose of 5 mg saxagliptin and 2000 mg metformin. Minor skeletal abnormalities associated with maternal toxicity were observed in rats. In rabbits, coadministration was poorly tolerated in a subset of mothers (12 of 30), resulting in death, moribundity, or abortion. However, among surviving mothers with evaluable litters, maternal toxicity was limited to marginal reductions in body weight over the course of gestation days 21 to 29, associated with fetal body weight decrements of 7%, and a low incidence of delayed ossification of the fetal hyoid bone.
Lactation: Risk Summary: There is no information regarding the presence of KOMBIGLYZE XR or saxagliptin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data as follows]. However, there is insufficient information on the effects of metformin on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of metformin on milk production. Saxagliptin is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data as follows].
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for KOMBIGLYZE XR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from KOMBIGLYZE XR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Data: Human: Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants.
Animals: No studies in lactating animals have been conducted with the combined components of KOMBIGLYZE XR. In studies performed with the individual components, both saxagliptin and metformin are secreted in the milk of lactating rats. Saxagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at approximately a 1:1 ratio with plasma drug concentrations.