Kombiglyze XR

Kombiglyze XR

Manufacturer:

AstraZeneca

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma

Marketer:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Saxagliptin, metformin hydrochloride.
Description
KOMBIGLYZE XR (saxagliptin and metformin HCl extended-release) tablets contain two oral antihyperglycemic medications used in the management of type 2 diabetes: saxagliptin and metformin hydrochloride.
Saxagliptin: Saxagliptin is an orally-active inhibitor of the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) enzyme.
Saxagliptin monohydrate is described chemically as (1S,3S,5S)-2-[(2S)-2-Amino-2-(3-hydroxytricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-yl)acetyl]-2-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-3-carbonitrile, monohydrate or (1S,3S,5S)-2-[(2S)-2-Amino-2-(3-hydroxyadamantan-1-yl)acetyl]-2-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-3-carbonitrile hydrate. The empirical formula is C18H25N3O2•H2O and the molecular weight is 333.43.
Saxagliptin monohydrate is a white to light yellow or light brown, non-hygroscopic, crystalline powder. It is sparingly soluble in water at 24°C ± 3°C, slightly soluble in ethyl acetate, and soluble in methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetonitrile, acetone, and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400).
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4H11N5•HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68.
KOMBIGLYZE XR: KOMBIGLYZE XR is available for oral administration as tablets containing either 5.58 mg saxagliptin hydrochloride (anhydrous) equivalent to 5 mg saxagliptin and 500 mg metformin hydrochloride (KOMBIGLYZE XR 5 mg/500 mg), or 5.58 mg saxagliptin hydrochloride (anhydrous) equivalent to 5 mg saxagliptin and 1000 mg metformin hydrochloride (KOMBIGLYZE XR 5 mg/1000 mg), or 2.79 mg saxagliptin hydrochloride (anhydrous) equivalent to 2.5 mg saxagliptin and 1000 mg metformin hydrochloride (KOMBIGLYZE XR 2.5 mg/1000 mg).
KOMBIGLYZE XR (saxagliptin and metformin HCl extended-release) tablets have markings on both sides and are available in the strengths and packages listed in Table 1. (See Table 1.)

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Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Each film-coated tablet of KOMBIGLYZE XR contains the following inactive ingredients: carboxymethylcellulose sodium, hypromellose 2208, and magnesium stearate. The 5 mg/500 mg strength tablet of KOMBIGLYZE XR also contains microcrystalline cellulose and hypromellose 2910. In addition, the film-coatings contain the following inactive ingredients: polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol 3350, titanium dioxide, talc, and iron oxides.
The biologically inert components of the tablet may occasionally remain intact during gastrointestinal transit and will be eliminated in the feces as a soft, hydrated mass.
Action
Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: KOMBIGLYZE XR: KOMBIGLYZE XR combines two antihyperglycemic medications with complementary mechanisms of action to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes: saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor, and metformin hydrochloride, a biguanide.
Saxagliptin: Increased concentrations of the incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released into the bloodstream from the small intestine in response to meals. These hormones cause insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner but are inactivated by the DPP4 enzyme within minutes. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, reducing hepatic glucose production. In patients with type 2 diabetes, concentrations of GLP-1 are reduced but the insulin response to GLP-1 is preserved. Saxagliptin is a competitive DPP4 inhibitor that slows the inactivation of the incretin hormones, thereby increasing their bloodstream concentrations and reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in a glucose-dependent manner in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes or in healthy subjects except in unusual circumstances (see Precautions) and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. With metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may actually decrease.
Pharmacodynamics: Saxagliptin: In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, administration of saxagliptin inhibits DPP4 enzyme activity for a 24-hour period. After an oral glucose load or a meal, this DPP4 inhibition resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of active GLP-1 and GIP, decreased glucagon concentrations, and increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. The rise in insulin and decrease in glucagon were associated with lower fasting glucose concentrations and reduced glucose excursion following an oral glucose load or a meal.
Saxagliptin: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover, active comparator study using moxifloxacin in 40 healthy subjects, saxagliptin was not associated with clinically meaningful prolongation of the QTc interval or heart rate at daily doses up to 40 mg (8 times the MRHD).
Clinical Studies: There have been no clinical efficacy or safety studies conducted with KOMBIGLYZE XR to characterize its effect on hemoglobin A1C reduction. Bioequivalence of KOMBIGLYZE XR with coadministered saxagliptin and metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets has been demonstrated; however, relative bioavailability studies between KOMBIGLYZE XR and coadministered saxagliptin and metformin hydrochloride immediate-release tablets have not been conducted. The metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and metformin hydrochloride immediate-release tablets have a similar extent of absorption (as measured by AUC) while peak plasma levels of extended-release tablets are approximately 20% lower than those of immediate-release tablets at the same dose.
Glycemic Efficacy Trials: The coadministration of saxagliptin and metformin immediate-release tablets has been studied in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin alone and in treatment-naive patients inadequately controlled on diet and exercise alone. In these two trials, treatment with saxagliptin dosed in the morning plus metformin immediate-release tablets at all doses produced clinically relevant and statistically significant improvements in A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour postprandial glucose (PPG) following a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared to control. Reductions in A1C were seen across subgroups including gender, age, race, and baseline BMI.
In these two trials, decrease in body weight in the treatment groups given saxagliptin in combination with metformin immediate-release was similar to that in the groups given metformin immediate-release alone. Saxagliptin plus metformin immediate-release was not associated with significant changes from baseline in fasting serum lipids compared to metformin alone.
The coadministration of saxagliptin and metformin immediate-release tablets has also been evaluated in an active-controlled trial comparing add-on therapy with saxagliptin to glipizide in 858 patients inadequately controlled on metformin alone, in a placebo-controlled trial where a subgroup of 314 patients inadequately controlled on insulin plus metformin received add-on therapy with saxagliptin or placebo, a trial comparing saxagliptin to placebo in 257 patients inadequately controlled on metformin plus a sulfonylurea, and a trial comparing saxagliptin to placebo in 315 patients inadequately controlled on dapagliflozin and metformin.
In a 24-week, double-blind, randomized trial, patients treated with metformin immediate-release 500 mg twice daily for at least 8 weeks were randomized to continued treatment with metformin immediate-release 500 mg twice daily or to metformin extended-release either 1000 mg once daily or 1500 mg once daily. The mean change in A1C from baseline to Week 24 was 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0%, 0.3%) for the metformin immediate-release treatment arm, 0.3% (95% confidence interval 0.1%, 0.4%) for the 1000 mg metformin extended-release treatment arm, and 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0%, 0.3%) for the 1500 mg metformin extended-release treatment arm. Results of this trial suggest that patients receiving metformin immediate-release treatment may be safely switched to metformin extended-release once daily at the same total daily dose, up to 2000 mg once daily. Following a switch from metformin immediate-release to metformin extended-release, glycemic control should be closely monitored and dosage adjustments made accordingly.
Saxagliptin Morning and Evening Dosing: A 24-week monotherapy trial was conducted to assess a range of dosing regimens for saxagliptin. Treatment-naive patients with inadequately controlled diabetes (A1C ≥7% to ≤10%) underwent a 2-week, single-blind diet, exercise, and placebo lead-in period. A total of 365 patients were randomized to 2.5 mg every morning, 5 mg every morning, 2.5 mg with possible titration to 5 mg every morning, or 5 mg every evening of saxagliptin, or placebo. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the study were treated with metformin rescue therapy added on to placebo or saxagliptin; the number of patients randomized per treatment group ranged from 71 to 74.
Treatment with either saxagliptin 5 mg every morning or 5 mg every evening provided significant improvements in A1C versus placebo (mean placebo-corrected reductions of -0.4% and -0.3%, respectively).
Coadministration of Saxagliptin with Metformin Immediate-Release in Treatment-Naive Patients: A total of 1306 treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin coadministered with metformin immediate-release in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥8% to ≤12%) on diet and exercise alone. Patients were required to be treatment-naive to be enrolled in this study.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, 1-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period. Patients were randomized to one of four treatment arms: saxagliptin 5 mg + metformin immediate-release 500 mg, saxagliptin 10 mg + metformin immediate-release 500 mg, saxagliptin 10 mg + placebo, or metformin immediate-release 500 mg + placebo (the maximum recommended approved saxagliptin dose is 5 mg daily; the 10 mg daily dose of saxagliptin does not provide greater efficacy than the 5 mg daily dose and the 10 mg saxagliptin dosage is not an approved dosage). Saxagliptin was dosed once daily. In the 3 treatment groups using metformin immediate-release, the metformin dose was up-titrated weekly in 500 mg per day increments, as tolerated, to a maximum of 2000 mg per day based on FPG. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during this study were treated with pioglitazone rescue as add-on therapy.
Coadministration of saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin immediate-release provided significant improvements in A1C, FPG, and PPG compared with placebo plus metformin immediate-release (see Table 2).

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Addition of Saxagliptin to Metformin Immediate-Release: A total of 743 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with metformin immediate-release in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥7% and ≤10%) on metformin alone. To qualify for enrollment, patients were required to be on a stable dose of metformin (1500-2550 mg daily) for at least 8 weeks.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, 2-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period during which patients received metformin immediate-release at their pre-study dose, up to 2500 mg daily, for the duration of the study. Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg of saxagliptin or placebo in addition to their current dose of open-label metformin immediate-release (the maximum recommended approved saxagliptin dose is 5 mg daily; the 10 mg daily dose of saxagliptin does not provide greater efficacy than the 5 mg daily dose and the 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage). Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the study were treated with pioglitazone rescue therapy, added on to existing study medications. Dose titrations of saxagliptin and metformin immediate-release were not permitted.
Saxagliptin 2.5 mg and 5 mg add-on to metformin immediate-release provided significant improvements in A1C, FPG, and PPG compared with placebo add-on to metformin immediate-release (see Table 3). Mean changes from baseline for A1C over time and at endpoint are shown in Figure 1. The proportion of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control or who were rescued for meeting prespecified glycemic criteria was 15% in the saxagliptin 2.5 mg add-on to metformin immediate-release group, 13% in the saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to metformin immediate-release group, and 27% in the placebo add-on to metformin immediate-release group. (See Table 3 and Figure 1.)

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Saxagliptin Add-On Combination Therapy with Metformin Immediate-Release versus Glipizide Add-On Combination Therapy with Metformin Immediate-Release: In this 52-week, active-controlled trial, a total of 858 patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control (A1C >6.5% and ≤10%) on metformin immediate-release alone were randomized to double-blind add-on therapy with saxagliptin or glipizide. Patients were required to be on a stable dose of metformin immediate-release (at least 1500 mg daily) for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, 2-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period during which patients received metformin immediate-release (1500-3000 mg based on their prestudy dose). Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to 5 mg of saxagliptin or 5 mg of glipizide in addition to their current dose of open-label metformin immediate-release. Patients in the glipizide plus metformin immediate-release group underwent blinded titration of the glipizide dose during the first 18 weeks of the trial up to a maximum glipizide dose of 20 mg per day. Titration was based on a goal FPG ≤110 mg/dL or the highest tolerable glipizide dose. Fifty percent (50%) of the glipizide-treated patients were titrated to the 20-mg daily dose; 21% of the glipizide-treated patients had a final daily glipizide dose of 5 mg or less. The mean final daily dose of glipizide was 15 mg.
After 52 weeks of treatment, saxagliptin and glipizide resulted in similar mean reductions from baseline in A1C when added to metformin immediate-release therapy (see Table 4). This conclusion may be limited to patients with baseline A1C comparable to those in the trial (91% of patients had baseline A1C <9%).
From a baseline mean body weight of 89 kg, there was a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.1 kg in patients treated with saxagliptin compared to a mean weight gain of 1.1 kg in patients treated with glipizide (p<0.0001). (See Table 4.)

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Saxagliptin Add-On Combination Therapy with Insulin (with or without Metformin Immediate-Release): A total of 455 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with insulin in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥7.5% and ≤11%) on insulin alone (N=141) or on insulin in combination with a stable dose of metformin immediate-release (N=314). Patients were required to be on a stable dose of insulin (≥30 units to ≤150 units daily) with ≤20% variation in total daily dose for ≥8 weeks prior to screening. Patients entered the trial on intermediate- or long-acting (basal) insulin or premixed insulin. Patients using short-acting insulins were excluded unless the short-acting insulin was administered as part of a premixed insulin.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, four-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period during which patients received insulin (and metformin immediate-release if applicable) at their pretrial dose(s). Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to add-on therapy with either saxagliptin 5 mg or placebo. Doses of the antidiabetic therapies were to remain stable but patients were rescued and allowed to adjust the insulin regimen if specific glycemic goals were not met or if the investigator learned that the patient had self-increased the insulin dose by >20%. Data after rescue were excluded from the primary efficacy analyses.
Add-on therapy with saxagliptin 5 mg provided significant improvements from baseline to Week 24 in A1C and PPG compared with add-on placebo (see Table 5). Similar mean reductions in A1C versus placebo were observed for patients using saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to insulin alone and saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to insulin in combination with metformin immediate-release (-0.4% and -0.4%, respectively). The percentage of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control or who were rescued was 23% in the saxagliptin group and 32% in the placebo group.
The mean daily insulin dose at baseline was 53 units in patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg and 55 units in patients treated with placebo. The mean change from baseline in daily dose of insulin was 2 units for the saxagliptin 5 mg group and 5 units for the placebo group. (See Table 5.)

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The change in fasting plasma glucose from baseline to Week 24 was also tested, but was not statistically significant. The percent of patients achieving an A1C 7% was 17% (52/300) with saxagliptin in combination with insulin compared to 7% (10/149) with placebo. Significance was not tested.
Saxagliptin Add-On Combination Therapy with Metformin plus Sulfonylurea: A total of 257 subjects with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with metformin plus a sulfonylurea in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥7% and ≤10%). Patients were to be on a stable combined dose of metformin extended-release or immediate-release (at maximum tolerated dose, with minimum dose for enrollment being 1500 mg) and a sulfonylurea (at maximum tolerated dose, with minimum dose for enrolment being ≥50% of the maximum recommended dose) for ≥8 weeks prior to enrollment.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were entered in a 2-week enrollment period to allow assessment of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Following the 2-week enrollment period, eligible patients were randomized to either double-blind saxagliptin (5 mg once daily) or double-blind matching placebo for 24 weeks. During the 24-week double-blind treatment period, patients were to receive metformin and a sulfonylurea at the same constant dose ascertained during enrollment. Sulfonylurea dose could be down titrated once in the case of a major hypoglycemic event or recurring minor hypoglycemic events. In the absence of hypoglycemia, titration (up or down) of study medication during the treatment period was prohibited.
Saxagliptin in combination with metformin plus a sulfonylurea provided significant improvements in A1C and PPG compared with placebo in combination with metformin plus a sulfonylurea (see Table 6.) The percentage of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control was 6% in the saxagliptin group and 5% in the placebo group. (See Table 6.)

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The change in fasting plasma glucose from baseline to Week 24 was also tested, but was not statistically significant. The percent of patients achieving an A1C 7% was 31% (39/127) with saxagliptin in combination with metformin plus a sulfonylurea compared to 9% (12/127) with placebo. Significance was not tested.
Saxagliptin Add-on Combination Therapy with Metformin plus an SGLT2 Inhibitor: A total of 315 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin added to dapagliflozin (an SGLT2 inhibitor) and metformin in patients with a baseline of HbA1c ≥7% to ≤10.5%. The mean age of these subjects was 54.6 years, 1.6% were 75 years or older and 52.7% were female. The population was 87.9% White, 6.3% Black or African American, 4.1% Asian, and 1.6% Other race. At baseline the population had diabetes for an average of 7.7 years and a mean HbA1c of 7.9%. The mean eGFR at baseline was 93.4 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients were required to be on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg per day) for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment. Eligible subjects who completed the screening period entered the lead in treatment period, which included 16 weeks of open-label metformin and 10 mg dapagliflozin treatment. Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to saxagliptin 5 mg (N=153) or placebo (N =162).
The group treated with add-on saxagliptin had statistically significant greater reductions in HbA1c from baseline versus the group treated with placebo (see Table 7).

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The known proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% at Week 24 was 35.3% in the saxagliptin treated group compared to 23.1% in the placebo treated group.
Cardiovascular Safety Trial: The cardiovascular risk of saxagliptin was evaluated in SAVOR, a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind study comparing saxagliptin (N=8280) to placebo (N=8212), both administered in combination with standard of care, in adult patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Of the randomized study subjects, 97.5% completed the trial, and the median duration of follow-up was approximately 2 years. The trial was event-driven, and patients were followed until a sufficient number of events were accrued.
Subjects were at least 40 years of age, had A1C ≥6.5%, and multiple risk factors (21% of randomized subjects) for cardiovascular disease (age ≥55 years for men and ≥60 years for women plus at least one additional risk factor of dyslipidemia, hypertension, or current cigarette smoking) or established (79% of the randomized subjects) cardiovascular disease defined as a history of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, or ischemic stroke. The majority of subjects were male (67%) and Caucasian (75%) with a mean age of 65 years. Approximately 16% of the population had moderate (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥30 to ≤50 mL/min) to severe (eGFR <30 mL/min) renal impairment, and 13% had a prior history of heart failure. Subjects had a median duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus of approximately 10 years, and a mean baseline A1C level of 8.0%. Approximately 5% of subjects were treated with diet and exercise only at baseline. Overall, the use of diabetes medications was balanced across treatment groups (metformin 69%, insulin 41%, sulfonylureas 40%, and TZDs 6%). The use of cardiovascular disease medications was also balanced (angiotensin-converting enzymes [ACE] inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] 79%, statins 78%, aspirin 75%, beta-blockers 62%, and non-aspirin antiplatelet medications 24%).
The primary analysis in SAVOR was time to first occurrence of a Major Adverse Cardiac Event (MACE). A major adverse cardiac event in SAVOR was defined as a cardiovascular death, or a nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or a nonfatal ischemic stroke. The study was designed as a non-inferiority trial with a pre-specified risk margin of 1.3 for the hazard ratio of MACE, and was also powered for a superiority comparison if non-inferiority was demonstrated.
The results of SAVOR, including the contribution of each component to the primary composite endpoint are shown in Table 8. The incidence rate of MACE was similar in both treatment arms: 3.8 MACE per 100 patient-years on placebo vs. 3.8 MACE per 100 patient-years on saxagliptin. The estimated hazard ratio of MACE associated with saxagliptin relative to placebo was 1.00 with a 95.1% confidence interval of (0.89, 1.12). The upper bound of this confidence interval, 1.12, excluded a risk margin larger than 1.3. (See Table 8.)

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The Kaplan-Meier-based cumulative event probability is presented in Figure 2 for time to first occurrence of the primary MACE composite endpoint by treatment arm. The curves for both saxagliptin and placebo arms are close together throughout the duration of the trial. The estimated cumulative event probability is approximately linear for both arms, indicating that the incidence of MACE for both arms was constant over the trial duration. (See Figure 2.)

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Vital status was obtained for 99% of subjects in the trial. There were 798 deaths in the SAVOR trial. Numerically more patients (5.1%) died in the saxagliptin group than in the placebo group (4.6%). The risk of deaths from all cause (see Table 8) was not statistically different between the treatment groups (HR: 1.11; 95.1% CI: 0.96, 1.27). (See Table 9.)

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Pharmacokinetics: KOMBIGLYZE XR: Bioequivalence and food effect of KOMBIGLYZE XR was characterized under low calorie diet. The low calorie diet consisted of 324 kcal with meal composition that contained 11.1% protein, 10.5% fat, and 78.4% carbohydrate. The results of bioequivalence studies in healthy subjects demonstrated that KOMBIGLYZE XR combination tablets are bioequivalent to coadministration of corresponding doses of saxagliptin (ONGLYZA) and metformin hydrochloride extended-release as individual tablets under fed conditions.
Saxagliptin: The pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin were similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Cmax and AUC values of saxagliptin and its active metabolite increased proportionally in the 2.5 to 400 mg dose range. Following a 5 mg single oral dose of saxagliptin to healthy subjects, the mean plasma AUC values for saxagliptin and its active metabolite were 78 ng·h/mL and 214 ng·h/mL, respectively. The corresponding plasma Cmax values were 24 ng/mL and 47 ng/mL, respectively. The average variability (%CV) for AUC and Cmax for both saxagliptin and its active metabolite was less than 25%.
No appreciable accumulation of either saxagliptin or its active metabolite was observed with repeated once-daily dosing at any dose level. No dose- and time-dependence were observed in the clearance of saxagliptin and its active metabolite over 14 days of once-daily dosing with saxagliptin at doses ranging from 2.5 to 400 mg.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin extended-release Cmax is achieved with a median value of 7 hours and a range of 4 to 8 hours. At steady state, the AUC and Cmax are less than dose proportional for metformin extended-release within the range of 500 to 2000 mg. After repeated administration of metformin extended-release, metformin did not accumulate in plasma. Metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism. Peak plasma levels of metformin extended-release tablets are approximately 20% lower compared to the same dose of metformin immediate-release tablets, however, the extent of absorption (as measured by AUC) is similar between extended-release tablets and immediate-release tablets.
Absorption: Saxagliptin: The median time to maximum concentration (Tmax) following the 5 mg once daily dose was 2 hours for saxagliptin and 4 hours for its active metabolite. Administration with a high-fat meal resulted in an increase in Tmax of saxagliptin by approximately 20 minutes as compared to fasted conditions. There was a 27% increase in the AUC of saxagliptin when given with a meal as compared to fasted conditions. Food has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin when administered as KOMBIGLYZE XR combination tablets.
Metformin hydrochloride: Following a single oral dose of metformin extended-release, Cmax is achieved with a median value of 7 hours and a range of 4 to 8 hours. Although the extent of metformin absorption (as measured by AUC) from the metformin extended-release tablet increased by approximately 50% when given with food, there was no effect of food on Cmax and Tmax of metformin. Both high and low fat meals had the same effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin extended-release. Food has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin when administered as KOMBIGLYZE XR combination tablets.
Distribution: Saxagliptin: The in vitro protein binding of saxagliptin and its active metabolite in human serum is negligible. Therefore, changes in blood protein levels in various disease states (e.g., renal or hepatic impairment) are not expected to alter the disposition of saxagliptin.
Metformin hydrochloride: Distribution studies with extended-release metformin have not been conducted; however, the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of metformin following single oral doses of immediate-release metformin 850 mg averaged 654 ± 358 L. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins, in contrast to sulfonylureas, which are more than 90% protein bound. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes, most likely as a function of time. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins and is, therefore, less likely to interact with highly protein-bound drugs such as salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, and probenecid, as compared to the sulfonylureas, which are extensively bound to serum proteins.
Metabolism: Saxagliptin: The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5). The major metabolite of saxagliptin is also a DPP4 inhibitor, which is one-half as potent as saxagliptin. Therefore, strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors and inducers will alter the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite. [See Interactions.]
Metformin hydrochloride: Intravenous single-dose studies in healthy subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) or biliary excretion.
Metabolism studies with extended-release metformin tablets have not been conducted.
Excretion: Saxagliptin: Saxagliptin is eliminated by both renal and hepatic pathways. Following a single 50 mg dose of 14C-saxagliptin, 24%, 36%, and 75% of the dose was excreted in the urine as saxagliptin, its active metabolite, and total radioactivity, respectively. The average renal clearance of saxagliptin (~230 mL/min) was greater than the average estimated glomerular filtration rate (~120 mL/min), suggesting some active renal excretion. A total of 22% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in feces representing the fraction of the saxagliptin dose excreted in bile and/or unabsorbed drug from the gastrointestinal tract. Following a single oral dose of saxagliptin 5 mg to healthy subjects, the mean plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) for saxagliptin and its active metabolite was 2.5 and 3.1 hours, respectively.
Metformin hydrochloride: Renal clearance is approximately 3.5 times greater than creatinine clearance, which indicates that tubular secretion is the major route of metformin elimination. Following oral administration, approximately 90% of the absorbed drug is eliminated via the renal route within the first 24 hours, with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 6.2 hours. In blood, the elimination half-life is approximately 17.6 hours, suggesting that the erythrocyte mass may be a compartment of distribution.
Specific Populations: Renal Impairment: Saxagliptin: A single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin (10 mg dose) in subjects with varying degrees of chronic renal impairment compared to subjects with normal renal function. The 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage. The degree of renal impairment did not affect Cmax of saxagliptin or its metabolite. In subjects with moderate renal impairment with eGFR 30 to less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, severe renal impairment (eGFR 15 to less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and ESRD patient on hemodialysis, the AUC values of saxagliptin or its active metabolite were >2 fold higher than AUC values in subjects with normal renal function.
Metformin hydrochloride: In patients with decreased renal function, the plasma and blood half-life of metformin is prolonged and the renal clearance is decreased [see Contraindications and Precautions].
Hepatic Impairment: No pharmacokinetic studies of metformin have been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment.
Body Mass Index: Saxagliptin: No dosage adjustment is recommended based on body mass index (BMI) which was not identified as a significant covariate on the apparent clearance of saxagliptin or its active metabolite in the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Gender: Saxagliptin: No dosage adjustment is recommended based on gender. There were no differences observed in saxagliptin pharmacokinetics between males and females. Compared to males, females had approximately 25% higher exposure values for the active metabolite than males, but this difference is unlikely to be of clinical relevance. Gender was not identified as a significant covariate on the apparent clearance of saxagliptin and its active metabolite in the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ significantly between healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes when analyzed according to gender (males=19, females=16). Similarly, in controlled clinical studies in patients with type 2 diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin was comparable in males and females.
Geriatric: Saxagliptin: No dosage adjustment is recommended based on age alone. Elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) had 23% and 59% higher geometric mean Cmax and geometric mean AUC values, respectively, for saxagliptin than young subjects (18-40 years of age). Differences in active metabolite pharmacokinetics between elderly and young subjects generally reflected the differences observed in saxagliptin pharmacokinetics. The difference between the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and the active metabolite in young and elderly subjects is likely due to multiple factors including declining renal function and metabolic capacity with increasing age. Age was not identified as a significant covariate on the apparent clearance of saxagliptin and its active metabolite in the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Metformin hydrochloride: Limited data from controlled pharmacokinetic studies of metformin in healthy elderly subjects suggest that total plasma clearance of metformin is decreased, the half-life is prolonged, and Cmax is increased, compared to healthy young subjects. From these data, it appears that the change in metformin pharmacokinetics with aging is primarily accounted for by a change in renal function.
Race and Ethnicity: Saxagliptin: No dosage adjustment is recommended based on race. The population pharmacokinetic analysis compared the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite in 309 Caucasian subjects with 105 non-Caucasian subjects (consisting of six racial groups). No significant difference in the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite were detected between these two populations.
Metformin hydrochloride: No studies of metformin pharmacokinetic parameters according to race have been performed. In controlled clinical studies of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect was comparable in Whites (n=249), Blacks (n=51), and Hispanics (n=24).
Drug Interaction Studies: Specific pharmacokinetic drug interaction studies with KOMBIGLYZE XR have not been performed, although such studies have been conducted with the individual saxagliptin and metformin components.
In Vitro Assessment of Drug Interactions: In in vitro studies, saxagliptin and its active metabolite did not inhibit CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, or 3A4, or induce CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, or 3A4. Therefore, saxagliptin is not expected to alter the metabolic clearance of coadministered drugs that are metabolized by these enzymes. Saxagliptin is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, but is not a significant inhibitor or inducer of P-gp.
In Vivo Assessment of Drug Interactions: See Table 10, Table 11, Table 12 and Table 13.

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Toxicology: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: KOMBIGLYZE XR: No animal studies have been conducted with the combined products in KOMBIGLYZE XR to evaluate carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility. The following data are based on the findings in the studies with saxagliptin and metformin individually.
Saxagliptin: Carcinogenesis: Carcinogenicity was evaluated in 2-year studies conducted in CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Saxagliptin did not increase the incidence of tumors in mice dosed orally at 50, 250, and 600 mg/kg up to 870-times (males) and 1165-times (females) the 5 mg/day clinical dose, based on AUC. Saxagliptin did not increase the incidence of tumors in rats dosed orally at 25, 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg up to 355-times (males) and 2217-times (females) the 5 mg/day clinical dose, based on AUC.
Mutagenesis: Saxagliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of genotoxicity tests (Ames bacterial mutagenesis, human and rat lymphocyte cytogenetics, rat bone marrow micronucleus and DNA repair assays). The active metabolite of saxagliptin was not mutagenic in an Ames bacterial assay.
Impairment of Fertility: Saxagliptin administered to rats had no effect on fertility or the ability to maintain a litter at exposures up to 603-times and 776-times the 5 mg clinical dose in males and females, based on AUC.
Metformin hydrochloride: Carcinogenesis: Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are both approximately 4 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg/day.
Mutagenesis: There was no evidence of a mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test (S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative.
Impairment of Fertility: Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparisons.
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology: Saxagliptin: Saxagliptin produced adverse skin changes in the extremities of cynomolgus monkeys (scabs and/or ulceration of tail, digits, scrotum, and/or nose). Skin lesions were reversible within exposure approximately 20-times the 5 mg clinical dose, but in some cases were irreversible and necrotizing at higher exposures. Adverse skin changes were not observed at exposures similar to (1- to 3-times) the 5 mg clinical dose. Clinical correlates to skin lesions in monkeys have not been observed in human clinical trials of saxagliptin.
Indications/Uses
KOMBIGLYZE XR is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both saxagliptin and metformin is appropriate. [see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies under Actions].
Limitations of Use: KOMBIGLYZE XR is not indicated for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Recommended Dosage: The dosage of KOMBIGLYZE XR should be individualized on the basis of the patient's current regimen, effectiveness, and tolerability. KOMBIGLYZE XR should generally be administered once daily with the evening meal, with gradual dose titration to reduce the gastrointestinal side effects associated with metformin. The following dosage forms are available: KOMBIGLYZE XR (saxagliptin and metformin HCl extended-release) tablets 5 mg/500 mg; KOMBIGLYZE XR (saxagliptin and metformin HCl extended-release) tablets 5 mg/1000 mg; KOMBIGLYZE XR (saxagliptin and metformin HCl extended-release) tablets 2.5 mg/1000 mg.
The recommended starting dose of KOMBIGLYZE XR in patients who need 5 mg of saxagliptin and who are not currently treated with metformin is 5 mg saxagliptin/500 mg metformin extended-release once daily with gradual dose escalation to reduce the gastrointestinal side effects due to metformin.
In patients treated with metformin, the dosage of KOMBIGLYZE XR should provide metformin at the dose already being taken, or the nearest therapeutically appropriate dose. Following a switch from metformin immediate-release to metformin extended-release, glycemic control should be closely monitored and dosage adjustments made accordingly.
Patients who need 2.5 mg saxagliptin in combination with metformin extended-release may be treated with KOMBIGLYZE XR 2.5 mg/1000 mg. Patients who need 2.5 mg saxagliptin who are either metformin naive or who require a dose of metformin higher than 1000 mg should use the individual components.
The maximum daily recommended dosage is 5 mg for saxagliptin and 2000 mg for metformin extended-release.
No studies have been performed specifically examining the safety and efficacy of KOMBIGLYZE XR in patients previously treated with other antihyperglycemic medications and switched to KOMBIGLYZE XR. Any change in therapy of type 2 diabetes should be undertaken with care and appropriate monitoring as changes in glycemic control can occur.
Inform patients that KOMBIGLYZE XR tablets must be swallowed whole and never crushed, cut, or chewed. Occasionally, the inactive ingredients of KOMBIGLYZE XR will be eliminated in the feces as a soft, hydrated mass that may resemble the original tablet.
Dosage Adjustments with Concomitant Use of Strong CYP3A4/5 Inhibitors: The maximum recommended dosage of saxagliptin is 2.5 mg once daily when coadministered with strong cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5) inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and telithromycin). For these patients, limit the KOMBIGLYZE XR dosage to 2.5 mg/1000 mg once daily [see Pharmacology under Actions, Dosage & Administration and Interactions].
Recommendations for Dosing and Administration in Renal Impairment: Assess renal function prior to initiation of KOMBIGLYZE XR and periodically thereafter.
KOMBIGLYZE XR is contraindicated in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2.
Initiation of KOMBIGLYZE XR in patients with an eGFR between 30 - 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2 is not recommended.
In patients taking KOMBIGLYZE XR whose eGFR later falls below 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2, assess the benefit risk of continuing therapy and limit dose of the saxagliptin component to 2.5 mg once daily.
Discontinue KOMBIGLYZE XR if the patient's eGFR later falls below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 [see Contraindications and Precautions].
Discontinuation for Iodinated Contrast Imaging Procedures: Discontinue KOMBIGLYZE XR at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; a history of liver disease, alcoholism or heart failure; or in any patient who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart KOMBIGLYZE XR if renal function is stable [see Precautions].
Overdosage
Saxagliptin: In a controlled clinical trial, once-daily, orally-administered saxagliptin in healthy subjects at doses up to 400 mg daily for 2 weeks (80 times the MRHD) had no dose-related clinical adverse reactions and no clinically meaningful effect on QTc interval or heart rate.
In the event of an overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated as dictated by the patient's clinical status. Saxagliptin and its active metabolite are removed by hemodialysis (23% of dose over 4 hours).
Metformin hydrochloride: Overdose of metformin hydrochloride has occurred, including ingestion of amounts greater than 50 grams. Hypoglycemia was reported in approximately 10% of cases, but no causal association with metformin hydrochloride has been established. Lactic acidosis has been reported in approximately 32% of metformin overdosage cases (see Precautions). Metformin is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, hemodialysis may be useful for removal of accumulated drug from patients in whom metformin overdosage is suspected.
Contraindications
KOMBIGLYZE XR is contraindicated in patients with: Severe renal impairment (eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2).
Hypersensitivity to metformin hydrochloride.
Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin.
History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to KOMBIGLYZE XR or saxagliptin, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, or exfoliative skin conditions. [see Precautions and Adverse Reactions].
Special Precautions
Lactic Acidosis: There have been post-marketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis.
Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk.
If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of KOMBIGLYZE XR.
In KOMBIGLYZE XR-treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to 170 mL/minute under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery.
Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to discontinue KOMBIGLYZE XR and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider.
For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided as follows: Renal Impairment: The post-marketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient's renal function include [see Pharmacology under Actions]: Before initiating KOMBIGLYZE XR, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
KOMBIGLYZE XR is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 [see Contraindications].
Initiation of KOMBIGLYZE XR is not recommended in patients with eGFR between 30 and 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2.
Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking KOMBIGLYZE XR. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently.
In patients taking KOMBIGLYZE XR whose eGFR later falls below 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2, assess the benefit and risk of continuing therapy.
Drug Interactions: The concomitant use of KOMBIGLYZE XR with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation [see Interactions]. Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients.
Age 65 or Greater: The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient's age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Use in Elderly as follows].
Radiological Studies with Contrast: Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop KOMBIGLYZE XR at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart KOMBIGLYZE XR if renal function is stable.
Surgery and Other Procedures: Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension and renal impairment. KOMBIGLYZE XR should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake.
Hypoxic States: Several of the post-marketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Excessive Alcohol Intake: Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and this may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Hepatic Impairment: Patients with hepatic impairment have developed with cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of KOMBIGLYZE XR in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.
Pancreatitis: There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis in patients taking saxagliptin. In a cardiovascular outcomes trial enrolling participants with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or multiple risk factors for ASCVD (SAVOR trial), cases of definite acute pancreatitis were confirmed in 17 of 8240 (0.2%) patients receiving saxagliptin compared to 9 of 8173 (0.1%) receiving placebo. Pre-existing risk factors for pancreatitis were identified in 88% (15/17) of those patients receiving saxagliptin and in 100% (9/9) of those patients receiving placebo.
After initiation of KOMBIGLYZE XR, observe patients for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue KOMBIGLYZE XR and initiate appropriate management. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Heart Failure: In a cardiovascular outcomes trial enrolling participants with established ASCVD or multiple risk factors for ASCVD (SAVOR trial), more patients randomized to saxagliptin (289/8280, 3.5%) were hospitalized for heart failure compared to patients randomized to placebo (228/8212, 2.8%). In a time-to-first-event analysis the risk of hospitalization for heart failure was higher in the saxagliptin group (estimated Hazard Ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.51). Subjects with a prior history of heart failure and subjects with renal impairment had a higher risk for hospitalization for heart failure, irrespective of treatment assignment.
Consider the risks and benefits of KOMBIGLYZE XR prior to initiating treatment in patients at a higher risk for heart failure. Observe patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Advise patients of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure, and to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Vitamin B12 Concentrations: In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29-week duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on KOMBIGLYZE XR and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed [see Adverse Reactions].
Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurements at 2- to 3-year intervals may be useful.
Change in Clinical Status of Patients with Previously Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: A patient with type 2 diabetes previously well-controlled on KOMBIGLYZE XR who develops laboratory abnormalities or clinical illness (especially vague and poorly defined illness) should be evaluated promptly for evidence of ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. Evaluation should include serum electrolytes and ketones, blood glucose and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. If acidosis of either form occurs, KOMBIGLYZE XR must be stopped immediately and other appropriate corrective measures initiated.
Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Sulfonylurea or Insulin: Saxagliptin: When saxagliptin was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, medications known to cause hypoglycemia, the incidence of confirmed hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin [see Adverse Reactions]. Therefore, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with KOMBIGLYZE XR [see Dosage & Administration].
Metformin hydrochloride: Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents (such as sulfonylureas and insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated, or malnourished patients and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly and in people who are taking beta-adrenergic blocking drugs.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: There have been post-marketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with saxagliptin. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with saxagliptin, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue KOMBIGLYZE XR, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes [see Adverse Reactions].
Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema to another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Severe and Disabling Arthralgia: There have been post-marketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP4 inhibitor. Consider DPP4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
Bullous Pemphigoid: Post-marketing cases of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use. In reported cases, patients typically recovered with topical or systemic immunosuppressive treatment and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving KOMBIGLYZE XR. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, KOMBIGLYZE XR should be discontinued and referral to a dermatologist should be considered for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Macrovascular Outcomes: There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Renal Impairment: Saxagliptin: In a 12-week randomized placebo-controlled trial, saxagliptin 2.5 mg was administered to 85 subjects with moderate (n=48) or severe (n=18) renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (n=19) [see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies under Actions]. The incidence of adverse events, including serious adverse events and discontinuations due to adverse events, was similar between saxagliptin and placebo. The overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 20% among subjects treated with saxagliptin 2.5 mg and 22% among subjects treated with placebo. Four saxagliptin-treated subjects (4.7%) and three placebo-treated subjects (3.5%) reported at least one episode of confirmed symptomatic hypoglycemia (accompanying fingerstick glucose ≤50 mg/dL).
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment. KOMBIGLYZE XR is contraindicated in severe renal impairment, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Dosage & Administration, Contraindications, and Precautions and Pharmacology under Actions].
Hepatic Impairment: Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. KOMBIGLYZE XR is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment [see Precautions].
Use in Children: Safety and effectiveness of KOMBIGLYZE XR in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established. Additionally, studies characterizing the pharmacokinetics of KOMBIGLYZE XR in pediatric patients have not been performed.
Use in Elderly: KOMBIGLYZE XR: Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function. Assess renal function more frequently in the elderly [see Precautions and Pharmacology under Actions].
Saxagliptin: In the seven, double-blind, controlled clinical safety and efficacy trials of saxagliptin, a total of 4751 (42.0%) of the 11301 patients randomized to saxagliptin were 65 years and over, and 1210 (10.7%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects ≥65 years old and younger subjects. While this clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Metformin hydrochloride: Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and young patients. Metformin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Contraindications, Precautions, and Pharmacology under Actions].
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: Risk Summary: Limited available data with KOMBIGLYZE XR or saxagliptin in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data as follows].
No adverse developmental effects independent of maternal toxicity were observed when saxagliptin and metformin were administered separately or in combination to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis [see Data as follows].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6 to 10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1c greater than 7 and has been reported to be as high as 20 to 25% in women with an HbA1c greater than 10.
The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Clinical Considerations: Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk: Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Data: Animal Data: Saxagliptin: In embryo-fetal development studies, saxagliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis, corresponding to the first trimester of human pregnancy. No adverse developmental effects were observed in either species at exposures 1503-and 152-times the 5 mg clinical dose in rats and rabbits, respectively, based on AUC. Saxagliptin crosses the placenta into the fetus following dosing in pregnant rats.
In a prenatal and postnatal development study, no adverse developmental effects were observed in maternal rats administered saxagliptin from gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 at exposures up to 470-times the 5 mg clinical dose, based on AUC.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin hydrochloride did not cause adverse developmental effect when administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits up to 600 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. This represents an exposure of about 2-and 6-times a 2000 mg clinical dose based on body surface area (mg/m2) for rats and rabbits, respectively.
Saxagliptin and Metformin: Saxagliptin and metformin coadministered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis did not result in adverse developmental effects considered clinically relevant in either species. Doses tested in rats provided exposure up to 100-and 10-times clinical exposure, and doses tested in rabbits provided exposure up to 249-and 1-times clinical exposure relative to the clinical dose of 5 mg saxagliptin and 2000 mg metformin. Minor skeletal abnormalities associated with maternal toxicity were observed in rats. In rabbits, coadministration was poorly tolerated in a subset of mothers (12 of 30), resulting in death, moribundity, or abortion. However, among surviving mothers with evaluable litters, maternal toxicity was limited to marginal reductions in body weight over the course of gestation days 21 to 29, associated with fetal body weight decrements of 7%, and a low incidence of delayed ossification of the fetal hyoid bone.
Lactation: Risk Summary: There is no information regarding the presence of KOMBIGLYZE XR or saxagliptin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data as follows]. However, there is insufficient information on the effects of metformin on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of metformin on milk production. Saxagliptin is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data as follows].
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for KOMBIGLYZE XR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from KOMBIGLYZE XR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Data: Human: Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants.
Animals: No studies in lactating animals have been conducted with the combined components of KOMBIGLYZE XR. In studies performed with the individual components, both saxagliptin and metformin are secreted in the milk of lactating rats. Saxagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at approximately a 1:1 ratio with plasma drug concentrations.
Adverse Reactions
The following serious adverse reactions are described as follows or elsewhere in the prescribing information: Pancreatitis [see Precautions]; Heart Failure [see Precautions]; Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Sulfonylurea or Insulin [see Precautions]; Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Precautions]; Severe and disabling arthralgia [see Precautions]; Bullous pemphigoid [see Precautions].
Clinical Trials Experience: Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Adverse Reactions in Efficacy Trials: Metformin Hydrochloride: In placebo-controlled monotherapy trials of metformin extended-release, diarrhea and nausea/vomiting were reported in >5% of metformin-treated patients and more commonly than in placebo-treated patients (9.6% versus 2.6% for diarrhea and 6.5% versus 1.5% for nausea/vomiting). Diarrhea led to discontinuation of study medication in 0.6% of the patients treated with metformin extended-release.
Saxagliptin: The data in Table 14 are derived from a pool of 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials [see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies under Actions]. These data shown in the table reflect exposure of 882 patients to saxagliptin and a mean duration of exposure to saxagliptin of 21 weeks. The mean age of these patients was 55 years, 1.4% were 75 years or older and 48.4% were male. The population was 67.5% White, 4.6% Black or African American, 17.4% Asian, Other 10.5% and 9.8% were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. At baseline the population had diabetes for an average of 5.2 years and a mean HbA1c of 8.2%. Baseline estimated renal function was normal or mildly impaired (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 91% of these patients.
Table 14 shows common adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, associated with the use of saxagliptin. These adverse reactions occurred more commonly on saxagliptin than on placebo and occurred in at least 5% of patients treated with saxagliptin. (See Table 14.)

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In patients treated with saxagliptin 2.5 mg, headache (6.5%) was the only adverse reaction reported at a rate ≥5% and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo.
In the add-on to TZD trial, the incidence of peripheral edema was higher for saxagliptin 5 mg versus placebo (8.1% and 4.3%, respectively). The incidence of peripheral edema for saxagliptin 2.5 mg was 3.1%. None of the reported adverse reactions of peripheral edema resulted in study drug discontinuation. Rates of peripheral edema for saxagliptin 2.5 mg and saxagliptin 5 mg versus placebo were 3.6% and 2% versus 3% given as monotherapy, 2.1% and 2.1% versus 2.2% given as add-on therapy to metformin, and 2.4% and 1.2% versus 2.2% given as add-on therapy to glyburide.
The incidence rate of fractures was 1.0 and 0.6 per 100 patient-years, respectively, for saxagliptin (pooled analysis of 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg) and placebo. The 10 mg saxagliptin dosage is not an approved dosage. The incidence rate of fracture events in patients who received saxagliptin did not increase over time. Causality has not been established and nonclinical studies have not demonstrated adverse effects of saxagliptin on bone.
An event of thrombocytopenia, consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, was observed in the clinical program. The relationship of this event to saxagliptin is not known.
Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse reactions occurred in 2.2%, 3.3%, and 1.8% of subjects receiving saxagliptin 2.5 mg, saxagliptin 5 mg, and placebo, respectively. The most common adverse reactions (reported in at least 2 subjects treated with saxagliptin 2.5 mg or at least 2 subjects treated with saxagliptin 5 mg) associated with premature discontinuation of therapy included lymphopenia (0.1% and 0.5% versus 0%, respectively), rash (0.2% and 0.3% versus 0.3%), blood creatinine increased (0.3% and 0% versus 0%), and blood creatine phosphokinase increased (0.1% and 0.2% versus 0%).
Adverse Reactions with Concomitant Use with Insulin: In the add-on to insulin trial [see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies under Actions] the incidence of adverse events, including serious adverse events and discontinuations due to adverse events, was similar between saxagliptin and placebo, except for confirmed hypoglycemia [see Adverse Reactions].
Adverse Reactions Associated with Saxagliptin Coadministered with Metformin Immediate-Release in Treatment-Naive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Table 15 shows the adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients participating in an additional 24-week, active-controlled trial of coadministered saxagliptin and metformin in treatment-naive patients. (See Table 15.)

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In patients treated with the combination of saxagliptin and metformin immediate-release, either as saxagliptin add-on to metformin immediate-release therapy or as coadministration in treatment-naive patients, diarrhea was the only gastrointestinal-related event that occurred with an incidence ≥5% in any treatment group in both studies. In the saxagliptin add-on to metformin immediate-release trial, the incidence of diarrhea was 9.9%, 5.8%, and 11.2% in the saxagliptin 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and placebo groups, respectively. When saxagliptin and metformin immediate-release were coadministered in treatment-naive patients, the incidence of diarrhea was 6.9% in the saxagliptin 5 mg + metformin immediate-release group and 7.3% in the placebo + metformin immediate-release group.
Hypoglycemia:
In the saxagliptin clinical trials, adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of hypoglycemia. A concurrent glucose measurement was not required or was normal in some patients. Therefore, it is not possible to conclusively determine that all these reports reflect true hypoglycemia.
The incidence of reported hypoglycemia for saxagliptin 2.5 mg and saxagliptin 5 mg versus placebo given as monotherapy was 4% and 5.6% versus 4.1%, respectively. In the add-on to metformin immediate-release trial, the incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 7.8% with saxagliptin 2.5 mg, 5.8% with saxagliptin 5 mg, and 5% with placebo. When saxagliptin and metformin immediate-release were coadministered in treatment-naive patients, the incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 3.4% in patients given saxagliptin 5 mg + metformin immediate-release and 4% in patients given placebo + metformin immediate-release.
In the active-controlled trial comparing add-on therapy with saxagliptin 5 mg to glipizide in patients inadequately controlled on metformin alone, the incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 3% (19 events in 13 patients) with saxagliptin 5 mg versus 36.3% (750 events in 156 patients) with glipizide. Confirmed symptomatic hypoglycemia (accompanying fingerstick blood glucose ≤50 mg/dL) was reported in none of the saxagliptin-treated patients and in 35 glipizide treated patients (8.1%) (p<0.0001).
In the saxagliptin add-on to insulin trial, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 18.4% for saxagliptin 5 mg and 19.9% for placebo. However, the incidence of confirmed symptomatic hypoglycemia (accompanying fingerstick blood glucose ≤50 mg/dL) was higher with saxagliptin 5 mg (5.3%) versus placebo (3.3%). Among the patients using insulin in combination with metformin, the incidence of confirmed symptomatic hypoglycemia was 4.8% with saxagliptin versus 1.9% with placebo.
In the saxagliptin add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea trial, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 10.1% for saxagliptin 5 mg and 6.3% for placebo. Confirmed hypoglycemia was reported in 1.6% of the saxagliptin-treated and in none of the placebo-treated patients [see Precautions].
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Saxagliptin: Hypersensitivity-related events, such as urticaria and facial edema in the 5-study pooled analysis up to Week 24 were reported in 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.4% of patients who received saxagliptin 2.5 mg, saxagliptin 5 mg, and placebo, respectively. None of these events in patients who received saxagliptin required hospitalization or were reported as life-threatening by the investigators. One saxagliptin-treated patient in this pooled analysis discontinued due to generalized urticaria and facial edema.
Renal Impairment: In the SAVOR trial, adverse reactions related to renal impairment, including laboratory changes (i.e., doubling of serum creatinine compared with baseline and serum creatinine >6 mg/dL), were reported in 5.8% (483/8280) of saxagliptin-treated subjects and 5.1% (422/8212) of placebo-treated subjects. The most frequently reported adverse reactions included renal impairment (2.1% vs. 1.9%), acute renal failure (1.4% vs. 1.2%), and renal failure (0.8% vs. 0.9%), in the saxagliptin versus placebo groups, respectively. From baseline to the end of treatment, there was a mean decrease in eGFR of 2.5 mL/min/1.73m2 for saxagliptin-treated patients and a mean decrease of 2.4 mL/min/1.73m2 for placebo-treated patients. More subjects randomized to saxagliptin (421/5227, 8.1%) compared to subjects randomized to placebo (344/5073, 6.8%) had downward shifts in eGFR from >50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (i.e., normal or mild renal impairment) to ≤50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (i.e., moderate or severe renal impairment). The proportions of subjects with renal adverse reactions increased with worsening baseline renal function and increased age, regardless of treatment assignment.
Infections:
Saxagliptin: In the unblinded, controlled, clinical trial database for saxagliptin to date, there have been 6 (0.12%) reports of tuberculosis among the 4959 saxagliptin-treated patients (1.1 per 1000 patient-years) compared to no reports of tuberculosis among the 2868 comparator-treated patients. Two of these six cases were confirmed with laboratory testing. The remaining cases had limited information or had presumptive diagnoses of tuberculosis. None of the six cases occurred in the United States or in Western Europe. One case occurred in Canada in a patient originally from Indonesia who had recently visited Indonesia. The duration of treatment with saxagliptin until report of tuberculosis ranged from 144 to 929 days. Post-treatment lymphocyte counts were consistently within the reference range for four cases. One patient had lymphopenia prior to initiation of saxagliptin that remained stable throughout saxagliptin treatment. The final patient had an isolated lymphocyte count below normal approximately four months prior to the report of tuberculosis. There have been no spontaneous reports of tuberculosis associated with saxagliptin use. Causality has not been established and there are too few cases to date to determine whether tuberculosis is related to saxagliptin use.
There has been one case of a potential opportunistic infection in the unblinded, controlled clinical trial database to date in a saxagliptin-treated patient who developed suspected foodborne fatal salmonella sepsis after approximately 600 days of saxagliptin therapy. There have been no spontaneous reports of opportunistic infections associated with saxagliptin use.
Vital Signs: Saxagliptin: No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs have been observed in patients treated with saxagliptin alone or in combination with metformin.
Laboratory Tests:
Absolute Lymphocyte Counts: Saxagliptin: There was a dose-related mean decrease in absolute lymphocyte count observed with saxagliptin. From a baseline mean absolute lymphocyte count of approximately 2200 cells/microL, mean decreases of approximately 100 and 120 cells/microL with saxagliptin 5 mg and 10 mg, respectively, relative to placebo were observed at 24 weeks in a pooled analysis of five placebo-controlled clinical studies. Similar effects were observed when saxagliptin 5 mg and metformin were coadministered in treatment-naive patients compared to placebo and metformin. There was no difference observed for saxagliptin 2.5 mg relative to placebo. The proportion of patients who were reported to have a lymphocyte count ≤750 cells/microL was 0.5%, 1.5%, 1.4%, and 0.4% in the saxagliptin 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, and placebo groups, respectively. In most patients, recurrence was not observed with repeated exposure to saxagliptin although some patients had recurrent decreases upon rechallenge that led to discontinuation of saxagliptin. The decreases in lymphocyte count were not associated with clinically relevant adverse reactions. The 10 mg saxagliptin dosage is not an approved dosage.
The clinical significance of this decrease in lymphocyte count relative to placebo is not known. When clinically indicated, such as in settings of unusual or prolonged infection, lymphocyte count should be measured. The effect of saxagliptin on lymphocyte counts in patients with lymphocyte abnormalities (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus) is unknown.
Vitamin B12 Concentrations: Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin may lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on KOMBIGLYZE XR and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed [see Precautions].
Post-Marketing Experience: Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Saxagliptin: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions [see Contraindications and Precautions].
Pancreatitis [see Precautions].
Severe and disabling arthralgia [see Precautions].
Bullous pemphigoid [see Precautions].
Metformin hydrochloride: Cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury.
Drug Interactions
Strong Inhibitors of CYP3A4/5 Enzymes: Ketoconazole significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Similar significant increases in plasma concentrations of saxagliptin are anticipated with other strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors (e.g., atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and telithromycin). The dose of saxagliptin should be limited to 2.5 mg when co-administered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor [see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology under Actions].
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) frequently causes a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with KOMBIGLYZE XR may increase the risk for lactic acidosis.
Drugs that Reduce Metformin Clearance: Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2] / multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis [see Pharmacology under Actions]. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use.
Alcohol: Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Insulin Secretagogues or Insulin: In the saxagliptin add-on to sulfonylurea, add-on to insulin, and add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea trials, confirmed hypoglycemia was reported more commonly in patients treated with saxagliptin compared to placebo. When used with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia.
Use with Other Drugs: Some medications can predispose to hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These medications include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blockers, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving KOMBIGLYZE XR, the patient should be closely observed for loss of glycemic control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving KOMBIGLYZE XR, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia.
Storage
Store below 30°C.
Patient Counseling Information
Medication Guide: Healthcare providers should instruct their patients to read the Patient Package Insert before starting KOMBIGLYZE XR therapy and to reread it each time the prescription is renewed. Patients should be instructed to inform their healthcare provider if they develop any unusual symptom or if any existing symptom persists or worsens.
Patients should be informed of the potential risks and benefits of KOMBIGLYZE XR and of alternative modes of therapy. Patients should also be informed about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, regular physical activity, periodic blood glucose monitoring and A1C testing, recognition and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and assessment of diabetes complications. During periods of stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, medication requirements may change and patients should be advised to seek medical advice promptly.
Lactic Acidosis: The risks of lactic acidosis due to the metformin component, its symptoms and conditions that predispose to its development, as noted in Precautions, should be explained to patients. Patients should be advised to discontinue KOMBIGLYZE XR immediately and to promptly notify their healthcare provider if unexplained hyperventilation, myalgia, malaise, unusual somnolence, dizziness, slow or irregular heartbeat, sensation of feeling cold (especially in the extremities), or other nonspecific symptoms occur. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common during initiation of metformin treatment and may occur during initiation of KOMBIGLYZE XR therapy; however, patients should consult their physician if they develop unexplained symptoms. Although gastrointestinal symptoms that occur after stabilization are unlikely to be drug related, such an occurrence of symptoms should be evaluated to determine if it may be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
Patients should be counseled against excessive alcohol intake while receiving KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Patients should be informed about the importance of regular testing of renal function and hematological parameters when receiving treatment with KOMBIGLYZE XR.
Instruct patients to inform their doctor that they are taking KOMBIGLYZE XR prior to any surgical or radiological procedure, as temporary discontinuation of KOMBIGLYZE XR may be required until renal function has been confirmed to be normal [see Precautions].
Pancreatitis: Patients should be informed that acute pancreatitis has been reported during postmarketing use of saxagliptin. Before initiating KOMBIGLYZE XR, patients should be questioned about other risk factors for pancreatitis, such as a history of pancreatitis, alcoholism, gallstones, or hypertriglyceridemia. Patients should also be informed that persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be instructed to promptly discontinue KOMBIGLYZE XR and contact their healthcare provider if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs [see Precautions].
Heart Failure: Patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of heart failure. Before initiating KOMBIGLYZE XR, patients should be asked about a history of heart failure or other risk factors for heart failure including moderate to severe renal impairment. Patients should be instructed to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible if they experience symptoms of heart failure, including increasing shortness of breath, rapid increase in weight or swelling of the feet [see Precautions].
Hypoglycemia: Patients should be informed that the incidence of hypoglycemia may be increased when KOMBIGLYZE XR is added to an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Patients should be informed that serious allergic (hypersensitivity) reactions, such as angioedema, anaphylaxis, and exfoliative skin conditions, have been reported during post-marketing use of saxagliptin. If symptoms of these allergic reactions (such as rash, skin flaking or peeling, urticaria, swelling of the skin, or swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients must stop taking KOMBIGLYZE XR and seek medical advice promptly.
Severe and Disabling Arthralgia: Inform patients that severe and disabling joint pain may occur with this class of drugs. The time to onset of symptoms can range from one day to years. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if severe joint pain occurs [see Precautions].
Bullous Pemphigoid: Inform patients that bullous pemphigoid may occur with this class of drugs. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if blisters or erosions occur [see Precautions].
Administration Instructions: Patients should be informed that KOMBIGLYZE XR must be swallowed whole and not crushed or chewed, and that the inactive ingredients may occasionally be eliminated in the feces as a soft mass that may resemble the original tablet.
Missed Dose: Patients should be informed that if they miss a dose of KOMBIGLYZE XR, they should take the next dose as prescribed, unless otherwise instructed by their healthcare provider. Patients should be instructed not to take an extra dose the next day.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
A10BD10 - metformin and saxagliptin ; Belongs to the class of combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
5 mg/500 mg FC tab (light brown to brown, biconvex, capsule-shaped, with "5/500" printed on one side and "4221" printed on the reverse side, in blue ink) x 28's. 2.5 mg/1,000 mg FC tab (pale yellow to light yellow, biconvex, capsule-shaped, with "2.5/1000" printed on one side and "4222" printed on the reverse side, in blue ink) x 56's. 5 mg/1,000 mg FC tab (pink, biconvex, capsule-shaped, with "5/1000" printed on one side and "4223" printed on the reverse side, in blue ink) x 28's.
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