Accidental ingestion may produce systemic effects related to the vasodilatory action of minoxidil. Signs and symptoms of drug overdosage would most likely be cardiovascular effects associated with fluid retention, lowered blood pressure and tachycardia. Fluid retention can be managed with appropriate diuretic therapy. Tachycardia can be controlled by administration of a β-adrenergic blocking agent. Symptomatic hypotension should be treated by intravenous administration of normal saline. Sympathomimetic drugs, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine, should be avoided because of their excessive cardiac stimulating activity.