Adult: Initially, 200 mg daily as single dose in the morning or in 2 divided doses in the morning and at noon. Doses up to 400 mg daily in 1 or in 2 divided doses may be given if response is insufficient. Elderly: Initially, 100 mg daily.
Oral Shift-work sleep disorder
Adult: 200 mg daily as single dose approx 1 hour prior to start of work shift. Elderly: Initially, 100 mg daily.
Special Patient Group
Certain TCAs (e.g. clomipramine, desipramine) and SSRIs are primarily metabolised by CYP2D6 and have ancillary routes of elimination through CYP2C19. Modafinil may affect the pharmacokinetics of CYP2D6 substrates in patients with CYP2D6 gene polymorphism.
FDA-approved drug label for modafinil states that the levels of CYP2D6 substrates may be increased when co-administered with modafinil in patients who are deficient in CYP2D6 enzyme (poor metabolisers). The frequency of this phenotype may vary in different ethnic backgrounds. For example, the prevalence of CYP2D6 poor metabolisers is 7-10% in Caucasians which may be similar or lower in other populations. Product guidelines recommend dose adjustments for TCAs, SSRIs and drugs which are CYP2C19 substrates when used concomitantly with modafinil.
Severe: Reduce recommended dose to half.
May be taken with or without food.
Uncontrolled moderate to severe hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias. Pregnancy.
Patients with history of psychiatric disorders (e.g. psychosis, depression, mania, major anxiety, agitation, insomnia), alcohol, drug or illicit substance abuse; CV disease (e.g. recent history of MI, unstable angina, coronary artery disease). Hepatic or renal impairment. Elderly. Lactation. Not recommended in patients with a history of left ventricular hypertrophy or cor pulmonale, and in patients with mitral valve prolapse induced by previous CNS stimulant use.
Significant: Onset or worsening of anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, confusion, agitation, depression, suicide-related behaviour, psychotic or manic symptoms, aggressive or hostile behaviour, chest pain, palpitations, dyspnoea. Cardiac disorders: Tachycardia. Eye disorders: Blurred vision. Gastrointestinal disorders: Abdominal pain, nausea, dry mouth, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, constipation. General disorders and administration site conditions: Back pain. Immune system disorders: Angioedema. Investigations: Abnormal liver function test. Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Decreased appetite. Nervous system disorders: Headache, dizziness, paraesthesia. Psychiatric disorders: Hallucinations, delusions, somnolence. Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Rhinitis, pharyngitis. Vascular disorders: Vasodilation, hypertension. Potentially Fatal: Rarely, multi-organ hypersensitivity reactions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms.
Altered plasma concentrations with CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. carbamazepine, phenobarbital, rifampicin) and CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole). Decreased clearance of phenytoin, warfarin, diazepam, propranolol, omeprazole. Reduced effectiveness of steroidal contraceptives.
Description: Modafinil is a central stimulant that selectively inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline. Although its exact mechanism of action is unclear, it appears to exert its stimulant effects by reducing GABA-mediated neurotransmission. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Time to peak plasma concentration: 2-4 hours. Distribution: Volume of distribution: 0.9 L/kg. Plasma protein binding: Approx 60%, mainly to albumin. Metabolism: Partially metabolised in the liver by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes to form 2 major metabolites, acid modafinil and modafinil sulfone (both inactive). Excretion: Via urine (80% as metabolites, <10% as unchanged drug); faeces (1%). Elimination half-life: Approx 15 hours.
N06BA07 - modafinil ; Belongs to the class of centrally-acting sympathomimetics. Used as CNS stimulant.
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