The use of moxifloxacin should be avoided in patients who have experienced serious adverse reactions in the past when using quinolone or fluoroquinolone containing products (see Adverse Reactions). Treatment of these patients with moxifloxacin should only be initiated in the absence of alternative treatment options and after careful benefit/risk assessment.
The benefit of moxifloxacin treatment especially in infections with a low degree of severity should be balanced with the information as follows.
Prolonged, disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse drug reactions: Very rare cases of prolonged (continuing months or years), disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse drug reactions affecting different, sometimes multiple, body systems (musculoskeletal, nervous, psychiatric and senses) have been reported in patients receiving quinolones and fluoroquinolones irrespective of their age and pre-existing risk factors. Moxifloxacin should be discontinued immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any serious adverse reaction and patients should be advised to contact their prescriber for advice.
Prolongation of QTc interval and potentially QTc-prolongation-related clinical conditions: Moxifloxacin has been shown to prolong the QTc interval on the electrocardiogram. Medication that can reduce potassium levels should be used with caution in patients receiving moxifloxacin.
Moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions (especially women and elderly patients), such as acute myocardial ischaemia or QT prolongation as this may lead to an increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias (incl. torsade de pointes) and cardiac arrest. The magnitude of QT prolongation may increase with increasing concentrations of the drug. Therefore, the recommended dose should not be exceeded.
If signs of cardiac arrhythmia occur during treatment with moxifloxacin, treatment should be stopped and an ECG should be performed.
Hypersensitivity/allergic reactions: Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions have been reported for fluoroquinolones including moxifloxacin after first administration. Anaphylactic reactions can progress to a life-threatening shock, even after the first administration. In cases of clinical manifestations of severe hypersensitivity reactions moxifloxacin should be discontinued and suitable treatment (e.g. treatment for shock) initiated.
Severe liver disorders: Cases of fulminant hepatitis potentially leading to liver failure (including fatal cases) have been reported with moxifloxacin. Patients should be advised to contact their doctor prior to continuing treatment if signs and symptoms of fulminant hepatic disease develop such as rapidly developing asthenia associated with jaundice, dark urine, bleeding tendency or hepatic encephalopathy.
Liver function tests/investigations should be performed in cases where indications of liver dysfunction occur.
Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis: Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in person with myasthenia gravis. Post marketing serious adverse events, including deaths and requirement for ventilator support have been associated with fluoroquinolones use in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid fluoroquinolones in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis.
Patients with myasthenia gravis: Moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis because the symptoms can be exacerbated.
Serious bullous skin reactions: Cases of bullous skin reactions like Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported with moxifloxacin. Patients should be advised to contact their doctor immediately prior to continuing treatment if skin and/or mucosal reactions occur.
Patients predisposed to seizures: Quinolones are known to trigger seizures. Use should be with caution in patients with CNS disorders or in the presence of other risk factors which may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold. In case of seizures, treatment with moxifloxacin should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted.
Peripheral neuropathy: Cases of sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy resulting in paraesthesia, hypoaesthesia, dysaesthesia, or weakness have been reported in patients receiving quinolones and fluoroquinolones. Patients under treatment with moxifloxacin should be advised to inform their doctor prior to continuing treatment if symptoms of neuropathy such as pain, burning, tingling, numbness, or weakness develop in order to prevent the development of potentially irreversible condition (see Adverse Reactions).
Psychiatric reactions: Psychiatric reactions may occur even after the first administration of quinolones, including moxifloxacin. In very rare cases depression or psychotic reactions have progressed to suicidal thoughts and self-injurious behaviour such as suicide attempts. In the event that the patient develops these reactions, moxifloxacin should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. Caution is recommended if moxifloxacin is to be used in psychotic patients or in patients with history of psychiatric disease.
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) including toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN: also known as Lyell's syndrome), Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Acute Generalised Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), which could be life-threatening or fatal, have been reported with moxifloxacin. At the time of prescription, patients should be advised of the signs and symptoms of severe skin reactions and be closely monitored. If signs and symptoms suggestive of these reactions appear, moxifloxacin should be discontinued immediately, and an alternative treatment should be considered. If the patient has developed a serious reaction such as SJS, TEN or AGEP with the use of moxifloxacin, treatment with moxifloxacin must not be restarted in this patient at any time.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea incl. colitis: Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and antibiotic-associated colitis (AAC), including pseudomembranous colitis and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea, has been reported in association with the use of broad spectrum antibiotics including moxifloxacin and may range in severity from mild diarrhoea to fatal colitis.
Therefore it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who develop serious diarrhoea during or after the use of moxifloxacin. If AAD or AAC is suspected or confirmed, ongoing treatment with antibacterial agents, including moxifloxacin, should be discontinued and adequate therapeutic measures should be initiated immediately. Furthermore, appropriate infection control measures should be undertaken to reduce the risk of transmission. Drugs inhibiting peristalsis are contraindicated in patients who develop serious diarrhoea.
Tendinitis and tendon rupture: Tendinitis and tendon rupture (especially but not limited to Achilles tendon), sometimes bilateral, may occur as early as within 48 hours of starting treatment with fluoroquinolones and have been reported to occur even up to several months after discontinuation of treatment. The risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in older patients (above 60 years of age), with renal impairment, patients with solid organ transplants, and those treated concurrently with corticosteroids. Therefore, concomitant use of corticosteroids should be avoided.
At the first sign of tendinitis (e.g. painful swelling, inflammation) the treatment with moxifloxacin should be discontinued and alternative treatment should be considered. The affected limb(s) should be appropriately treated (e.g. immobilisation). Corticosteroids should not be used if signs of tendinopathy occur.
Aortic aneurysm and dissection: Epidemiologic studies report an increased risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection after intake of fluoroquinolones, particularly in the older population. Therefore, fluoroquinolones should only be used after careful benefit-risk assessment and after consideration of other therapeutic options in patients with positive family history of aneurysm disease, or in patients diagnosed with pre-existing aortic aneurysm and/or aortic dissection, or in presence of other risk factors or conditions predisposing for aortic aneurysm and dissection (e.g. Marfan syndrome, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behcet's disease, hypertension, known atherosclerosis). In case of sudden abdominal, chest or back pain, patients should be advised to immediately consult a physician in an emergency department.
Vision disorders: If vision becomes impaired or any effects on the eyes are experienced, an eye specialist should be consulted immediately.
Dysglycemia: As with all fluoroquinolones, disturbances in blood glucose, including both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia have been reported with moxifloxacin. In moxifloxacin-treated patients, dysglycemia occurred predominantly in elderly diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycemic agent (e.g. sulfonylurea) or with insulin. Cases of hypoglycaemic coma have been reported. In diabetic patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
Prevention of photosensitivity reactions: Quinolones have been shown to cause photosensitivity reactions in patients. However, studies have shown that moxifloxacin has a lower risk to induce photosensitivity. Nevertheless patients should be advised to avoid exposure to either UV irradiation or extensive and/or strong sunlight during treatment with moxifloxacin.
Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: Patients with a family history of, or actual glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency are prone to haemolytic reactions when treated with quinolones. Therefore, moxifloxacin should be used with caution in these patients.
Patients with pelvic inflammatory disease: For patients with complicated pelvic inflammatory disease (e.g. associated with a tubo-ovarian or pelvic abscess), for whom an intravenous treatment is considered necessary, treatment with Moxifcin F.C. Tablet 400mg is not recommended.
Pelvic inflammatory disease may be caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Therefore in such cases empirical moxifloxacin should be co-administered with another appropriate antibiotic (e.g. a cephalosporin) unless moxifloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be excluded. If clinical improvement is not achieved after 3 days of treatment, the therapy should be reconsidered.
Patients with special cSSSI: Clinical efficacy of intravenous moxifloxacin in the treatment of severe burn infections, fasciitis and diabetic foot infections with osteomyelitis has not been established.
Interference with biological tests: Moxifloxacin therapy may interfere with the Mycobacterium spp. culture test by suppression of mycobacterial growth causing false negative results in samples taken from patients currently receiving moxifloxacin.
Patients with MRSA infections: Moxifloxacin is not recommended for the treatment of MRSA infections. In case of a suspected or confirmed infection due to MRSA, treatment with an appropriate antibacterial agent should be started.
Information about excipients: Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machine: No studies on the effects of moxifloxacin on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.
However, fluoroquinolones including moxifloxacin may result in an impairment of the patient's ability to drive or operate machinery due to CNS reactions (e.g. dizziness; acute, transient loss of vision) or acute and short lasting loss of consciousness (syncope). Patients should be advised to see how they react to moxifloxacin before driving or operating machinery.
Patients with renal impairment: Elderly patients with renal disorders should use moxifloxacin with caution if they are unable to maintain adequate fluid intake, because dehydration may increase the risk of renal failure.
Use in Children: Due to adverse effects on the cartilage in juvenile animals, the use of moxifloxacin in children and adolescents < 18 years is contraindicated.