Each ml contains 3 mg of Adenosine.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Endogenous nucleoside with peripheral vasodilator/antiarrhythmic effect. Antiarrhythmic drug.
Adenosine is a purine nucleoside which is present in all cells of the body. Animal pharmacology studies have in several species shown that Adenosine has a negative dromotropic effect on the atrioventricular (AV) node.
In man Adenosine administered by rapid intravenous injection slows conduction through the AV node. This action can interrupt re-entry circuits involving the AV node and restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Once the circuit has been interrupted, the tachycardia stops and normal sinus rhythm is re-established.
One acute interruption of the circuit is usually sufficient to arrest the tachycardia.
Since atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter do not involve the AV node as part of a re-entry circuit, Adenosine will not terminate these arrhythmias.
By transiently slowing AV conduction, atrial activity is easier to evaluate from ECG recordings and therefore the use of Adenosine can aid the diagnosis of broad or narrow complex tachycardia.
Adenosine may be useful during electrophysiological studies to determine the site of AV block or to determine in some cases of pre-excitation, whether conduction is occurring by an accessory pathway or via the AV node.
Pharmacokinetics: Adenosine is impossible to study via classical ADME protocols. It is present in various forms in all cells of the body where it plays an important role in energy production and utilization systems. An efficient salvage and recycling system exists in the body, primarily in the erythrocytes and blood vessel endothelial cells. The half life in vitro is estimated to be <10 seconds. The in vivo half life may be even shorter.
Rapid conversion to a normal sinus rhythm of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, including those associated with accessory by-pass tracts (Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome).
Diagnostic indications: Aid to diagnosis of broad or narrow complex supraventricular tachycardia. Although Adenosine will not convert atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia to sinus rhythm, the slowing of AV conduction helps diagnosis of atrial activity.
Sensitization of intra-cavitary electrophysiological investigations.
Adenosine is intended for hospital use only with monitoring and cardiorespiratory resuscitation equipment available for immediate use.
Method of administration: It should be administered by rapid IV bolus injection according to the ascending dosage schedule as follows. To be certain the solution reaches the systemic circulation administered either directly into a vein or into an IV line. If given into an IV line it should be injected as proximally as possible, and followed by a rapid saline flush.
Adenosine should only be used when facilities exist for cardiac monitoring. Patients who develop high-level AV block at a particular dose should not be given further dosage increments.
Posology: Adult: Initial dose: 3mg given as a rapid intravenous bolus (over 2 seconds).
Second dose: If the first dose does not result in elimination of the supraventricular tachycardia within 1 to 2 minutes, 6mg should be given also as a rapid intravenous bolus.
Third dose: If the second dose does not result in elimination of the supraventricular tachycardia within 1 to 2 minutes, 12mg should be given also as a rapid intravenous bolus.
Additional or higher doses are not recommended.
Pediatric population: The safety and efficacy of adenosine in children aged 0-18 years old have not been established. No recommendations on posology can be made.
Elderly: See dosage recommendations for adults.
Diagnostic dose: The previously mentioned ascending dosage schedule should be employed until sufficient diagnostic information has been obtained.
Route of administration: For rapid bolus intravenous use only.
Over dosage would cause severe hypotension, bradycardia or asystole. The half life of adenosine in blood is very short, and side effects (when they occur) would quickly resolve. Administration of IV aminophylline or theophylline may be needed. Pharmacokinetic evaluation indicates that methyl xanthines are competitive antagonists to adenosine, and that therapeutic concentrations of theophylline block its exogenous effects.
Adenosine is contraindicated for patients presenting: Known hypersensitivity to adenosine or to any of the excipients.
Sick sinus syndrome, second or third degree Atrio-Ventricular (AV) block (except in patients with a functioning artificial pacemaker).
Chronic obstructive lung disease with evidence of bronchospam (e.g. asthma bronchiole).
Long QT syndrome.
Decompensated states of heart failure.
Special warnings: Due to the possibility of transient cardiac arrhythmias arising during conversion of the supraventricular tachycardia to normal sinus rhythm, administration should be carried out in a hospital setting with monitoring and cardio-respiratory resuscitation equipment available for immediate use if necessary. During administration, continuous ECG monitoring is necessary as life-threatening arrhythmia might occur.
Because it has the potential to cause significant hypotension, adenosine should be used with caution in patients with left main coronary stenosis, uncorrected hypovolemia, stenotic valvular heart disease, left to right shunt, pericarditis or pericardial effusion, autonomic dysfunction or stenotic carotid artery disease with cerebrovascular insufficiency.
Adenosine should be used with caution in patients with recent myocardial infarction, severe heart failure, or in patients with minor conduction defects (first degree AV block, bundle branch block) that could be transiently aggravated during infusion.
Adenosine should be used with caution in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter and especially in those with an accessory by-pass tract since particularly the latter may develop increased conduction down the anomalous pathway.
Rare cases of severe bradycardia have been reported. Some occurred in early post heart transplant patients; in the other cases, occult sino-atrial disease was present. The occurrence of severe bradycardia should be taken as a warning of underlying disease and could potentially favour the occurrence of torsades de pointes, especially in patients with prolonged QT intervals.
In patients with recent heart transplantation (less than 1 year) an increased sensitivity of the heart to adenosine has been observed.
Since neither the kidney nor the liver are involved in the degradation of exogenous adenosine, Adenosine's efficacy should be unaffected by hepatic or renal insufficiency.
As dipyridamole is a known inhibitor of adenosine uptake, it may potentiate the action of Adenosine. It is therefore suggested that Adenosine should not be administered to patients receiving dipyrimadole; if use of Adenosine is essential, dipyridamole should be stopped 24 hours before hand, or the dose of Adenosine should be greatly reduced.
The occurrence of angina, severe bradycardia, severe hypotension, respiratory failure (potentially fatal), or asystole/cardiac arrest (potentially fatal), should lead to immediate discontinuation of administration.
Adenosine may trigger convulsions in patients who are susceptible to convulsions. In patients with history of convulsions/seizures, the administration of adenosine should be carefully monitored.
Because of the possible risk of torsades de pointes, Adenosine should be used with caution in patients with a prolonged QT interval, whether this is drug induced or of metabolic origin. Adenosine is contraindicated in patients with Long QT syndrome.
Adenosine may precipitate or aggravate bronchospasm.
Adenosine contains 9 mg sodium chloride per ml (corresponding to 3.54 mg sodium per ml). To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
Pregnancy: There are no or limited amount of data from the use of adenosine in pregnant women. Animal studies are insufficient with respect to reproductive toxicity. Adenosine is not recommended during pregnancy unless the physician considers the benefits to outweigh the potential risks.
Lactation: It is unknown whether adenosine metabolites are excreted in human milk.
Adenosine should not be used during breast-feeding.
Adverse events are ranked under the heading of the frequency: Very common (>1/10), Common (>1/100, <1/10), Uncommon (>1/1000, <1/100), Rare (>1/10000, <1/1000), Very rare (<1/10000), Not known (cannot be estimated from available data).
These side effects are generally mild, of short duration (usually less than 1 minute) and well tolerated by the patient. However severe reactions can occur.
Methylxanthines, such as IV aminophylline or theophylline have been used to terminate persistent side effects (50-125 mg by slow intravenous injection). (See table.)
Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
Dipyridamile inhibits adenosine cellular uptake and metabolism, and potentiates the action of adenosine. In one study dipyridamole was shown to produce a 4 fold increase in adenosine actions. Asystole has been reported following concomitant administration.
It is therefore suggested that Adenosine should not be administered to patients receiving dipyridamole; if use of Adenosine is essential, dipyridamole should be stopped 24 hours before hand, or the dose of Adenosine should be greatly reduced.
Aminophylline, theophylline and other xanthines are competitive adenosine antagonists and should be avoided for 24 hours prior to use of adenosine.
Food and drinks containing xanthines (tea, coffee, chocolate and cola) should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to use of adenosine.
Adenosine may interact with drugs tending to impair cardiac conduction.
Incompatibilities: Compatibility with other medicines is not known.
Store below 30°C and protect from light.
Shelf-Life: 24 months.
C01EB10 - adenosine ; Belongs to the class of other cardiac preparations.
Soln for inj 3 mg/mL (clear and colorless solution in pre-filled syringe) x 2 mL.