Octaplex

Octaplex

Manufacturer:

Octapharma

Distributor:

Pharmaniaga Marketing
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Coagulation factors combination.
Description
Octaplex nominally contains the following IU of the human coagulation factors: See Table 1.

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Factor IX specific activity is ≥0.6 IU/mg proteins.
The powder is white or slightly coloured also appearing as friable solid.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Heparin, sodium citrate.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Antihemorrhagics, blood coagulation factors IX, II, VII, and X in combination. ATC Code: B02BD01.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: The coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X, which are synthesised in the liver with the help of vitamin K, are commonly called the Prothrombin Complex.
Factor VII is the zymogen of the active serine protease factor VIIa by which the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation is initiated. The tissue factor-factor VIIa complex activates coagulation factors X and IX, whereby factor IXa and Xa are formed. With further activation of the coagulation cascade prothrombin (factor II) is activated and transformed to thrombin. By the action of thrombin, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin, which results in clot formation. The normal generation of thrombin is also of vital importance for platelet function as a part of the primary haemostasis.
Isolated severe deficiency of factor VII leads to reduced thrombin formation and a bleeding tendency due to impaired fibrin formation and impaired primary haemostasis. Isolated deficiency of factor IX is one of the classical haemophilias (haemophilia B). Isolated deficiency of factor II or factor X is very rare but in severe form they cause a bleeding tendency similar to that seen in classical haemophilia.
Acquired deficiency of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors occurs during treatment with vitamin K antagonists. If the deficiency becomes severe, a severe bleeding tendency results, characterised by retroperitoneal or cerebral bleeds rather than muscle and joint haemorrhage. Severe hepatic insufficiency also results in markedly reduced levels of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors and a clinical bleeding tendency which, however, is often complex due to a simultaneous ongoing low-grade intravascular coagulation, low platelet levels, deficiency of coagulation inhibitors and disturbed fibrinolysis.
The administration of human prothrombin complex provides an increase in plasma levels of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors, and can temporarily correct the coagulation defect of patients with deficiency of one or several of these factors.
Pharmacokinetics: The plasma half-life ranges are: See Table 2.

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Octaplex is administered intravenously and therefore immediately available in the organism.
Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data: There are no preclinical data considered relevant to clinical safety beyond data included in other sections of the SPC.
Indications/Uses
Treatment of bleeding and perioperative prophylaxis of bleeding in acquired deficiency of the prothrombin complex coagulation factors, such as deficiency caused by treatment with vitamin K antagonists, or in case of overdose of vitamin K antagonists, when rapid correction of the deficiency is required.
Treatment of bleeding and perioperative prophylaxis in congenital deficiency of any of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors when purified specific coagulation factor product is not available.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Only general dosage guidelines are given as follows. Treatment should be initiated under the supervision of a physician experienced in the treatment of coagulation disorders. The dosage and duration of the substitution therapy depend on the severity of the disorder, on the location and extent of the bleeding and on the patient's clinical condition.
The amount and the frequency of administration should be calculated on an individual patient basis. Dosage intervals must be adapted to the different circulating half-life of the different coagulation factors in the prothrombin complex (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Individual dosage requirements can only be identified on the basis of regular determinations of the individual plasma levels of the coagulation factors of interest, or on global tests of the prothrombin complex levels (prothrombin time, INR), and continuous monitoring of the clinical condition of the patient.
In case of major surgical interventions precise monitoring of the substitution therapy by means of coagulation assays is essential (specific coagulation factor assays and/or global tests for prothrombin complex levels).
Bleeding and Perioperative Prophylaxis of Bleeding During Vitamin K Antagonist Treatment: The dose will depend on the INR before treatment and the targeted INR. In the following table approximate doses (mL/kg body weight of the reconstituted product) required for normalisation of INR (≤1.2 within 1 hour) at different initial INR levels are given (see Table 3).

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The correction of the vitamin K antagonist induced impairment of haemostasis persists for approximately 6-8 hours. However, the effects of vitamin K, if administered simultaneously, are usually achieved within 4-6 hours. Thus, repeated treatment with human prothrombin complex is not usually required when vitamin K has been administered.
As these recommendations are empirical and recovery and the duration of effect may vary, monitoring of INR during treatment is mandatory.
Bleeding and Perioperative Prophylaxis in Congenital Deficiency of Any of the Vitamin K Dependent Coagulation Factors When Specific Coagulation Factor Product is Not Available: The calculated required dosage for treatment is based on the empirical finding that approximately 1 IU of factor VII or factor IX per kg body weight raises the plasma factor VII or IX activity, respectively, by 0.01 IU/mL, 1 IU of factor II or X per kg body weight raises the plasma factor II or X activity by 0.02 and 0.017 IU/mL, respectively.
The dose of a specific factor administered is expressed in International Units (IU), which are related to the current WHO standard for each factor. The activity in plasma of a specific coagulation factor is expressed either as a percentage (relative to normal plasma) or in International Units (relative to the international standard for the specific coagulation factor).
One International Unit (IU) of a coagulation factor activity is equivalent to the quantity in one mL of normal human plasma.
For example, the calculation of the required dosage of factor X is based on the empirical finding that 1 International Unit (IU) of factor X per kg body weight raises the plasma factor X activity by 0.017 IU/mL. The required dosage is determined using the following formula: Required units = body weight (kg) x desired factor X rise (IU/mL) x 59, where 59 (mL/kg) is the reciprocal of the estimated recovery.
Required dosage for factors II, VII, IX: Required units = body weight (kg) x desired factor II rise (IU/mL) x 50.
Required units = body weight (kg) x desired factor VII rise (IU/mL) x 100.
Required units = body weight (kg) x desired factor IX rise (IU/mL) x 100.
If the individual recovery is known that value should be used for calculation.
Administration: Dissolve the product as described at Instructions for Use and Handling (see Cautions for Usage).
Octaplex should be administered intravenously. The infusion should start at a speed of 1 mL per minute, followed by 2-3 mL per minute, using an aseptic technique.
Overdosage
The use of high doses of human prothrombin complex products has been associated with instances of myocardial infarction, disseminated intravascular coagulation, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Therefore, in case of overdose, the risk of development of thromboembolic complications or disseminated intravascular coagulation is enhanced.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients. Known allergy to heparin or history of heparin induced thrombocytopenia.
Special Precautions
The advice of a specialist experienced in the management of coagulation disorders should be sought.
In patients with acquired deficiency of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (eg, as induced by treatment with vitamin K antagonists), Octaplex should only be used when rapid correction of prothrombin complex levels is necessary, such as major bleeding or emergency surgery. In other cases, reduction of the dose of the vitamin K antagonist and/or administration of vitamin K is usually sufficient.
Patients receiving a vitamin K antagonist may have an underlying hypercoaguable state and infusion of prothrombin complex concentrate may exacerbate this.
In congenital deficiency of any of the vitamin K dependent factors, specific coagulation factor product should be used when available.
If allergic or anaphylactic-type reactions occur, the injection/infusion should be stopped immediately. In case of shock, standard medical treatment for shock should be implemented.
Standard measures to prevent infections resulting from the use of medicinal products prepared from human blood or plasma include selection of donors, screening of individual donations and plasma pools for specific markers of infection and the inclusion of effective manufacturing steps for the inactivation/removal of viruses.
Despite this, when medicinal products prepared from human blood or plasma are administered, the possibility of transmitting infective agents cannot be totally excluded. This applies to unknown viruses and other known and unknown pathogens.
The measures taken are considered effective for enveloped viruses such as HIV, HBV and HCV. The measures taken may be of limited value against non-enveloped viruses such as HAV or parvovirus B19. Parvovirus B19 infection may be serious for pregnant women (fetal infection) and for individuals with immunodeficiency or increased red cell production (eg, haemolytic anaemia).
It is strongly recommended that every time that Octaplex is administered to a patient, the name and batch number of the product are recorded.
Appropriate vaccination (hepatitis A and B) is recommended for patients in regular/repeated receipt of human plasma-derived prothrombin complex products.
Treatment with plasma derived products that contain factors II, VII, IX, and X has been associated with thrombosis.
There is a risk of thrombosis or disseminated intravascular coagulation when patients, with either congenital or acquired deficiency are treated with human prothrombin complex particularly with repeated dosing. The risk may be higher in treatment of isolated factor VII deficiency, since the other vitamin K dependant coagulation factors, with longer half-lives, may accumulate to levels considerably higher than normal. Patients given human prothrombin complex should be observed closely for signs or symptoms of intravascular coagulation or thrombosis. Because of the risk of thromboembolic complications, close monitoring should be exercised when administering human prothrombin complex to patients with a history of coronary heart disease, to patients with liver disease, to peri- or postoperative patients, to neonates, or to patients at risk of thromboembolic events or disseminated intravascular coagulation. In each of these situations, the potential benefit of treatment should be weighed against the risk of these complications.
No data are available regarding the use of Octaplex in case of perinatal bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency in the new born.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
The safety of human prothrombin complex for use in human pregnancy and during lactation has not been established.
Animal studies are not suitable to assess the safety with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development. Therefore, human prothrombin complex should be used during pregnancy and lactation only if clearly indicated.
Adverse Reactions
Immune System Disorders: Replacement therapy may rarely (>0.01% and <0.1%) lead to the formation of circulating antibodies inhibiting one or more of the human prothrombin complex factors. If such inhibitors occur, the condition will manifest itself as a poor clinical response.
Allergic or anaphylactic-type reactions and an increase in body temperature have not been observed in clinical studies with Octaplex but may rarely occur (>0.01% and <0.1%).
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: Increase in body temperature has not been observed but may rarely occur (>0.01% and <0.1%).
Vascular Disorders: There is a risk of thromboembolic episodes following the administration of human prothrombin complex (see Precautions).
Nervous System Disorders: Headache may rarely occur (>0.01% and <0.1%).
Investigations: A transient increase in liver transaminases has been rarely observed (>0.01% and <0.1%).
For safety with respect to transmissible agents, see Precautions.
Drug Interactions
Human prothrombin complex products neutralise the effect of vitamin K antagonist treatment, but no interactions with other medicinal products are known.
Interference with Biological Testing: When performing clotting tests which are sensitive to heparin in patients receiving high doses of human prothrombin complex, the heparin as a constituent of the administered product must be taken into account.
Incompatibilities: This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.
Caution For Usage
Instructions for Use and Handling: Please read all the instructions and follow them carefully!
During the procedure described as follows, aseptic technique must be maintained!
The product reconstitutes quickly at room temperature.
The solution should be clear or slightly opalescent. Do not use solutions that are cloudy or have deposits. Reconstituted products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.
After reconstitution the solution must be used immediately.
Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Reconstitution: 1. Warm the solvent (Water for Injections) and the concentrate in the closed vials up to room temperature. This temperature should be maintained during reconstitution. If a water bath is used for warming, care must be taken to avoid water coming into contact with the rubber stoppers or the caps of the vials. The temperature of the water bath should not exceed 37°C.
2. Remove the caps from the concentrate vial and the water vial and clean the rubber stoppers with an alcohol swab.
3. Remove the protective cover from the short end of the double-ended needle, making sure not to touch the exposed tip of the needle. Then perforate the centre of the water vial rubber stopper with the vertically held needle. In order to withdraw the fluid from the water vial completely, the needle must be introduced into the rubber stopper in such a way that it just penetrates the stopper and is visible in the vial.
4. Remove the protective cover from the other, long end of the double-ended needle, making sure not to touch the exposed tip of the needle. Hold the water vial upside-down above the upright concentrate vial and quickly perforate the centre of the concentrate vial rubber stopper with the needle. The vacuum inside the concentrate vial draws in the water.
5. Remove the double-ended needle with the empty water vial from the concentrate vial, then slowly rotate the concentrate vial until the concentrate is completely dissolved. Octaplex dissolves quickly at room temperature to a colourless to slightly blue solution.
If the concentrate fails to dissolve completely or an aggregate is formed, do not use the preparation.
Instructions for Injection: As a precautionary measure, the patients pulse rate should be measured before and during the injection. If a marked increase in the pulse rate occurs the injection speed must be reduced or the administration must be interrupted.
1. After the concentrate has been reconstituted in the manner described previously, remove the protective cover from the filter needle and perforate the rubber stopper of the concentrate vial.
2. Remove the cap of the filter needle and attach a 20 mL syringe.
3. Turn the vial with the attached syringe upside-down and draw up the solution into the syringe.
4. Disinfect the intended injection site with an alcohol swab.
5. After removing the filter, inject the solution intravenously at a slow speed: Initially 1 mL per minute, not faster than 2-3 mL per minute.
The filter needle is for single use only. Always use a filter needle when drawing up the preparation into a syringe. No blood must flow into the syringe due to the risk of formation of fibrin clots.
Storage
Store in a refrigerator (2°C to 8°C). Do not freeze. Protect from light.
Shelf-Life: 2 years.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
B02BD01 - coagulation factor IX, II, VII and X in combination ; Belongs to the class of blood coagulation factors. Used in the treatment of hemorrhage.
Presentation/Packing
Powd for inj (vial) x 1's.
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