Onglyza

Onglyza Mechanism of Action

Manufacturer:

AstraZeneca

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma

Marketer:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Action
Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Increased concentrations of the incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released into the bloodstream from the small intestine in response to meals. These hormones cause insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner but are inactivated by the DPP4 enzyme within minutes. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, reducing hepatic glucose production. In patients with type 2 diabetes, concentrations of GLP-1 are reduced but the insulin response to GLP-1 is preserved. Saxagliptin is a competitive DPP4 inhibitor that slows the inactivation of the incretin hormones, thereby increasing their bloodstream concentrations and reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in a glucose-dependent manner in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Pharmacodynamics:
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, administration of ONGLYZA inhibits DPP4 enzyme activity for a 24-hour period. After an oral glucose load or a meal, this DPP4 inhibition resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of active GLP-1 and GIP, decreased glucagon concentrations, and increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. The rise in insulin and decrease in glucagon were associated with lower fasting glucose concentrations and reduced glucose excursion following an oral glucose load or a meal.
Cardiac Electrophysiology: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover, active comparator study using moxifloxacin in 40 healthy subjects, ONGLYZA was not associated with clinically meaningful prolongation of the QTc interval or heart rate at daily doses up to 40 mg (8 times the MRHD).
Clinical Studies: Glycemic Efficacy Trials: ONGLYZA has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with metformin, glyburide, and thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) therapy.
A total of 4148 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized in six, double-blind, controlled clinical trials conducted to evaluate the safety and glycemic efficacy of ONGLYZA. A total of 3021 patients in these trials were treated with ONGLYZA. In these trials, the mean age was 54 years, and 71% of patients were Caucasian, 16% were Asian, 4% were black, and 9% were of other racial groups. An additional 423 patients, including 315 who received ONGLYZA, participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of 6 to 12 weeks in duration.
In these six, double-blind trials, ONGLYZA was evaluated at doses of 2.5 mg and 5 mg once daily. Three of these trials also evaluated an ONGLYZA dose of 10 mg daily. The 10 mg daily dose of ONGLYZA did not provide greater efficacy than the 5 mg daily dose. The 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage. Treatment with ONGLYZA 5 mg and 2.5 mg doses produced clinically relevant and statistically significant improvements in A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour postprandial glucose (PPG) following a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared to control. Reductions in A1C were seen across subgroups including gender, age, race, and baseline BMI.
ONGLYZA was not associated with significant changes from baseline in body weight or fasting serum lipids compared to placebo.
ONGLYZA has been evaluated in four additional trials in patients with type 2 diabetes: an active-controlled trial comparing add-on therapy with ONGLYZA to glipizide in 858 patients inadequately controlled on metformin alone, a trial comparing ONGLYZA to placebo in 455 patients inadequately controlled on insulin alone or on insulin in combination with metformin, a trial comparing ONGLYZA to placebo in 257 patients inadequately controlled on metformin plus a sulfonylurea, and a trial comparing ONGLYZA to placebo in 170 patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate or severe renal impairment or ESRD.
Monotherapy: A total of 766 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on diet and exercise (A1C ≥7% to ≤10%) participated in two 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA monotherapy.
In the first trial, following a 2-week single-blind diet, exercise, and placebo lead-in period, 401 patients were randomized to 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg of ONGLYZA or placebo. The 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the study were treated with metformin rescue therapy, added on to placebo or ONGLYZA. Efficacy was evaluated at the last measurement prior to rescue therapy for patients needing rescue. Dose titration of ONGLYZA was not permitted.
Treatment with ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and 5 mg daily provided significant improvements in A1C, FPG, and PPG compared to placebo (Table 2). The percentage of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control or who were rescued for meeting prespecified glycemic criteria was 16% in the ONGLYZA 2.5 mg treatment group, 20% in the ONGLYZA 5 mg treatment group, and 26% in the placebo group. (See Table 2.)

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A second 24-week monotherapy trial was conducted to assess a range of dosing regimens for ONGLYZA. Treatment-naive patients with inadequately controlled diabetes (A1C ≥7% to ≤10%) underwent a 2-week, single-blind diet, exercise, and placebo lead-in period. A total of 365 patients were randomized to 2.5 mg every morning, 5 mg every morning, 2.5 mg with possible titration to 5 mg every morning, or 5 mg every evening of ONGLYZA, or placebo. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the study were treated with metformin rescue therapy added on to placebo or ONGLYZA; the number of patients randomized per treatment group ranged from 71 to 74.
Treatment with either ONGLYZA 5 mg every morning or 5 mg every evening provided significant improvements in A1C versus placebo (mean placebo-corrected reductions of -0.4% and -0.3%, respectively). Treatment with ONGLYZA 2.5 mg every morning also provided significant improvement in A1C versus placebo (mean placebo-corrected reduction of -0.4%).
Combination Therapy: Add-On Combination Therapy with Metformin: A total of 743 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA in combination with metformin in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥7% and ≤10%) on metformin alone. To qualify for enrollment, patients were required to be on a stable dose of metformin (1500-2550 mg daily) for at least 8 weeks.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, 2-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period during which patients received metformin at their pre-study dose, up to 2500 mg daily. Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg of ONGLYZA or placebo in addition to their current dose of open-label metformin. The 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the study were treated with pioglitazone rescue therapy, added on to existing study medications. Dose titrations of ONGLYZA and metformin were not permitted.
ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and 5 mg add-on to metformin provided significant improvements in A1C, FPG, and PPG compared with placebo add-on to metformin (Table 3). Mean changes from baseline for A1C over time and at endpoint are shown in Figure 1. The proportion of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control or who were rescued for meeting prespecified glycemic criteria was 15% in the ONGLYZA 2.5 mg add-on to metformin group, 13% in the ONGLYZA 5 mg add-on to metformin group, and 27% in the placebo add-on to metformin group. (See Table 3 and Figure 1.)

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Add-On Combination Therapy with a Thiazolidinedione: A total of 565 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA in combination with a thiazolidinedione (TZD) in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥7% to ≤10.5%) on TZD alone. To qualify for enrollment, patients were required to be on a stable dose of pioglitazone (30-45 mg once daily) or rosiglitazone (4 mg once daily or 8 mg either once daily or in two divided doses of 4 mg) for at least 12 weeks.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, 2-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period during which patients received TZD at their pre-study dose. Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to 2.5 mg or 5 mg of ONGLYZA or placebo in addition to their current dose of TZD. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the study were treated with metformin rescue, added on to existing study medications. Dose titration of ONGLYZA or TZD was not permitted during the study. A change in TZD regimen from rosiglitazone to pioglitazone at specified, equivalent therapeutic doses was permitted at the investigator's discretion if believed to be medically appropriate.
ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and 5 mg add-on to TZD provided significant improvements in A1C, FPG, and PPG compared with placebo add-on to TZD (Table 4). The proportion of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control or who were rescued for meeting prespecified glycemic criteria was 10% in the ONGLYZA 2.5 mg add-on to TZD group, 6% for the ONGLYZA 5 mg add-on to TZD group, and 10% in the placebo add-on to TZD group. (See Table 4.)

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Add-On Combination Therapy with Glyburide: A total of 768 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA in combination with a sulfonylurea (SU) in patients with inadequate glycemic control at enrollment (A1C ≥7.5% to ≤10%) on a submaximal dose of SU alone. To qualify for enrollment, patients were required to be on a submaximal dose of SU for 2 months or greater. In this study, ONGLYZA in combination with a fixed, intermediate dose of SU was compared to titration to a higher dose of SU.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, 4-week, dietary and exercise lead-in period, and placed on glyburide 7.5 mg once daily. Following the lead-in period, eligible patients with A1C ≥7% to ≤10% were randomized to either 2.5 mg or 5 mg of ONGLYZA add-on to 7.5 mg glyburide or to placebo plus a 10 mg total daily dose of glyburide. Patients who received placebo were eligible to have glyburide up-titrated to a total daily dose of 15 mg. Up-titration of glyburide was not permitted in patients who received ONGLYZA 2.5 mg or 5 mg. Glyburide could be down-titrated in any treatment group once during the 24-week study period due to hypoglycemia as deemed necessary by the investigator. Approximately 92% of patients in the placebo plus glyburide group were up-titrated to a final total daily dose of 15 mg during the first 4 weeks of the study period. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the study were treated with metformin rescue, added on to existing study medication. Dose titration of ONGLYZA was not permitted during the study.
In combination with glyburide, ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and 5 mg provided significant improvements in A1C, FPG, and PPG compared with the placebo plus up-titrated glyburide group (Table 5). The proportion of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control or who were rescued for meeting prespecified glycemic criteria was 18% in the ONGLYZA 2.5 mg add-on to glyburide group, 17% in the ONGLYZA 5 mg add-on to glyburide group, and 30% in the placebo plus up-titrated glyburide group. (See Table 5.)

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Coadministration with Metformin in Treatment-Naive Patients: A total of 1306 treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this 24-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA coadministered with metformin in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥8% to ≤12%) on diet and exercise alone. Patients were required to be treatment-naive to be enrolled in this study.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, 1-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period. Patients were randomized to one of four treatment arms: ONGLYZA 5 mg + metformin 500 mg, saxagliptin 10 mg + metformin 500 mg, saxagliptin 10 mg + placebo, or metformin 500 mg + placebo. The 10 mg saxagliptin dosage is not an approved dosage. ONGLYZA was dosed once daily. In the 3 treatment groups using metformin, the metformin dose was up-titrated weekly in 500 mg per day increments, as tolerated, to a maximum of 2000 mg per day based on FPG. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the studies were treated with pioglitazone rescue as add-on therapy.
Coadministration of ONGLYZA 5 mg plus metformin provided significant improvements in A1C, FPG, and PPG compared with placebo plus metformin (see Table 6).

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Add-On Combination Therapy with Metformin versus Glipizide Add-On Combination Therapy with Metformin: In this 52-week, active-controlled trial, a total of 858 patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control (A1C >6.5% and ≤10%) on metformin alone were randomized to double-blind add-on therapy with ONGLYZA or glipizide. Patients were required to be on a stable dose of metformin (at least 1500 mg daily) for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, 2-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period during which patients received metformin (1500-3000 mg based on their pre-study dose). Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to 5 mg of ONGLYZA or 5 mg of glipizide in addition to their current dose of open-label metformin. Patients in the glipizide plus metformin group underwent blinded titration of the glipizide dose during the first 18 weeks of the trial up to a maximum glipizide dose of 20 mg per day. Titration was based on a goal FPG ≤110 mg/dL or the highest tolerable glipizide dose. Fifty percent (50%) of the glipizide-treated patients were titrated to the 20-mg daily dose; 21% of the glipizide-treated patients had a final daily glipizide dose of 5 mg or less. The mean final daily dose of glipizide was 15 mg.
After 52 weeks of treatment, ONGLYZA and glipizide resulted in similar mean reductions from baseline in A1C when added to metformin therapy (Table 7). This conclusion may be limited to patients with baseline A1C comparable to those in the trial (91% of patients had baseline A1C <9%).
From a baseline mean body weight of 89 kg, there was a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.1 kg in patients treated with ONGLYZA compared to a mean weight gain of 1.1 kg in patients treated with glipizide (p<0.0001). (See Table 7.)

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Add-On Combination Therapy with Insulin (with or without metformin): A total of 455 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA in combination with insulin in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥7.5% and ≤11%) on insulin alone (N=141) or on insulin in combination with a stable dose of metformin (N=314). Patients were required to be on a stable dose of insulin (≥30 units to ≤150 units daily) with ≤20% variation in total daily dose for ≥8 weeks prior to screening. Patients entered the trial on intermediate- or long-acting (basal) insulin or premixed insulin. Patients using short-acting insulins were excluded unless the short-acting insulin was administered as part of a premixed insulin.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled in a single-blind, four-week, dietary and exercise placebo lead-in period during which patients received insulin (and metformin if applicable) at their pretrial dose(s). Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to add-on therapy with either ONGLYZA 5 mg or placebo. Doses of the antidiabetic therapies were to remain stable but patients were rescued and allowed to adjust the insulin regimen if specific glycemic goals were not met or if the investigator learned that the patient had self-increased the insulin dose by >20%. Data after rescue were excluded from the primary efficacy analyses.
Add-on therapy with ONGLYZA 5 mg provided significant improvements from baseline to Week 24 in A1C and PPG compared with add-on placebo (Table 8). Similar mean reductions in A1C versus placebo were observed for patients using ONGLYZA 5 mg add-on to insulin alone and ONGLYZA 5 mg add-on to insulin in combination with metformin (-0.4% and -0.4%, respectively). The percentage of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control or who were rescued was 23% in the ONGLYZA group and 32% in the placebo group.
The mean daily insulin dose at baseline was 53 units in patients treated with ONGLYZA 5 mg and 55 units in patients treated with placebo. The mean change from baseline in daily dose of insulin was 2 units for the ONGLYZA 5 mg group and 5 units for the placebo group. (See Table 8.)

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The change in fasting plasma glucose from baseline to Week 24 was also tested, but was not statistically significant. The percent of patients achieving an A1C <7% was 17% (52/300) with ONGLYZA in combination with insulin compared to 7% (10/149) with placebo. Significance was not tested.
Add-On Combination Therapy with Metformin plus Sulfonylurea: A total of 257 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA in combination with metformin plus a sulfonylurea in patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C ≥7% and ≤10%). Patients were to be on a stable combined dose of metformin extended-release or immediate-release (at maximum tolerated dose, with minimum dose for enrollment being 1500 mg) and a sulfonylurea (at maximum tolerated dose, with minimum dose for enrollment being ≥50% of the maximum recommended dose) for ≥8 weeks prior to enrollment.
Patients who met eligibility criteria were entered in a 2-week enrollment period to allow assessment of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Following the 2-week enrollment period, eligible patients were randomized to either double-blind ONGLYZA (5 mg once daily) or double-blind matching placebo for 24 weeks. During the 24-week double-blind treatment period, patients were to receive metformin and a sulfonylurea at the same constant dose ascertained during enrollment. Sulfonylurea dose could be down titrated once in the case of a major hypoglycemic event or recurring minor hypoglycemic events. In the absence of hypoglycemia, titration (up or down) of study medication during the treatment period was prohibited.
ONGLYZA in combination with metformin plus a sulfonylurea provided significant improvements in A1C and PPG compared with placebo in combination with metformin plus a sulfonylurea (Table 9). The percentage of patients who discontinued for lack of glycemic control was 6% in the ONGLYZA group and 5% in the placebo group. (See Table 9.)

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The change in fasting plasma glucose from baseline to Week 24 was also tested, but was not statistically significant. The percent of patients achieving an A1C <7% was 31% (39/127) with ONGLYZA in combination with metformin plus a sulfonylurea compared to 9% (12/127) with placebo. Significance was not tested.
Add on Combination Therapy with Metformin plus an SGLT2 Inhibitor: A total of 315 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA added to dapagliflozin (an SGLT2 inhibitor) and metformin in patients with a baseline of HbA1c ≥7% to ≤10.5%. The mean age of these subjects was 54.6 years, 1.6% were 75 years or older and 52.7% were female. The population was 87.9% White, 6.3% Black or African American, 4.1% Asian, and 1.6% Other race. At baseline the population had diabetes for an average of 7.7 years and a mean HbA1c of 7.9%. The mean eGFR at baseline was 93.4 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients were required to be on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg per day) for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment. Eligible subjects who completed the screening period entered the lead in treatment period, which included open-label metformin and 10 mg dapagliflozin treatment. Following the lead-in period, eligible patients were randomized to ONGLYZA 5 mg (N=153) or placebo (N =162).
The group treated with add-on ONGLYZA had statistically significant greater reductions in HbA1c from baseline versus the group with placebo (see Table 10).

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The known proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% at Week 24 was 35.3% in the saxagliptin treated group compared to 23.1% in the placebo treated group.
Renal Impairment: A total of 170 patients participated in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONGLYZA 2.5 mg once daily compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate (n=90) or severe (n=41) renal impairment or ESRD (n=39). In this trial, 98% of the patients were using background antidiabetic medications (75% were using insulin and 31% were using oral antidiabetic medications, mostly sulfonylureas).
After 12 weeks of treatment, ONGLYZA 2.5 mg provided significant improvement in A1C compared to placebo (Table 11). In the subgroup of patients with ESRD, ONGLYZA and placebo resulted in comparable reductions in A1C from baseline to Week 12. This finding is inconclusive because the trial was not adequately powered to show efficacy within specific subgroups of renal impairment.
After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean change in FPG was -12 mg/dL with ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and -13 mg/dL with placebo. Compared to placebo, the mean change in FPG with ONGLYZA was -12 mg/dL in the subgroup of patients with moderate renal impairment, -4 mg/dL in the subgroup of patients with severe renal impairment, and +44 mg/dL in the subgroup of patients with ESRD. These findings are inconclusive because the trial was not adequately powered to show efficacy within specific subgroups of renal impairment. (See Table 11.)

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Cardiovascular Safety Trial: The cardiovascular risk of ONGLYZA was evaluated in SAVOR, a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind study comparing ONGLYZA (N=8280) to placebo (N=8212), both administered in combination with standard of care, in adult patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Of the randomized study subjects, 97.5% completed the trial, and the median duration of follow-up was approximately 2 years. The trial was event-driven, and patients were followed until a sufficient number of events were accrued.
Subjects were at least 40 years of age, had A1C ≥6.5%, and multiple risk factors (21% of randomized subjects) for cardiovascular disease (age ≥55 years for men and ≥60 years for women plus at least one additional risk factor of dyslipidemia, hypertension, or current cigarette smoking) or established (79% of the randomized subjects) cardiovascular disease defined as a history of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, or ischemic stroke. Overall, the use of diabetes medications was balanced across treatment groups (metformin 69%, insulin 41%, sulfonylureas 40%, and TZDs 6%). The use of cardiovascular disease medications was also balanced (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] 79%, statins 78%, aspirin 75%, beta blockers 62%, and non-aspirin antiplatelet medications 24%).
The majority of subjects were male (67%) and Caucasian (75%) with a mean age of 65 years. Approximately 16% of the population had moderate (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥30 to ≤50 mL/min/1.73 min2) to severe (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment, and 13% had a prior history of heart failure. Subjects had a median duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus of approximately 10 years, and a mean baseline A1C level of 8.0%. Approximately 5% of subjects were treated with diet and exercise only at baseline. Overall, the use of diabetes medications was balanced across treatment groups (metformin 69%, insulin 41%, sulfonylureas 40%, and TZDs 6%). The use of cardiovascular disease medications was also balanced (ACE inhibitors or ARBs 79%, statins 78%, aspirin 75%, beta-blockers 62%, and non-aspirin antiplatelet medications 24%).
The primary analysis in SAVOR was time to first occurrence of a Major Adverse Cardiac Event (MACE). A major adverse cardiac event in SAVOR was defined as a cardiovascular death or a nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or a nonfatal ischemic stroke. The study was designed as a non-inferiority trial with a pre-specified risk margin of 1.3 for the hazard ratio of MACE and was also powered for a superiority comparison if non-inferiority was demonstrated.
The results of SAVOR, including the contribution of each component to the primary composite endpoint, are shown in Table 12. The incidence rate of MACE was similar in both treatment arms: 3.8 MACE per 100 patient-years on placebo vs. 3.8 MACE per 100 patient-years on ONGLYZA. The estimated hazard ratio of MACE associated with ONGLYZA relative to placebo was 1.00 with a 95.1% confidence interval of (0.89, 1.12). The upper bound of this confidence interval, 1.12, excluded a risk margin larger than 1.3. (See Table 12.)

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The Kaplan-Meier-based cumulative event probability is presented in Figure 2 for time to first occurrence of the primary MACE composite endpoint by treatment arm. The curves for both ONGLYZA and placebo arms are close together throughout the duration of the trial. The estimated cumulative event probability is approximately linear for both arms, indicating that the incidence of MACE for both arms was constant over the trial duration. (See Figure 2.)

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Vital status was obtained for 99% of subjects in the trial. There were 798 deaths in the SAVOR trial. Numerically more patients (5.1%) died in the ONGLYZA group than in the placebo group (4.6%). The risk of deaths from all cause (Table 13) was not statistically different between the treatment groups (HR: 1.11; 95.1% CI: 0.96, 1.27). (See Table 13.)

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Pharmacokinetics: The pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin were similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Cmax and AUC values of saxagliptin and its active metabolite increased proportionally in the 2.5 to 400 mg dose range. Following a 5 mg single oral dose of saxagliptin to healthy subjects, the mean plasma AUC values for saxagliptin and its active metabolite were 78 ng·h/mL and 214 ng·h/mL, respectively. The corresponding plasma Cmax values were 24 ng/mL and 47 ng/mL, respectively. The average variability (%CV) for AUC and Cmax for both saxagliptin and its active metabolite was less than 25%.
No appreciable accumulation of either saxagliptin or its active metabolite was observed with repeated once-daily dosing at any dose level. No dose- and time-dependence were observed in the clearance of saxagliptin and its active metabolite over 14 days of once-daily dosing with saxagliptin at doses ranging from 2.5 to 400 mg.
Absorption: The median time to maximum concentration (Tmax) following the 5 mg once daily dose was 2 hours for saxagliptin and 4 hours for its active metabolite. Administration with a high-fat meal resulted in an increase in Tmax of saxagliptin by approximately 20 minutes as compared to fasted conditions. There was a 27% increase in the AUC of saxagliptin when given with a meal as compared to fasted conditions. ONGLYZA may be administered with or without food.
Distribution: The in vitro protein binding of saxagliptin and its active metabolite in human serum is negligible. Therefore, changes in blood protein levels in various disease states (e.g., renal or hepatic impairment) are not expected to alter the disposition of saxagliptin.
Metabolism: The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5). The major metabolite of saxagliptin is also a DPP4 inhibitor, which is one-half as potent as saxagliptin. Therefore, strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors and inducers will alter the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite [see Interactions].
Excretion: Saxagliptin is eliminated by both renal and hepatic pathways. Following a single 50 mg dose of 14C-saxagliptin, 24%, 36%, and 75% of the dose was excreted in the urine as saxagliptin, its active metabolite, and total radioactivity, respectively. The average renal clearance of saxagliptin (~230 mL/min) was greater than the average estimated glomerular filtration rate (~120 mL/min), suggesting some active renal excretion. A total of 22% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in feces representing the fraction of the saxagliptin dose excreted in bile and/or unabsorbed drug from the gastrointestinal tract. Following a single oral dose of ONGLYZA 5 mg to healthy subjects, the mean plasma terminal half-life (t½) for saxagliptin and its active metabolite was 2.5 and 3.1 hours, respectively.
Special Populations: Renal Impairment: A single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin (10 mg dose) in subjects with varying degrees of chronic renal impairment compared to subjects with normal renal function. The 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage.
The degree of renal impairment did not affect Cmax of saxagliptin or its metabolite. In subjects with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2), severe renal impairment (eGFR 15 to less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and ESRD patient on hemodialysis, the AUC values of saxagliptin or its active metabolite were >2 fold higher than AUC values in subjects with normal renal function.
Hepatic Impairment: In subjects with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C), mean Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin were up to 8% and 77% higher, respectively, compared to healthy matched controls following administration of a single 10 mg dose of saxagliptin. The 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage. The corresponding Cmax and AUC of the active metabolite were up to 59% and 33% lower, respectively, compared to healthy matched controls. These differences are not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Body Mass Index: No dosage adjustment is recommended based on body mass index (BMI) which was not identified as a significant covariate on the apparent clearance of saxagliptin or its active metabolite in the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Gender: No dosage adjustment is recommended based on gender. There were no differences observed in saxagliptin pharmacokinetics between males and females. Compared to males, females had approximately 25% higher exposure values for the active metabolite than males, but this difference is unlikely to be of clinical relevance. Gender was not identified as a significant covariate on the apparent clearance of saxagliptin and its active metabolite in the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Geriatric: No dosage adjustment is recommended based on age alone. Elderly subjects (65-80 years) had 23% and 59% higher geometric mean Cmax and geometric mean AUC values, respectively, for saxagliptin than young subjects (18-40 years). Differences in active metabolite pharmacokinetics between elderly and young subjects generally reflected the differences observed in saxagliptin pharmacokinetics. The difference between the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and the active metabolite in young and elderly subjects is likely due to multiple factors including declining renal function and metabolic capacity with increasing age. Age was not identified as a significant covariate on the apparent clearance of saxagliptin and its active metabolite in the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Race and Ethnicity: No dosage adjustment is recommended based on race. The population pharmacokinetic analysis compared the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite in 309 Caucasian subjects with 105 non-Caucasian subjects (consisting of six racial groups). No significant difference in the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its active metabolite were detected between these two populations.
Drug Interaction Studies: In Vitro Assessment of Drug Interactions: The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by CYP3A4/5.
In in vitro studies, saxagliptin and its active metabolite did not inhibit CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, or 3A4, or induce CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, or 3A4. Therefore, saxagliptin is not expected to alter the metabolic clearance of coadministered drugs that are metabolized by these enzymes. Saxagliptin is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate but is not a significant inhibitor or inducer of P-gp.
In Vivo Assessment of Drug Interactions: (See Table 14 and Table 15.)

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Toxicology: Nonclinical Toxicology: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Carcinogenicity was evaluated in 2-year studies conducted in CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Saxagliptin did not increase the incidence of tumors in mice dosed orally at 50, 250, and 600 mg/kg up to 870-times (males) and 1165-times (females) the 5 mg/day clinical dose, based on AUC. Saxagliptin did not increase the incidence of tumors in rats dosed orally at 25, 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg up to 355-times (males) and 2217-times (females) the 5 mg/day clinical dose, based on AUC.
Mutagenesis: Saxagliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of genotoxicity tests (Ames bacterial mutagenesis, human and rat lymphocyte cytogenetics, rat bone marrow micronucleus and DNA repair assays). The active metabolite of saxagliptin was not mutagenic in an Ames bacterial assay.
Impairment of Fertility: Saxagliptin administered to rats had no effect on fertility or the ability to maintain a litter at exposures up to 603-times and 776-times the 5 mg clinical dose in males and females, based on AUC.
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology: Saxagliptin produced adverse skin changes in the extremities of cynomolgus monkeys (scabs and/or ulceration of tail, digits, scrotum, and/or nose). Skin lesions were reversible within exposure approximately 20-times the 5 mg clinical dose, but in some cases were irreversible and necrotizing at higher exposures. Adverse skin changes were not observed at exposures similar to (1- to 3-times) the 5 mg clinical dose. Clinical correlates to skin lesions in monkeys have not been observed in human clinical trials of saxagliptin.
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