Most adverse effects of furosemide occur with high doses, and serious effects are uncommon. The most common adverse effect is fluid and electrolyte imbalance including hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia, and hypochloraemic alkalosis, particularly after large doses or prolonged use. Signs of electrolyte imbalance include headache, hypotension, muscle cramps, dry mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, oliguria, cardiac arrhythmias and gastrointestinal disturbances. Hypovolaemia and dehydration may occur, especially in the elderly. The risk of hypokalaemia may be less with loop diuretics such as furosemide, which have a short duration of action, than with thiazide diuretics. Unlike the thiazides, furosemide increase the urinary excretion of calcium and nephrocalcinosis has been reported in preterm infants.
Furosemide may cause hyperuricaemia and precipitate gout in some patients. It may provoke hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, but probably to a lesser extent than the thiazide diuretics.
Pancreatitis and cholestatic, jaundice seem to occur more often than with the thiazides. Other adverse effects include blurred vision, yellow vision, dizziness, headache, and orthostatic hypotension. Other adverse effects occur rarely. Rashes and photosensitivity reactions may be severe; hypersensitivity reactions include interstitial nephritis and vasculitis; fever has also been reported. Bone marrow depression may occur: there have been reports of agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and leucopenia. Tinnitus and deafness may occur, in particular during rapid high-dose parenteral furosemide. Deafness may be permanent, especially in patients taking other ototoxic drugs.