Carbocisteine, promethazine hydrochloride.
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*Qualitative composition of the cocoa flavoring: tincture of vanilla, tincture of cocoa with vanillin, acid esters : acetic; butyric; caproic; isobutyric; valeric, alcohol esters : ethylic; butylic; amylic; hexylic, and solvent : ethylic alcohol; propyleneglycol.
Alcohol content of the syrup: 3.09% (v/v).
One 5-ml measuring-spoon contains 100mg of carbocisteine, 2.5mg of promethazine hydrochloride, 3g of sucrose and 122mg of anhydrous ethanol.
One 15ml table-spoon contains 300mg of carbocisteine, 7.5mg of promethazine hydrochloride, 9g of sucrose and 366mg of anhydrous ethanol.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: ANTIHISTAMINE FOR SYSTEMIC USE.
(R: Respiratory system).
Promethazine: H1 antihistamine, phenothiazine with an aliphatic side chain, characterized by: a marked sedative effect at the usual doses, by antagonizing central H1 receptors and central adrenergic blocking;
an anticholinergic effect, responsible for peripheral adverse effects;
a peripheral adrenergic blocking effect, possibly possible hemodynamic consequences (risk of postural hypotension).
Antihistamines share the property of blocking the effects of histamine, particularly on the skin, in the bronchi, intestine and blood vessels, by more or less reversible competitive antagonism.
In most cases, they have a cough suppressant effect which in itself is moderate, but potentiates the effects of centrally-acting morphine cough suppressants, as well as those of other bronchodilators such as sympathomimetic amines with which they are often co-administered.
Pharmacokinetics: Orally administered carbocisteine is rapidly absorbed; peak plasma concentrations are reached in two hours.
Bioavailability is low (less than 10% of the administered dose), probably as a result of intraluminal metabolism and a marked liver first-pass effect.
Elimination half-life is approximately two hours.
Carbocisteine and its metabolites are eliminated primarily in the urine.
The bioavailability of promethazine is between 13 and 40%.
Peak plasma concentrations are reached within 1.5 to 3 hours.
The volume of distribution is high due to the liposolubility of the compound, approximately 15 L/kg.
The drug is 75-80% plasma protein bound.
The half-life is between 10 and 15 hours.
Metabolism consists of sulfoxidation followed by demethylation.
Renal clearance represents less than 1% of total clearance and approximately 1% of administered promethazine is detected unchanged in the urine.
The metabolites found in the urine, notably in sulfoxide form, represents approximately 20% of the dose.
Physiopathological variations: Risk of accumulation of antihistamines in patients with kidney or liver failure.
Symptomatic treatment of troublesome, non-productive cough, particularly occurring at night.
For Adults and Children Over the Age of 2 Years Only: Symptomatic treatment should be for a short period (a few days) and restricted when cough occurs.
Adults: 3 to 4 tablespoons (1 tablespoon = 15ml) per day, in divided doses.
Children: use the measuring spoon supplied with this syrup: 25 to 30 months: 3 to 4 of the 5ml measuring-spoonfuls per day, in divided doses.
30 months to 12 years: 4 to 6 of the 5ml measuring-spoonfuls per day, in divided doses.
12 to 15 years: 6 to 9 of the 5ml measuring spoonfuls per day, in divided doses.
This medicine should preferably be taken in the evening, because of the marked sedative effect of promethazine.
Signs of promethazine overdose: Seizures (especially in children), consciousness disorders, coma.
Symptomatic treatment is to be instituted in a specialized environment.
This medicine is CONTRAINDICATED in the following situations: Hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients, particularly methyl parahydroxybenzoate and other parahydroxybenzoate salts;
Children below two (2) years of age (see Precautions);
Because of the presence of promethazine hydrochloride: Hypersensitivity to antihistamines;
History of agranulocytosis;
Risk of urine retention related to urethro-prostatic disorders;
Risk of angle-closure glaucoma;
In combination with cabergoline and quinagolide (see Interactions).
NOTE: THIS MEDICINAL PRODUCT CONTAINS ALCOHOL.
The alcohol content of the syrup is 3.09%, i.e. 122 mg alcohol per measuring spoonful (5 ml), 366 mg alcohol per tablespoonful (15 ml).
Special warnings: This product contains promethazine hydrochloride. It should not be used in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age because of the potential for fatal respiratory depression.
To be used with caution and on doctor's/pharmacist's advice in children 2 to 6 years of age.
Productive coughs, which is a fundamental bronchopulmonary defence mechanism, should not be suppressed.
It is irrational to combine an expectorant or a mucolytic agent with this cough suppressant.
Before prescribing a cough suppressant, the underlying causes of the cough, which require specific treatment, should be investigated.
If the cough does not respond to a cough suppressant administered at the usual dose, the dose must not be increased, but the clinical situation should be reassessed instead.
Mucolytic agents may induce severe bronchial congestion in infants. Infant bronchial mucus drainage capacities are limited due to the physiological characteristics of their bronchial tree. Mucolytics should therefore not be used in infants (see Contraindications and Adverse Reactions).
Treatment should be re-evaluated if symptoms or the disease persist or worsen.
This medicinal product contains 3.09% v/v ethanol (alcohol); i.e. up to 366 mg per tablespoon of syrup, or 1.46 g ethanol per maximum daily dose, which is equivalent to not more than 37 ml of beer or 15 ml of wine per day. Use of this medicinal product is dangerous in alcoholics. In pregnant or breast-feeding women, children and high-risk populations such as patients with liver failure or epilepsy, the alcohol content must be taken into account.
Related to the presence of carbocisteine: Caution is recommended in the elderly, in patients with a history of gastroduodenal ulcers, and in those taking concomitant medications which may cause gastrointestinal bleeding.
If gastrointestinal bleeding occurs, patients should discontinue medication.
Related to the presence of promethazine: Monitoring (clinical and ECG where appropriate) should be increased in patients with epilepsy due to the possible lowering of the seizure threshold.
Promethazine hydrochloride should be used caution: in elderly subjects presenting with: greater sensitivity to postural hypotension, dizziness and sedation, chronic constipation (risk of paralytic ileus, possible prostate hypertrophy;
in patients with certain cardiovascular diseases, due to the tachycardia-inducing and hypotensive effects of phenothiazines;
in patients with severe liver and/or kidney failure (due to the risk of accumulation).
When used in children, bronchial asthma or gastroesophageal reflux should be ruled out before using promethazine as a cough suppressant.
Intake of alcoholic beverages or medicinal products containing alcohol (see Interactions) is highly inadvisable during treatment.
Given the photosensitizing effect of phenothiazines, exposure to sun should preferably be avoided during treatment.
H1-antihistamines may cause sedation and should be used with caution. Combination with other sedative medicinal products should be discouraged (see Interactions).
Related to the excipients: This medicinal product contains sucrose. It is therefore not recommended in patients with fructose intolerance, glucose and galactose malabsorption syndrome or sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
This medicinal product contains 3 g of sucrose per measuring spoon and 9 g per tablespoon; this should be taken into account in patients on a low-sugar diet or with diabetes mellitus.
This medicinal product contains sodium. It contains 13 mg of sodium per 5 ml of syrup. This should be taken into consideration in patients on a strict low-sodium diet.
This medicinal product contains methyl parahydroxybenzoate (E218) and may cause allergic reactions (possibly delayed).
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: Patients should be warned about the risk of drowsiness especially at the start of treatment and advised not to drive or operate machinery.
Drinking alcohol or taking medicines that contain alcohol enhances these effects.
Pregnancy: Malformation (1st trimester): Animal studies: do not indicate any teratogenic effects of carbocisteine;
have not established any reliable data on teratogenicity data for promethazine.
In a clinical context: no data are available for carbocisteine;
the use of promethazine during a limited number of pregnancies does not appear to have shown any particular teratogenic or fetotoxic effects to date.
However, additional studies are necessary to evaluate the consequences of exposure during pregnancy.
Fetotoxicity (2nd and 3rd trimesters): In neonates whose mothers received long-term treatment with strong doses of an anticholinergic antihistamine such as promethazine, there have been rare reports of gastrointestinal disorders related to the atropine-like properties of phenothiazines (abdominal distention, meconium ileus, delay meconium excretion, difficulty instituting feeding, tachycardia, neurological disorders, etc.).
In view of these data, the use of this medicinal product should be avoided as a precautionary measure during the first trimester of pregnancy. It should only be prescribed thereafter if absolutely necessary thereafter and prescription should be limited to occasional use in the third trimester.
The use of this medicinal product at the end of pregnancy appears to warrant monitoring of the neonate's neurological and gastrointestinal functions over a certain period.
Breast-feeding: Given that antihistamines are excreted in breast milk, although in small amounts, and given that promethazine has marked sedative properties, use of this medicinal product should be avoided by breast-feeding women.
Related to the carbocisteine content:
risk of bronchial congestion, especially in infants and certain patients unable to expectorate effectively (see Contraindications and Precautions).
allergic skin reactions such as pruritus, erythematous eruption, urticaria and angioedema.
some cases of fixed drug eruption have been reported.
gastrointestinal disorders (gastric pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea). If these occur, the dose should be reduced.
gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment should be discontinued.
Isolated cases of bullous dermatoses, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme.
Immune system disorders:
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) e.g. erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). In most of these cases reported at least one other drug was administered at the same time, which may have possibly enhanced the described mucocutaneous effects.
Related to the promethazine content:
The pharmacological characteristics of this compound can cause adverse reactions of varying severity related or unrelated to the dose (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Autonomic nervous system disorders:
sedation or drowsiness, more pronounced at the start of treatment; anticholinergic effects, such as dryness of the mucous membranes, constipation, accommodation disorders, mydriasis, palpitations, risk of urinary retention; postural hypotension; balance disorders, dizziness, memory or concentration problems; loss of motor coordination, tremor (more common among the elderly); mental confusion, hallucinations; more rarely, excitation-type effects, agitation, nervousness, insomnia.
erythema, eczema, pruritus, purpura, urticaria, possibly giant urticaria; asthma attack; edema, more rarely angioedema; anaphylactic shock; photosensitization.
leucopenia, neutropenia and, exceptionally, agranulocytosis; thrombocytopenia; hemolytic anemia.
The interactions mentioned are related to the promethazine content.
Seizure threshold-lowering drugs: Use of this drug in combination with seizure-inducing agents or seizure-threshold lowering drugs should be carefully considered due to the high risk for the patient. These drugs include most antidepressants (imipramine agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), neuroleptics (phenothiazines and butyrophenones), mefloquine, chloroquine, bupropion and tramadol.
Atropine-like drugs: It should be taken into account that atropine-like substances can have additive adverse effects and more easily lead to urinary retention, acute attacks of glaucoma, constipation, dry mouth, etc.
The various atropine-like drugs include imipramine antidepressants, most atropine-like H1-antihistamines, anticholinergic antiparkinsonians, atropine-like antispasmodics, disopyramide, phenothiazine neuroleptics and clozapine.
Sedative drugs: It should be taken into account that many drugs or substances can have additive depressant effects on the central nervous system and contribute to a decrease in alertness. These drugs include morphine derivatives (analgesics, antitussives and replacement therapies), neuroleptics, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine anxiolytics (such as meprobamate), hypnotics, sedative antidepressants (amitriptyline, doxepin, mianserin, mirtazapine, trimipramine), sedative H1-antihistamines, centrally-acting antihypertensives, baclofen and thalidomide.
Hypnotic agents: Currently prescribed hypnotic agents are either benzodiazepines and related products (zolpidem, zopiclone), or H1-antihistamines. In addition to increased sedation when prescribed with other CNS depressants, or in the event of alcohol intake, the possible increase in the respiratory depressant effect when co-administered with morphine-like substances, other benzodiazepines, or phenobarbital should also be taken into account for benzodiazepines, especially in the elderly.
Drugs Inducing Postural Hypotension: In addition to antihypertensive agents, numerous drugs may cause postural hypotension. These include nitrate derivatives, phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, alphablocking agents for urological purposes, imipramine antidepressants and phenothiazine neuroleptics, dopamine agonists and levodopa.
Concomitant use could therefore increase the frequency and severity of this adverse effect. Refer to the interactions specific to each class, with the corresponding obligations.
Contraindicated combinations (see Contraindications): Non-antiparkinsonian dopamine agonists (cabergoline, quinagolide): Mutual antagonism between dopamine agonists and neuroleptics.
Inadvisable combinations (see Precautions): ALCOHOL intake (BEVERAGE OR EXCIPIENT): Potentiation of the sedative effects induced by these substances.
Impaired alertness may make driving or using machines dangerous.
The consumption of alcoholic beverages or alcohol-containing medicinal products should be avoided.
Combinations requiring precautions for use: Topical agents for gastrointestinal use, antacids and charcoal: Decreased gastrointestinal absorption of phenothiazine neuroleptics.
Allow an interval (2 hours, if possible) between administration of topical gastrointestinal agents or antacids and phenothiazine neuroleptics.
Lithium: Risk of occurrence of neuropsychiatric signs suggestive of neuroleptic malignant syndrome or lithium poisoning.
Regular clinical and laboratory monitoring required, especially at the start of co-administration.
Combinations to be taken into consideration: Antihypertensive drugs: Increased risk of hypotension, particularly postural hypotension.
Beta-blockers (except esmolol and sotalol): Vasodilator effect and risk of hypotension, particularly postural (additive effect).
Beta-blockers in heart failure (bisoprolol, carvedilol, metoprolol, nebivolol): Vasodilator effect and risk of hypotension, particularly postural (additive effect).
Nitrate derivatives and related substances: Increased risk of hypotension, particularly hypostatic.
Other hypnotic agents: Potentiation of depressant effect on the central nervous system.
Orlistat: Risk of treatment failure if administered concomitantly with orlistat.
Dapoxetine: Risk of increased adverse effects, particularly dizziness or syncope.
Other drugs lowering the seizure threshold: Increased risk of seizure.
Other sedative drugs: Potentiation of depressant effect on the central nervous system. Impaired alertness may make driving or using machines dangerous.
Other atropine-like drugs: Possibility of additive effects caused by atropine-like substances, such as urinary retention, constipation and dry mouth.
R05CB10 - combinations ; Belongs to the class of mucolytics. Used in the treatment of wet cough.