Rivastigmine


Generic Medicine Info
Indications and Dosage
Oral
Alzheimer's dementia, Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease
Adult: In patient with mild to moderately severe cases: As rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate: Initially, 1.5 mg bid, increased in increments of 1.5 mg bid at intervals of at least 2 weeks, according to response and tolerance. Usual dose: 3-6 mg bid. Max: 6 mg bid. Retitrate from 1.5 mg bid, if treatment is interrupted for several days.

Transdermal
Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease
Adult: In patient with mild to moderate cases. As patch: Initially, 4.6 mg/24 hours, increased to 9.5 mg/24 hours, after at least 4 weeks, if tolerated. May further increase to 13.3 mg/24 hours, according to response. Retitrate from 4.6 mg/24 hours, if treatment is interrupted for more than 3 days. Apply patch to dry, clean, and hairless skin on the upper or lower back, upper arm or chest. Place patch on different area each day allowing 14 days to elapse before using the same area.

Transdermal
Alzheimer's dementia
Adult: In patient with mild to moderately severe cases. As patch: Initially, 4.6 mg/24 hours, increased after at least 4 weeks, if tolerated to 9.5 mg/24 hours for Min 6 months. Then, may increase to 13.3 mg/24 hours, according to response. Retitrate from 4.6 mg/24 hours, if treatment is interrupted for more than 3 days. Apply patch to dry, clean, and hairless skin on the upper or lower back, upper arm or chest. Place patch on different area each day allowing 14 days to elapse before using the same area.
Special Patient Group
Patient weighing <50 kg: Tab/solution: Reduce dose if toxicities develop. Patch: Reduce maintenance dose to 4.6 mg/24 hours if toxicities develop.
Hepatic Impairment
Transdermal
Mild to moderate (Child Pugh class A and B): Initial and max dose of 4.6 mg/24 hours.
Administration
Should be taken with food.
Special Precautions
Patient with sick sinus syndrome, bradycardia, or conduction defects; risk of ulcer disease; respiratory diseases (e.g. COPD, asthma); history of seizure disorder; bladder outlet obstruction, prostatic hyperplasia; body weight <50 kg. Pregnancy and lactation.
Adverse Reactions
Significant: Allergic dermatitis (patch); CNS depression, extrapyramidal symptoms, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, weight loss, decreased appetite, bradycardia, heart block.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Abdominal pain, dyspepsia.
General disorders and administration site conditions: Application site erythema, fatigue.
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: Falling.
Nervous system disorders: Dizziness, headache, tremor, drowsiness, agitation, seizures.
Psychiatric disorders: Insomnia, confusion, depression.
PO/Transdermal: B
Patient Counseling Information
This drug may impair physical and mental abilities, if affected, do not drive or operate machinery.
Monitoring Parameters
Monitor cognitive function periodically; body weight, and symptoms of gastrointestinal intolerance.
Overdosage
Symptoms: Cholinergic crisis (e.g. miosis, flushing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, bronchospasm, involuntary urination/defecation, lacrimation, hypotension); severe nicotinic effects (e.g. muscular weakness, fasciculations, respiratory depression, and convulsions); dizziness, tremor, headache, somnolence, confusional state, hypertension, hallucination, and malaise. Management: Symptomatic and supportive treatment. May administer antiemetics for severe nausea and vomiting Remove patch immediately in asymptomatic cases. May give 0.03 mg/kg of atropine sulphate IV in massive overdose.
Drug Interactions
Additive effect with succinylcholine-type muscle relaxants during anaesthesia; cholinometric substances (e.g. oxybutynin, tolterodine). Additive effect and increased risk of bradycardia with beta-blockers (e.g. atenolol). Increased risk of torsade de pointes with phenothiazines (e.g. chlorpromazine); benzamides (e.g. sulpiride, sultopride), pimozide, cisapride.
Food Interaction
Food delays absorption.
Action
Description: Rivastigmine increases acetylcholine present in CNS by reversibly inhibiting hydrolysis of acetylcholine by cholinesterases.
Duration: Approx 10 hours.
Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: Readily and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Food delays absorption. Bioavailability: 36%. Time to peak plasma concentration: Approx 1 hour (oral); 8 to 16 hours (transdermal).
Distribution: Widely distributed in the body. Readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Volume of distribution: 1.8 to 2.7 L/kg. Plasma protein-binding: Approx 40%.
Metabolism: Rapidly and extensively metabolised in the brain via cholinesterase-mediated hydrolysis to weakly active decarbamylated metabolite; further metabolised in the liver via N-demethylation and/or sulphate conjugation.
Excretion: Mainly via urine (97% as metabolites); faeces (0.4%). Half-life elimination: 1.5 hours (oral); approx 3 hours (transdermal).
Chemical Structure

Chemical Structure Image
Rivastigmine

Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Rivastigmine, CID=77991, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Rivastigmine (accessed on Jan. 23, 2020)

Storage
Store at 25°C.
ATC Classification
N06DA03 - rivastigmine ; Belongs to the class of anticholinesterases. Used in the management of dementia.
References
Anon. Rivastigmine. AHFS Clinical Drug Information [online]. Bethesda, MD. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. https://www.ahfscdi.com. Accessed 05/10/2018.

Anon. Rivastigmine. Lexicomp Online. Hudson, Ohio. Wolters Kluwer Clinical Drug Information, Inc. https://online.lexi.com. Accessed 05/10/2018.

Buckingham R (ed). Rivastigmine. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference [online]. London. Pharmaceutical Press. https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 05/10/2018.

Joint Formulary Committee. Rivastigmine. British National Formulary [online]. London. BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press. https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 05/10/2018.

Rivastigmine Patch (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/. Accessed 05/10/2018.

Rivastigmine Patch, Extended Release (Sandoz, Inc.). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/. Accessed 05/10/2018.

Rivastigmine Tartrate Capsule (Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/. Accessed 05/10/2018.

Disclaimer: This information is independently developed by MIMS based on Rivastigmine from various references and is provided for your reference only. Therapeutic uses, prescribing information and product availability may vary between countries. Please refer to MIMS Product Monographs for specific and locally approved prescribing information. Although great effort has been made to ensure content accuracy, MIMS shall not be held responsible or liable for any claims or damages arising from the use or misuse of the information contained herein, its contents or omissions, or otherwise. Copyright © 2021 MIMS. All rights reserved. Powered by MIMS.com
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