Rovastin Mechanism of Action





Full Prescribing Info
Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Rosuvastatin is a selective, potent and competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of cholesterol. Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol in the liver are incorporated with apolipoprotein B (ApoB), into very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and released into the plasma for delivery to peripheral tissues. VLDL particles are TG-rich. Cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein (LDL) is formed from VLDL and is cleared primarily through the high affinity LDL receptor in the liver.
Rosuvastatin produces its lipid-modifying effects in 2 ways; it increases the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell surface, enhancing uptake and catabolism of LDL and it inhibits the hepatic synthesis of VLDL, thereby reducing the total number ofVLDL and LDL particles.
High density lipoprotein (HDL), which contains ApoA-I is involved, amongst other things, in transport of cholesterol from tissues back to the liver (reverse cholesterol transport).
The involvement of LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) in atherogenesis has been well documented. Epidemiological studies have established that high LDL-C, TG, low HDL-C and ApoA-I have been linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Intervention studies have shown the benefits on mortality and CV event rates of lowering LDL-C and TG or raising HDL-C. More recent data has linked the beneficial effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors to lowering of non-HDL (ie, all circulating cholesterol not in HDL) and ApoB or reducing the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: In clinical pharmacology studies in man, peak plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were reached 3-5 hrs following oral dosing. Both peak concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased in approximate proportion to rosuvastatin dose. The absolute bioavailability of rosuvastatin is approximately 20%.
Administration of rosuvastatin with food decreased the rate of drug absorption by 20% as assessed by Cmax, but there was no effect on the extent of absorption as assessed by AUC.
Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin do not differ following evening or morning drug administration.
Significant LDL-C reductions are seen when rosuvastatin is given with or without food, and regardless of the time of day of drug administration.
Distribution: Mean volume of distribution at steady-state of rosuvastatin is approximately 134 L. Rosuvastatin is 88% bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin. This binding is reversible and independent of plasma concentrations.
Metabolism: Rosuvastatin is not extensively metabolised; approximately 10% of a radio labeled dose is recovered as metabolite. The major metabolite is N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, which is formed principally by cytochrome P-450 2C9, and in vitro studies have demonstrated that N-desmethyl rosuvastatin has approximately ⅙ to ½ the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of rosuvastatin. Overall, >90% of active plasma HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is accounted for by rosuvastatin.
Excretion: Following oral administration, rosuvastatin and its metabolite are primarily excreted in the faeces (90%). The elimination half-life (t½) of rosuvastatin is approximately 19 hrs.
After an IV dose, approximately 28% of total body clearance was via the renal route and 72% by the hepatic route.
Special Populations: Age and Sex: There was no clinically relevant effect of age or sex on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin.
Race: Pharmacokinetic studies show an approximate 2-fold elevation in median AUC in Asian subjects compared with Caucasians. A population pharmacokinetic analysis revealed no clinically relevant differences in pharmacokinetics among Caucasian, Hispanic and Black or Afro-Caribbean groups.
Genetic polymorphisms: Disposition of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including rosuvastatin, involves OATP1B1 and BCRP transporter proteins. In patients with SLCO1B1 (OATP1B1) and/or ABCG2 (BCRP) genetic polymorphisms there is a risk of increased rosuvastatin exposure. Individual polymorphisms of SLCO1B1 c.521CC and ABCG2 c.421AA are associated with a higher rosuvastatin exposure (AUC) compared to the SLCO1B1 c.521TT or ABCG2 c.421CC genotypes. This specific genotyping is not established in clinical practice, but for patients who are known to have these types of polymorphisms, a lower daily dose of Rovastin is recommended.
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