Renal Effects: Proteinuria, detected by dipstick testing and mostly tubular in origin, has been observed in patients treated with higher doses of Rovastin, in particular 40 mg, where it was transient or intermittent in most cases. Proteinuria has not been shown to be predictive of acute or progressive renal disease. An assessment of renal function should be considered during routine follow-up of patients treated with a dose of 40 mg.
Skeletal Muscle Effects: Gemfibrozil increases the risk of myopathy when given concomitantly with some HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Therefore, the combination of rosuvastation and gemfibrozil is not recommended. The benefit of further alterations in lipid levels by the combined use of rosuvastation with fibrates or niacin should be carefully weighed against the potential risks of such combinations.
Effects on skeletal muscle e.g. myalgia, myopathy and, rarely, rhabdomyolysis have been reported in Rosuvastatin-treated patients with all doses and in particular with doses >20 mg. Very rare cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with the use of ezetimibe in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. A pharmacodynamic interaction cannot be excluded (see Interactions) and caution should be exercised with their combined use.
As with other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, the reporting rate for rhabdomyolysis associated with Rosuvastatin in post-marketing use is higher at the 40 mg dose.
Creatine Kinase Measurement: Creatine Kinase (CK) should not be measured following strenuous exercise or in the presence of a plausible alternative cause of CK increase which may confound interpretation of the result. If CK levels are significantly elevated at baseline (>5xULN) a confirmatory test should be carried out within 5-7 days. If the repeat test confirms a baseline CK >5xULN, treatment should not be started.
Before Treatment: Rovastin, as with other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, should be prescribed with caution in patients with pre-disposing factors for myopathy/rhabdomyolysis. Such factors include: Renal impairment; Hypothyroidism, personal or family history of hereditary muscular disorders; Previous history of muscular toxicity with another HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor or fibrate; Alcohol abuse; Age >70 years; Situations where an increase in plasma levels may occur (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions, Dosage & Administration and Interactions); Concomitant use of fibrates.
In such patients the risk of treatment should be considered in relation to possible benefit and clinical monitoring is recommended. If CK levels are significantly elevated at baseline (>5xULN) treatment should not be started.
Whilst on Treatment: Patients should be asked to report inexplicable muscle pain, weakness or cramps immediately, particularly if associated with malaise or fever. CK levels should be measured in these patients. Therapy should be discontinued if CK levels are markedly elevated (>5xULN) or if muscular symptoms are severe and cause daily discomfort ( even if CK levels are ≤5x ULN). If symptoms resolve and CK levels return to normal, then consideration should be given to re-introducing Rovastin or an alternative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor at the lowest dose with close monitoring. Routine monitoring of CK levels in asymptomatic patients is not warranted. There have been very rare reports of an immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) during or after treatment with statins, including rosuvastatin. IMNM is clinically characterised by proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment.
The combination of Rovastin and gemfibrozil is not recommended. The benefit of further alterations in lipid levels by the combined use of Rovastin with fibrates or niacin should be carefully weighed against the potential risks of such combinations (see Interactions).
Rovastin should not be used in any patient with an acute, serious condition suggestive of myopathy or predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g. sepsis, hypotension, major surgery, trauma, severe metabolic, endocrine and electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled seizures).
Liver Effects: As with other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, Rovastin should be used with caution in patients who consume excessive quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of liver disease.
It is recommended that liver function tests be carried out prior to, and 3 months following, the initiation of treatment. Rovastin should be discontinued or the dose reduced if the level of serum transaminases is greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal. The reporting rate for serious hepatic events (consisting mainly of increased hepatic transaminases) in post-marketing use is higher at the 40 mg dose. In patients with secondary hypercholesterolaemia caused by hypothyroidism or nephrotic syndrome, the underlying disease should be treated prior to initiating therapy with Rovastin.
Race: Pharmacokinetic studies show an increase in exposure in Asian subjects compared with Caucasians (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Dosage & Administration).
Protease Inhibitors: Increased systemic exposure to rosuvastatin has been observed in subjects receiving rosuvastatin concomitantly with various protease inhibitors in combination with ritonavir. Consideration should be given both to the benefit of lipid lowering by use of Rovastin in HIV patients receiving protease inhibitors and the potential for increased rosuvastatin plasma concentrations when initiating and up titrating Rovastin doses in patients treated with protease inhibitors. The concomitant use with certain protease inhibitors is not recommended unless the dose of Rovastin is adjusted (see Dosage & Administration and Interactions).
Lactose Intolerance: Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Interstitial Lung Disease: Exceptional cases of interstitial lung disease have been reported with some statins, especially with long term therapy (see Side Effects). Presenting features can include dyspnoea, non-productive cough and deterioration in general health (fatigue, weight loss and fever). If it is suspected a patient has developed interstitial lung disease, statin therapy should be discontinued.
Diabetes Mellitus: Some evidence suggests that statins as a class raise blood glucose and in some patients, at high risk of future diabetes, may produce a level of hyperglycaemia where formal diabetes care is appropriate. This risk, however, is outweighed by the reduction in vascular risk with statins and therefore should not be a reason for stopping statin treatment. Patients at risk (fasting glucose 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L, BMI >30 kg/m2, raised triglycerides, hypertension) should be monitored both clinically and biochemically according to national guidelines.
Effects on the Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery: From the safety profile, Rovastin is not expected to adversely affect the ability to drive or use machines.