Pharmacology: (Summary of Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics): The B-complex vitamins are essential for normal metabolic functions including hematopoiesis. They are also necessary for the conversion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats into tissue and energy.
Nicotinamide (Vitamin B3) is a component of two coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are necessary for lipid metabolism, tissue respiration, and glycogenolysis.
Calcium pantothenate, a synthetic derivative of pathothenic acid (vitamin B5), is a precursor of coenzyme A and is required for various metabolic functions including metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
The B-complex vitamins are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, except in the malabsorption syndromes. Water soluble vitamins, such as B-complex, are not significantly stored in the body and must be replaced continually to maintain essential tissue levels; excess quantities are excreted in the urine. They are rapidly depleted in conditions interfering with their intake or absorption.