Stalevo

Stalevo

carbidopa + levodopa + entacapone

Manufacturer:

Novartis

Distributor:

DKSH
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Levodopa, carbidopa, entacapone.
Description
Each 50 mg/12.5 mg/200 mg film-coated tablet contains levodopa 50 mg, carbidopa 12.5 mg and entacapone 200 mg.
Each 100 mg/25 mg/200 mg film-coated tablet contains levodopa 100 mg, carbidopa 25 mg and entacapone 200 mg.
Each 150 mg/37.5 mg/200 mg film-coated tablet contains levodopa 150 mg, carbidopa 37.5 mg and entacapone 200 mg.
Each 200 mg/50 mg/200 mg film-coated tablet contains levodopa 200 mg, carbidopa 50 mg and entacapone 200 mg.
It also contains the following excipients: Tablet Core: Croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, maize starch, mannitol and povidone K30.
Film-Coating: Glycerol 85%, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polysorbate 80, red iron oxide (E172), sucrose, titanium dioxide (E171) and yellow iron oxide (E172).
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Antiparkinson drugs, dopa and dopa derivatives.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: According to current understanding, the symptoms of Parkinson's disease are related to depletion of dopamine in the corpus striatum. Dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Levodopa, the precursor of dopamine, crosses the blood-brain barrier and relieves the symptoms of the disease. As levodopa is extensively metabolised in the periphery, only a small portion of a given dose reaches the central nervous system when levodopa is administered without metabolic enzyme inhibitors.
Carbidopa and benserazide are peripheral dopa decarboxylase (DDC) inhibitors which reduce the peripheral metabolism of levodopa to dopamine, resulting in an increase in the amount of levodopa available to the brain. When decarboxylation of levodopa is reduced with the co-administration of a DDC inhibitor, a lower dose of levodopa can be used and the incidence of adverse reactions eg, nausea is reduced.
With the inhibition of the decarboxylase by a DDC inhibitor, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) becomes the major peripheral metabolic pathway catalyzing the conversion of levodopa to 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), a potentially harmful metabolite of levodopa. Entacapone is a reversible, specific and mainly peripherally acting COMT inhibitor designed for concomitant administration with levodopa. Entacapone slows the clearance of levodopa from the bloodstream resulting in an increased area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in the pharmacokinetic profile of levodopa. Consequently, the clinical response to each dose of levodopa is enhanced and prolonged.
The evidence of the therapeutic effects of Stalevo is based on 2 phase III double-blind studies, in which 376 Parkinson's disease patients with end-of-dose motor fluctuations received either entacapone or placebo with each levodopa/DDC inhibitor dose. Daily "on" time with and without entacapone was recorded in home-diaries by patients. In the 1st study, entacapone increased the mean daily "on" time by 1 hr and 20 min (CI95% 45 min, 1 hr and 56 min) from baseline. This corresponded to an 8.3% increase in the proportion of daily "on" time. Correspondingly, the decrease in the daily "off" time was 24% in the entacapone group and 0% in the placebo group. In the 2nd study, the mean proportion of daily "on" time increased by 4.5% (CI95% 0.93%, 7.97%) from baseline. This is translated to a mean increase of 35 min in the daily "on" time. Correspondingly, the daily "off" time decreased by 18% on entacapone and by 5% on placebo. Because the effects of Stalevo tablets are equivalent with entacapone 200-mg tablet administered concomitantly with the commercially available standard-release carbidopa/levodopa preparations in corresponding doses these results are applicable to describe the effects of Stalevo as well.
Pharmacokinetics: General Characteristics of the Active Substances: Absorption/Distribution: These are substantial inter- and intra-individual variations in the absorption of levodopa, carbidopa and entacapone. Both levodopa and entacapone are rapidly absorbed and eliminated. Carbidopa is absorbed and eliminated slightly more slowly than levodopa. When given separately without the other 2 active substances, the bioavailability of levodopa is 15-33% that of carbidopa 40-70% and that of entacapone 35% after a 200-mg oral dose. Meals rich in large neutral amino acids may delay and reduce the absorption of levodopa. Food does not significantly affect the absorption of entacapone. The distribution volume of both levodopa (Vd 0.36-1.6 L/kg) and entacapone (Vdss 0.27 L/kg) is moderately small; no data are available for carbidopa.
Levodopa is bound to plasma proteins only to a minor extent (about 10-30%), while carbidopa is bound approximately 36% and while entacapone is extensively bound (about 98%), mainly to serum albumin. At therapeutic concentrations, entacapone does not displace other extensively bound active substances (eg, warfarin, salicylic acid, phenylbutazone or diazepam) nor is it displaced to any significant extent by any of these substances at therapeutic, or higher concentrations.
Metabolism and Elimination: Levodopa is extensively metabolised to various metabolites, decarboxylation by DDC and O-methylation by COMT being the most important pathways.
Carbidopa is metabolised to 2 main metabolites which are excreted in the urine as glucuronides and unconjugated compounds. Unchanged carbidopa accounts for 30% of the total urinary excretion.
Entacapone is almost completely metabolised prior to excretion via urine (10-20%) and bile/faeces (80-90%). The main metabolic pathway is glucuronidation of entacapone and its active metabolite, the cis-isomer, which accounts for about 5% of the total amount in plasma.
Total clearance of levodopa is in the range of 0.55-1.38 L/kg/hr and that of entacapone is in the range of 0.7 L/kg/hr. The elimination half-life (t½) is 0.6-1.3 hrs for levodopa, 2-3 hrs for carbidopa and 0.4-0.7 hrs for entacapone, each given separately.
Due to short elimination t½, no true accumulation of levodopa or entacapone occurs on repeated administration.
Data from in vitro studies using human liver microsomal preparations indicate that entacapone inhibits cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) 2C9 (IC50 approximately 4 micromolar). Entacapone showed little or no inhibition of other types of CYP450 isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A and CYP2C19) (see Interactions).
Characteristics in Patients: Elderly: In elderly patients given levodopa without carbidopa and entacapone, absorption is greater and elimination is slower than in young subjects. However, when combined with carbidopa, the absorption of levodopa is similar in both elderly and the young patients, although the AUC is still 1.5 times greater in the elderly due to decreased DDC activity and lower clearance caused by aging. There are no significant differences in the AUC of carbidopa or entacapone between younger (45-64 years) and elderly subjects (65-75 years).
Gender: The bioavailability of levodopa is significantly higher in women than in men. In the pharmacokinetic studies with Stalevo, the bioavailability of levodopa is higher in women than in men, primarily due to the difference in body weight, while there is no gender difference with carbidopa and entacapone.
Hepatic Impairment: The metabolism of entacapone is slowed in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A and B) leading to an increased plasma concentration of entacapone in both the absorption and the elimination phases (see Dosage & Administration, and Contraindications). No specific studies on the pharmacokinetics of carbidopa and levodopa in patients with hepatic impairment have been reported. However, it is advised that Stalevo should be administered with caution in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment.
Renal Impairment: Renal impairment does not affect the pharmacokinetics of entacapone. No specific studies are reported on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa and carbidopa in patients with renal impairment. However, a longer dosing interval of Stalevo may be considered for patients who are receiving dialysis therapy (see Dosage & Administration).
Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data: Preclinical data for levodopa, carbidopa and entacapone tested alone or in combination revealed no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated-dose toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential. In repeated-dose toxicity studies with entacapone, anaemia, most probably due to iron chelating properties of entacapone, was observed. Regarding reproduction toxicity of entacapone, decreased foetal weight and a slightly delayed bone development were noticed in rabbits treated at systemic exposure levels in the therapeutic range. Both levodopa, and combinations of carbidopa and levodopa have caused visceral, and skeletal malformations in rabbits.
Indications/Uses
Treatment of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease: To substitute (with equivalent strength of each of the 3 components) for immediate release of carbidopa/levodopa and entacapone previously administered as individual products.
To replace immediate release of carbidopa/levodopa therapy (without entacapone) when patients experience the signs and symptoms of end-of-dose "wearing-off" (only for patients taking a total daily dose of levodopa of ≤600 mg or less and not experiencing dyskinesia (see Dosage & Administration).
Dosage/Direction for Use
The optimum daily dosage must be determined by careful titration of levodopa in each patient. The daily dose should preferably be optimised using 1 of the 6 available tablet strengths (50/12.5/200 mg, 100/25/200 mg or 150/37.5/200 mg levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone).
Patients should be instructed to take only 1 tablet/dose administration. Patients receiving carbidopa <70-100 mg daily are more likely to experience nausea and vomiting. While the experience with total daily dosage >200 mg carbidopa is limited, the maximum recommended daily dose of entacapone is 2000 mg and therefore, the maximum Stalevo dose, for the Stalevo strengths of 50/12.5/200 mg, 100/25/200 mg and 150/37.5/200 mg, is 10 tablets daily. Ten (10) tablets of Stalevo 150/37.5/200 mg equals carbidopa 375 mg daily.
The maximum total daily levodopa dose administered in the form of Stalevo should not exceed 1500 mg.
Starting Stalevo Therapy: Switching from Levodopa/Dopa Decarboxylase (DDC) Inhibitor (Carbidopa or Benserazide) Preparations and Entacapone to Stalevo: Usually, Stalevo is intended for use in patients already receiving treatment with corresponding doses of standard-release levodopa/DDC inhibitor and entacapone.
As with levodopa/carbidopa, nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are contraindicated for use with Stalevo. These inhibitors must be discontinued at least 2 weeks prior to initiating therapy with Stalevo. Stalevo may be administered concomitantly with the manufacturer's recommended dose of MAOIs with selectivity for MAO type B (eg, selegiline HCl).
Patients who are currently receiving treatment with entacapone and standard-release levodopa/carbidopa in doses equal to Stalevo tablet strengths can be directly switched to the corresponding Stalevo tablets (see Table 1).

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

When initiating Stalevo therapy in patients currently receiving treatment with entacapone and levodopa/carbidopa in doses not equal to the available Stalevo tablet strengths (50/12.5/200 mg, 100/25/200 mg or 150/37.5/200 mg), Stalevo dosing should be carefully titrated for optimal clinical response. At the start of therapy, Stalevo should be adjusted to correspond as closely as possible to the total daily dose of levodopa currently used.
When initiating Stalevo in patients currently treated with entacapone and levodopa/benzeraside in a standard-release formulation, treatment should be stopped for 1 night and Stalevo therapy started the next morning. The therapy should begin with a dosage of Stalevo that will provide either the same amount of levodopa or slightly (5-10%) more.
Switching in Patients Not Currently Treated with Entacapone to Stalevo: As with levodopa/carbidopa, nonselective MAOIs are contraindicated for use with Stalevo. These inhibitors must be discontinued at least 2 weeks prior to initiating therapy with Stalevo. Stalevo may be administered concomitantly with the manufacturer's recommended dose of MAOIs with selectivity for MAO type B (eg, selegiline HCl).
Initiation of Stalevo at a dosage corresponding to current treatment may be considered in some patients with Parkinson's disease and end-of-dose motor fluctuations who are not stabilised on their current standard-release levodopa/DDC inhibitor treatment. However, a direct switch from levodopa/DDC inhibitor to Stalevo is not recommended for patients who have dyskinesia or whose daily levodopa dose is >800 mg. In such patients, it is advisable to introduce entacapone treatment as a separate medication (entacapone tablets) and adjust the levodopa dose if necessary, before switching to Stalevo.
Entacapone enhances the effects of levodopa. Therefore, it may be necessary, particularly in patients with dyskinesia, to reduce levodopa dosage by 10-30% within the first days to first weeks after initiating Stalevo treatment. The daily dose of levodopa can be reduced by extending the dosing intervals and/or by reducing the amount of levodopa per dose, according to the clinical condition of the patient.
Dosage Adjustment During the Course of the Treatment: When more levodopa is required, an increase in the frequency of doses and/or the use of an alternative strength of Stalevo should be considered within the dosage recommendations.
When less levodopa is required, the total daily dosage of Stalevo should be reduced either by decreasing the frequency of administration by extending the time between doses or by decreasing the strength of Stalevo at an administration.
If other levodopa products are used concomitantly with a Stalevo tablet, the maximum dosage recommendations should not be followed.
Discontinuation of Stalevo Therapy: If Stalevo treatment (levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone) is discontinued and the patient is switched to levodopa/DDC inhibitor therapy without entacapone, it is necessary to adjust the dosing of other antiparkinsonian treatments, especially levodopa to achieve a sufficient level of control of the parkinsonian symptoms (see Precautions).
Elderly: No adjustment of Stalevo dosage is necessary in elderly patients.
Hepatic Impairment: Caution is recommended when administering Stalevo to patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Dose reduction may be necessary (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Renal Impairment: Renal impairment does not affect the pharmacokinetics of entacapone. No specific studies are reported on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa and carbidopa in patients with renal impairment, and Stalevo should be administered with caution in patients with severe renal impairment including those receiving dialysis therapy (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Administration: Each tablet is to be taken orally either with or without food (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). One tablet contains 1 treatment dose and the tablet may only be administered as whole tablets.
Overdosage
The post-marketing data includes isolated cases of overdosage in which the reported highest daily doses of levodopa and entacapone have been at least 10,000 mg and 40,000 mg, respectively. The acute signs and symptoms in these cases of overdosage included agitation, confusional state, coma, bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, chromaturia, and discolourations of skin, tongue and conjunctiva. Management of acute overdosage with Stalevo is similar to acute overdosage with levodopa. Hospitalisation is advised and general supportive measures should be employed with immediate gastric lavage and repeated doses of charcoal over time. This may hasten the elimination of entacapone particularly by decreasing its absorption/reabsorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The adequacy of the respiratory, circulatory and renal systems should be carefully monitored and appropriate supportive measures employed. Electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring should be started and the patient carefully monitored for the possible development of arrhythmias. If required, appropriate antiarrhythmic therapy should be given. The possibility that the patient has taken other active substances in addition to Stalevo should be taken into consideration. The value of dialysis in the treatment of overdosage is not known.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to levodopa, carbidopa, entacapone or to any of the excipients of Stalevo.
Severe hepatic impairment, narrow-angle glaucoma and pheochromocytoma.
Co-administration of a nonselective monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) inhibitor (eg, phenelzine, tranylcypromine).
Co-administration of a selective MAO-A inhibitor and a selective MAO-B inhibitor (see Interactions). These inhibitors must be discontinued at least 2 weeks prior to initiating therapy with Stalevo.
A history of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and/or nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis.
Special Precautions
Stalevo is not recommended for the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.
Stalevo therapy should be administered with caution to patients with ischemic heart disease, severe cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma, renal, hepatic or endocrine disease, or history of peptic ulcer disease or convulsions.
In patients with a history of myocardial infarction who have residual atrial nodal or ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac function should be monitored with particular care during the period of initial dosage adjustments.
All patients treated with Stalevo should be monitored carefully for the development of mental changes (eg, hallucinoses and psychoses), depression with suicidal tendencies and serious antisocial behaviour. Patients with past or current psychosis should be treated with caution.
Concomitant administration of antipsychotics with dopamine receptor-blocking properties, particularly D2-receptor antagonists, should be carried out with caution and the patient carefully observed for loss of antiparkinsonian effect or worsening of parkinsonian symptoms.
Patients with chronic wide-angle glaucoma may be treated with Stalevo with caution, provided that the intraocular pressure is well controlled and the patient is monitored carefully for changes in intraocular pressure.
Stalevo may induce orthostatic hypotension. Therefore, caution is necessary when giving Stalevo to patients taking other medicinal products which may cause orthostatic hypotension.
Entacapone in combination with levodopa has been associated with somnolence and episodes of sudden sleep onset in patients with Parkinson's disease. Therefore, caution should be exercised when driving or operating machines (see Effects on the Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery as follows).
In clinical studies, undesirable dopaminergic effects eg, dyskinesia, were more common in patients who received entacapone and dopamine agonists (eg, bromocriptine), selegiline or amantadine compared to those who received placebo with this combination. The doses of other antiparkinsonian agents may need to be adjusted when Stalevo is introduced in a patient not previously treated with entacapone.
Rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe dyskinesia or NMS has been observed rarely in patients with Parkinson's disease. Isolated cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with entacapone treatment. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, including rhabdomyolysis and hyperthermia, is characterised by motor symptoms (rigidity, myoclonus, tremor), mental status changes (eg, agitation, confusion, coma), hyperthermia, autonomic dysfunction (tachycardia, labile blood pressure) and elevated serum creatine phosphokinase. In individual cases, only some of these symptoms and/or findings may be evident. Early diagnosis is important for the appropriate management of NMS. A syndrome resembling NMS including muscular rigidity, elevated body temperature, mental changes and increased serum creatine phosphokinase has been reported with the abrupt withdrawal of antiparkinsonian agents. Isolated cases of NMS have been reported, especially following abrupt reduction or discontinuation of entacapone.
When considered necessary, withdrawal of Stalevo and other dopaminergic treatment should proceed slowly, and if signs and/or symptoms occur despite a slow withdrawal of Stalevo, an increase in levodopa dosage may be necessary.
Prescribers should exercise caution when switching patients from Stalevo to levodopa/DDC inhibitor therapy without entacapone. When considered necessary, the replacement of Stalevo with levodopa and DDC inhibitor without entacapone should proceed slowly and an increase in levodopa dosage may be necessary.
If general anaesthesia is required, therapy with Stalevo may be continued for as long as the patient is permitted to take fluids and medication by mouth. If therapy has to be stopped temporarily, Stalevo may be restarted as soon as oral medication can be taken at the same daily dosage as before.
Periodic evaluation of hepatic, haematopoietic, cardiovascular and renal function is recommended during extended therapy with Stalevo.
For patients experiencing diarrhoea, a follow-up on weight is recommended in order to avoid potential excessive weight decrease. Prolonged or persistent diarrhoea suspected to be related to Stalevo may be a sign of colitis. In the event of prolonged or persistent diarrhoea, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate medical therapy and investigations considered.
For patients who experience progressive anorexia, asthenia and weight decrease within a relatively short period of time, a general medical evaluation including liver function should be considered.
Patients should be regularly monitored for the development of impulse control disorders. Patients and caregivers should be made aware that behavioural symptoms of impulse control disorders including pathological gambling, increased libido, hypersexuality, compulsive spending or buying, binge eating and compulsive eating can occur in patients treated with dopamine agonists, and/or other dopaminergic treatments containing levodopa including Stalevo. Review of treatment is recommended if such symptoms develop.
Levodopa/carbidopa may cause false-positive result when a dipstick is used to test for urinary ketone and this reaction is not altered by boiling the urine sample. The use of glucose oxidase methods may give false-negative results for glycosuria.
Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.
Effects on the Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery: Stalevo may have a major influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Patients being treated with Stalevo and presenting with somnolence and/or sudden sleep onset episodes must be instructed to refrain from driving or engaging in activities where impaired alertness may put themselves or others at risk of serious injury or death (eg, operating machines) until such recurrent episodes have resolved.
Levodopa, carbidopa and entacapone together may cause dizziness and symptomatic orthostatism. Therefore, caution should be exercised when driving or using machines.
Impairment of Fertility: No adverse reactions on fertility were observed in preclinical studies with entacapone, carbidopa or levodopa alone. Fertility studies in animals have not been conducted with the combination of entacapone, levodopa and carbidopa.
Use in pregnancy: There are no adequate data from the use of the combination of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity of the separate compounds (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Stalevo should not be used during pregnancy.
Use in lactation: Levodopa is excreted in human breast milk. There is evidence that lactation is suppressed during treatment with levodopa. Carbidopa and entacapone were excreted in milk in animals but it is not known whether they are not excreted in human breast milk. The safety of levodopa, carbidopa or entacapone in the infant is not known. Women should not breastfeed during treatment with Stalevo.
Use in children: The safety and efficacy of Stalevo in children <18 years have not been established. No data are available.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Use in pregnancy: There are no adequate data from the use of the combination of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity of the separate compounds (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Stalevo should not be used during pregnancy.
Use in lactation: Levodopa is excreted in human breast milk. There is evidence that lactation is suppressed during treatment with levodopa. Carbidopa and entacapone were excreted in milk in animals but it is not known whether they are not excreted in human breast milk. The safety of levodopa, carbidopa or entacapone in the infant is not known. Women should not breastfeed during treatment with Stalevo.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the Safety Profile: The most frequently reported adverse reactions with Stalevo are dyskinesia occurring in approximately 19% of patients; gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea and diarrhoea occurring in approximately 15% and 12% of patients, respectively; muscle, musculoskeletal and connective tissue pain occurring in approximately 12% of patients and harmless reddish-brown discolouration of urine (chromaturia) occurring in approximately 10% of patients. Serious events of gastrointestinal haemorrhage (uncommon) and angioedema (rare) have been identified from the clinical trials with Stalevo or entacapone combined with levodopa/DDC inhibitor. Serious hepatitis with mainly cholestatic features, rhabdomyolysis and neuroleptic malignant syndrome may occur with Stalevo although no cases have been identified from the clinical trial data.
Tabulated List of Adverse Reactions: The following adverse reactions, listed in Table 2, have been accumulated both from a pooled data of 11 double-blind clinical trials consisting of 3230 patients (1810 treated with Stalevo or entacapone combined with levodopa/DDC inhibitor, and 1420 treated with placebo combined with levodopa/DDC inhibitor or cabergoline combined with levodopa/DDC inhibitor), and from the post-marketing data since the introduction of entacapone into the market for the combination use of entacapone with levodopa/DDC inhibitor.
Adverse reactions are ranked under headings of frequency, the most frequent first, using the following convention: Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data, since no valid estimate can be derived from clinical trials or epidemiological studies). (See Table 2.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Description of Selected Adverse Reactions: Adverse reactions that are mainly attributable to entacapone or are more frequent with entacapone than levodopa/DDC inhibitor alone are indicated with an asterisk (*) in Table 2. Some of these adverse reactions relate to the increased dopaminergic activity (eg, dyskinesia, nausea and vomiting) and occur most commonly at the beginning of the treatment. Reduction of levodopa dose decreases the severity and frequency of these dopaminergic reactions. Few adverse reactions are known to be directly attributable to the active substance entacapone including diarrhoea and reddish-brown discolouration of urine.In some cases, entacapone may also cause discolouration of eg, skin, nail, hair and sweat. Other adverse reactions with an asterisk (*) in Table 2 are marked based on either their more frequent occurrence (by the frequency difference of at least 1%) in the clinical trial data with entacapone than levodopa/DDCI alone or the individual case safety reports received after the introduction of entacapone into the market.
Convulsions have occurred rarely with levodopa/carbidopa. However a causal relationship to levodopa/carbidopa therapy has not been established.
Impulse Control Disorders: Pathological gambling, increased libido, hypersexuality, compulsive spending or buying, binge eating and compulsive eating can occur in patients treated with dopamine agonists and/or other dopaminergic treatments containing levodopa including Stalevo (see Precautions).
Entacapone in association with levodopa has been associated with isolated cases of excessive daytime somnolence and sudden sleep onset episodes.
Drug Interactions
Other Antiparkinsonian Agents: To date, there has been no indication of interactions that would preclude concurrent use of standard antiparkinsonian agents with Stalevo therapy. Entacapone in high doses may affect the absorption of carbidopa. However, no interaction with carbidopa has been observed with the recommended treatment schedule (entacapone 200 mg up to 10 times daily). Interactions between entacapone and selegiline have been investigated in repeated-dose studies in Parkinson's disease patients treated with levodopa/DDC inhibitor and no interaction was observed. When used with Stalevo, the daily dose of selegiline should not exceed 10 mg.
Because Stalevo contains entacapone, it should not be used concurrently with Comtan (entacapone).
Caution should be exercised when the following active substances are administered concomitantly with levodopa therapy.
Antihypertensives: Symptomatic postural hypotension may occur when levodopa is initiated in patients already receiving antihypertensives. Dosage adjustment of the antihypertensive agent may be required.
Antidepressants: Rarely, reactions including hypertension and dyskinesia have been reported with the concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and levodopa/carbidopa. Interactions between entacapone and imipramine and between entacapone and moclobemide have been investigated in single-dose studies in healthy volunteers. No pharmacodynamic interactions were observed. A significant number of Parkinson's disease patients have been treated with the combination of levodopa, carbidopa and entacapone with several active substances including MAO-A inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors eg, desipramine, maprotiline and venlafaxine and medicinal products that are metabolised by COMT eg, catechol-structured compounds (eg, rimiterole, isoprenaline, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, dobutamine, α-methyldopa, apomorphine and paroxetine). No pharmacodynamic interactions have been observed. However, caution should be exercised when these medicinal products are used concomitantly with Stalevo (see Contraindications and Precautions).
Other Active Substances: Dopamine receptor antagonists (eg, some antipsychotics and antiemetics), phenytoin and papaverine may reduce the therapeutic effect of levodopa. Patients taking these medicinal products with Stalevo should be carefully observed for loss of therapeutic response.
Due to entacapone's affinity to CYP450 2C9 in vitro (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions), Stalevo may potentially interfere with active substances whose metabolism is dependent on this isoenzyme eg, S-warfarin. However, in an interaction study with healthy volunteers, entacapone did not change the plasma levels of S-warfarin, while the AUC for R-warfarin increased on average by 18% (Cl90 11-26%). The international normalized ratio (INR) values increased on average by 13% (Cl90 6-19%). Thus, a control of INR is recommended when Stalevo is initiated in patients receiving warfarin.
Other Forms of Interactions: Since levodopa competes with certain amino acids, the absorption of Stalevo may be impaired in some patients on a high protein diet.
Levodopa and entacapone may form chelates with iron in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, Stalevo and iron preparations should be taken at least 2-3 hrs apart (see Adverse Reactions).
Stalevo may be given to patients with Parkinson's disease who are taking vitamin preparations that contain pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6).
In vitro Data: Entacapone binds to human albumin binding site II which also binds several other medicinal products, including diazepam and ibuprofen. According to in vitro studies, significant displacement is not anticipated at therapeutic concentrations of the medicinal products. Accordingly, to date, there has been no indication of such interactions.
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Storage
Do not store above 30°C.
Shelf-Life: 3 years.
ATC Classification
N04BA03 - levodopa, decarboxylase inhibitor and COMT inhibitor ; Belongs to the class of dopa and dopa derivative dopaminergic agents. Used in the management of Parkinson's disease.
Presentation/Packing
50 mg/12.5 mg/200 mg FC tab (brownish- or greyish-red, round, convex, unscored, marked with 'LCE 50' on one side) 100's. 100 mg/25 mg/200 mg FC tab (brownish- or greyish-red, oval-shaped, unscored, marked with 'LCE 100' on one side) 100's. 150 mg/37.5 mg/200 mg FC tab (brownish- or greyish-red, elongated-ellipse shaped, unscored, marked with 'LCE 150' on one side) 100's. 200 mg/50 mg/200 mg FC tab x 100's.
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