Pregnancy: Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis may adversely affect the pregnancy and/or the embryo/foetal development.
Data from epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of miscarriage and of cardiac malformation and gastroschisis after use of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in early pregnancy. The absolute risk for cardiovascular malformation was increased from less than 1%, up to approximately 1.5%. The risk is believed to increase with dose and duration of therapy. In animals, administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor has been shown to result in increased pre- and post-implantation loss and embryo-foetal lethality. In addition, increased incidences of various malformations, including cardiovascular, have been reported in animals given a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor during the organogenetic period. During the first and second trimester of pregnancy, flurbiprofen should not be given.
During the third trimester of pregnancy, all prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose: the foetus to: cardiopulmonary toxicity (with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension); renal dysfunction, which may progress to renal failure with oligo-hydroamniosis; the mother and the neonate, at the end of pregnancy, to: possible prolongation of bleeding time, an anti-aggregating effect which may occur even at very low doses; inhibition of uterine contractions resulting in delayed or prolonged labour.
Consequently, flurbiprofen is contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy (see Contraindications).
Breast-feeding: In limited studies, flurbiprofen appears in the breast milk in very low concentration and is unlikely to affect the breast-fed infant adversely. However, because of possible adverse effects of NSAIDs on breast-fed infants, flurbiprofen spray is not recommended for use in nursing mothers.
Fertility: There is some evidence that drugs which inhibit cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin synthesis may cause impairment of female fertility by an effect on ovulation. This is reversible on withdrawal of treatment.