Trulicity

Trulicity

dulaglutide

Manufacturer:

Eli Lilly

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Dulaglutide.
Description
Each pre-filled pen contains 0.75 mg of dulaglutide* in 0.5 ml solution.
Each pre-filled pen contains 1.5 mg of dulaglutide* in 0.5 ml solution.
*Produced in CHO cells by recombinant DNA technology.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Sodium citrate, Anhydrous Citric acid, Mannitol, Polysorbate 80, Water for injections.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Drugs used in diabetes, blood glucose lowering drugs, excl. insulins, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues. ATC Code: A10BJ05.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Dulaglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. The molecule consists of 2 identical disulfide-linked chains, each containing a modified human GLP-1 analogue sequence covalently linked to a modified human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) heavy chain fragment (Fc) by a small peptide linker. The GLP-1 analog portion of dulaglutide is approximately 90 % homologous to native human GLP-1 (7-37). Native GLP-1 has a half-life of 1.5-2 minutes due to degradation by DPP-4 and renal clearance. In contrast to native GLP-1, dulaglutide is resistant to degradation by DPP-4, and has a large size that slows absorption and reduces renal clearance. These engineering features result in a soluble formulation and a prolonged half-life of 4.7 days, which makes it suitable for once-weekly subcutaneous administration. In addition, the dulaglutide molecule was engineered to prevent the Fcγ receptor-dependent immune response and to reduce its immunogenic potential.
Dulaglutide exhibits several antihyperglycaemic actions of GLP-1. In the presence of elevated glucose concentrations, dulaglutide increases intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in pancreatic beta cells leading to insulin release. Dulaglutide suppresses glucagon secretion which is known to be inappropriately elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes. Lower glucagon concentrations lead to decreased hepatic glucose output. Dulaglutide also slows gastric emptying.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Dulaglutide improves glycaemic control through the sustained effects of lowering fasting, pre-meal and postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes starting after the first dulaglutide administration and is sustained throughout the once weekly dosing interval.
A pharmacodynamic study with dulaglutide demonstrated, in patients with type 2 diabetes, a restoration of first phase insulin secretion to a level that exceeded levels observed in healthy subjects on placebo, and improved second phase insulin secretion in response to an intravenous bolus of glucose. In the same study, a single 1.5 mg dose of dulaglutide appeared to increase maximal insulin secretion from the β-cells, and to enhance β-cell function in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus as compared with placebo.
Consistent with the pharmacokinetic profile, dulaglutide has a pharmacodynamic profile suitable for once weekly administration (see Pharmacokinetics as follows).
Clinical efficacy and safety: Glycaemic control: The safety and efficacy of dulaglutide were evaluated in eight randomised, controlled, phase III trials involving 5,770 patients with type 2 diabetes. Of these, 1,139 were ≥ 65 years of which 115 were ≥ 75 years. These studies included 3,525 dulaglutide-treated patients, of whom 2,108 were treated with Trulicity 1.5 mg weekly and 1,417 were treated with Trulicity 0.75 mg weekly. In all studies, dulaglutide produced clinically significant improvements in glycaemic control as measured by glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).
Monotherapy: Dulaglutide was studied in a 52 week active controlled monotherapy study in comparison to metformin. Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg were superior to metformin (1500-2000 mg/day) in the reduction in HbA1c and a significantly greater proportion of patients reached an HbA1c target of < 7.0 % and ≤ 6.5 % with Trulicity 1.5 mg and Trulicity 0.75 mg compared to metformin at 26 weeks. (See Table 1.)

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The rate of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg, and metformin were 0.62, 0.15, and 0.09 episodes/patient/year, respectively. No cases of severe hypoglycaemia were observed.
Combination therapy with metformin: The safety and efficacy of dulaglutide was investigated in a placebo and active controlled (sitagliptin 100 mg daily) study of 104 weeks duration, all in combination with metformin. Treatment with Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg resulted in a superior reduction in HbA1c compared to sitagliptin at 52 weeks, accompanied by a significantly greater proportion of patients achieving HbA1c targets of < 7.0 % and ≤ 6.5 %. These effects were sustained to the end of the study (104 weeks). (See Table 2.)

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The rates of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg, and sitagliptin were 0.19, 0.18, and 0.17 episodes/patient/year, respectively. No cases of severe hypoglycaemia with dulaglutide were observed.
The safety and efficacy of dulaglutide was also investigated in an active controlled study (liraglutide 1.8 mg daily) of 26 weeks duration, both in combination with metformin. Treatment with Trulicity 1.5 mg resulted in similar lowering of HbA1c and patients achieving HbA1c targets of < 7.0 % and ≤ 6.5 % compared to liraglutide. (See Table 3.)

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The rate of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg was 0.12 episodes/patient/year and with liraglutide was 0.29 episodes/patient/year. No cases of severe hypoglycaemia were observed.
Combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylurea: In an active controlled study of 78 weeks duration, dulaglutide was compared to insulin glargine, both on a background of metformin and a sulphonylurea. At 52 weeks, Trulicity 1.5 mg demonstrated superior lowering in HbA1c to insulin glargine which was maintained at 78 weeks; whereas lowering in HbA1c with Trulicity 0.75 mg was non-inferior to insulin glargine. With Trulicity 1.5 mg a significantly higher percentage of patients reached a target HbA1c of < 7.0 % or ≤ 6.5 % at 52 and 78 weeks compared to insulin glargine. (See Table 4.)

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The rates of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg, and insulin glargine were 1.67, 1.67, and 3.02 episodes/patient/year, respectively. Two cases of severe hypoglycaemia were observed with Trulicity 1.5mg and two cases of severe hypoglycaemia were observed with insulin glargine.
Combination therapy with sulphonylurea: The safety and efficacy of dulaglutide as add-on to a sulphonylurea was investigated in a placebo controlled study of 24 weeks duration. Treatment with Trulicity 1.5mg in combination with glimepiride resulted in a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c compared to placebo with glimepiride at 24 weeks. With Trulicity 1.5 mg, a significantly higher percentage of patients reached a target HbA1c of < 7.0 % and ≤ 6.5 % at 24 weeks compared to placebo. (See Table 5.)

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The rates of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg and placebo were 0.90 and 0.04 episodes/patient/year, respectively. No cases of severe hypoglycaemia were observed for Trulicity or placebo.
Combination therapy with metformin and pioglitazone: In a placebo and active (exenatide twice daily) controlled study, both in combination with metformin and pioglitazone, Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg demonstrated superiority for HbA1c reduction in comparison to placebo and exenatide, accompanied by a significantly a greater percentage of patients achieving HbA1c targets of < 7.0 % or ≤ 6.5 %. (See Table 6.)

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The rates of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg, and exenatide twice daily were 0.19, 0.14, and 0.75 episodes/patient/year, respectively. No cases of severe hypoglycaemia were observed for dulaglutide and two cases of severe hypoglycaemia were observed with exenatide twice daily.
Combination therapy with titrated basal insulin, with or without metformin: In a 28 week placebo controlled study, Trulicity 1.5 mg was compared to placebo as add-on to titrated basal insulin glargine (88% with and 12% without metformin) to evaluate the effect on glycaemic control and safety. To optimise the insulin glargine dose, both groups were titrated to a target fasting serum glucose of <5.6 mmol/L. The mean baseline dose of insulin glargine was 37 units/day for patients receiving placebo and 41 units/day for patients receiving Trulicity 1.5mg. The initial insulin glargine doses in patients with HbA1c <8.0% were reduced by 20%. At the end of the 28 week treatment period the dose was 65 units/day and 51 units/day, for patients receiving placebo and Trulicity 1.5 mg, respectively. At 28 weeks, treatment with once weekly Trulicity 1.5 mg resulted in a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c compared to placebo and a significantly greater percentage of patients achieving HbA1c targets of < 7.0 % and ≤ 6.5 %. (See Table 7.)

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The rates of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg and insulin glargine were 3.38 episodes/patient/year compared to placebo and insulin glargine 4.38 episodes/patient/year. One patient reported severe hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg in combination with insulin glargine and none with placebo.
Combination therapy with prandial insulin with or without metformin: In this study, patients on 1 or 2 insulin injections per day prior to study entry, discontinued their prestudy insulin regimen and were randomised to dulaglutide once weekly or insulin glargine once daily, both in combination with prandial insulin lispro three times daily, with or without metformin. At 26 weeks, both Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75mg were superior to insulin glargine in lowering of HbA1c and this effect was sustained at 52 weeks. A greater percentage of patients achieved HbA1c targets of < 7.0 % or ≤ 6.5 % at 26 weeks and < 7.0 % at 52 weeks than with insulin glargine. (See Table 8.)

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The rates of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg, and insulin glargine were 31.06, 35.66, and 40.95 episodes/patient/year, respectively. Ten patients reported severe hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg, seven with Trulicity 0.75 mg, and fifteen with insulin glargine.
Fasting blood glucose: Treatment with dulaglutide resulted in significant reductions from baseline in fasting blood glucose. The majority of the effect on fasting blood glucose concentrations occurred by 2 weeks. The improvement in fasting glucose was sustained through the longest study duration of 104 weeks.
Postprandial glucose: Treatment with dulaglutide resulted in significant reductions in mean post prandial glucose from baseline (changes from baseline to primary time point -1.95 mmol/L to -4.23 mmol/L).
Beta-cell function: Clinical studies with dulaglutide have indicated enhanced beta-cell function as measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-%B). The durability of effect on beta-cell function was maintained through the longest study duration of 104 weeks.
Body weight: Trulicity 1.5 mg was associated with sustained weight reduction over the duration of studies (from baseline to final time point -0.35 kg to -2.90 kg). Changes in body weight with Trulicity 0.75 mg ranged from 0.86 kg to -2.63 kg. Reduction in body weight was observed in patients treated with dulaglutide irrespective of nausea, though the reduction was numerically larger in the group with nausea.
Patient reported outcomes: Dulaglutide significantly improved total treatment satisfaction compared to exenatide twice daily. In addition, there was significantly lower perceived frequency of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia compared to exenatide twice daily.
Blood pressure: The effect of dulaglutide on blood pressure as assessed by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring was evaluated in a study of 755 patients with type 2 diabetes. Treatment with dulaglutide provided reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-2.8 mmHg difference compared to placebo) at 16 weeks.
There was no difference in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Similar results for SBP and DBP were demonstrated at the final 26 week time point of the study.
Cardiovascular Evaluation: In a meta-analysis of phase II and III studies, a total of 51 patients (dulaglutide: 26 [N = 3,885]; all comparators: 25 [N = 2,125]) experienced at least one cardiovascular (CV) event (death due to CV causes, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalisation for unstable angina). The results showed that there was no increase in CV risk with dulaglutide compared with control therapies (HR: 0.57; CI: [0.30, 1.10]).
Special populations: Use in patients with renal impairment: In a 52 week study, Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg were compared to titrated insulin glargine as add-on to prandial insulin lispro to evaluate the effect on glycaemic control and safety of patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (eGFR [by CKD-EPI] <60 and ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients discontinued their prestudy insulin regimen at randomisation. At baseline, overall mean eGFR was 38 mL/min/1.73 m2, 30% of patients had eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2.
At 26 weeks, both Trulicity 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg were non-inferior to insulin glargine in lowering of HbA1c and this effect was sustained at 52 weeks. A similar percentage of patients achieved HbA1c targets of < 8.0 % at 26 and 52 weeks with both dulaglutide doses as well as insulin glargine. (See Table 9.)

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The rates of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg and Trulicity 0.75 mg, and insulin glargine were 4.44, 4.34, and 9.62 episodes/patient/year, respectively. No patients reported cases of severe hypoglycaemia with Trulicity 1.5 mg, six with Trulicity 0.75 mg, and seventeen with insulin glargine. The safety profile of Trulicity in patients with renal impairment was similar to that observed in other studies with Trulicity.
Paediatric population: The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Trulicity in one or more subsets of the paediatric population for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (see Dosage & Administration for information on paediatric use).
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Following subcutaneous administration to patients with type 2 diabetes, dulaglutide reaches peak plasma concentrations in 48 hours. The mean peak (Cmax) and total (AUC) exposures were approximately 114 ng/ml and 14,000 ngh/ml, respectively, after multiple subcutaneous 1.5 mg doses of dulaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes. Steady-state plasma concentrations were achieved between 2 to 4 weeks of once-weekly administration of dulaglutide (1.5 mg). Exposures after subcutaneous administration of single dulaglutide (1.5 mg) doses in the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm were comparable. The mean absolute bioavailability of dulaglutide following single-dose subcutaneous administration of single 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg doses was 47 % and 65%, respectively.
Distribution: The mean volume of distribution after subcutaneous administration of dulaglutide 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg at steady state in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were approximately 19.2 L and 17.4 L.
Biotransformation: Dulaglutide is presumed to be degraded into its component amino acids by general protein catabolism pathways.
Elimination: The mean apparent clearance of dulaglutide 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg at steady state was 0.111 L/h and 0.107 L/h with an elimination half-life of 4.5 and 4.7 days, respectively.
Special populations: Elderly: Age had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of dulaglutide.
Gender and race: Gender and race had no clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of dulaglutide.
Body weight or body mass index: Pharmacokinetic analyses have demonstrated a statistically significant inverse relationship between body weight or body mass index (BMI) and dulaglutide exposure, although there was no clinically relevant impact of weight or BMI on glycaemic control.
Renal impairment: The pharmacokinetics of dulaglutide were evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study and were generally similar between healthy subjects and patients with mild to severe renal impairment (CrCl < 30 ml/min), including end stage renal disease (requiring dialysis). Additionally, in a 52-week clinical study in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe renal impairment (eGFR [by CKD-EPI] <60 and ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2), the pharmacokinetic profile of Trulicity 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg once weekly was similar to the demonstrated in previous clinical studies. This clinical study did not include patients with end stage renal disease.
Hepatic impairment: The pharmacokinetics of dulaglutide were evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study, where subjects with hepatic impairment had statistically significant decreases in dulaglutide exposure of up to 30 % to 33 % for mean Cmax and AUC, respectively, compared to healthy controls. There was a general increase in tmax of dulaglutide with increased hepatic impairment. However, no trend in dulaglutide exposure was observed relative to the degree of hepatic impairment. These effects were not considered to be clinically relevant.
Paediatric population: Studies characterising the pharmacokinetics of dulaglutide in paediatric patients have not been performed.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazards for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology or repeat-dose toxicity.
In a 6-month carcinogenicity study in transgenic mice, there was no tumorigenic response. In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in rats, at ≥ 7 times the human clinical exposure following 1.5 mg dulaglutide per week, dulaglutide caused statistically significant, dose-related increases in the incidence of thyroid C-cell tumours (adenomas and carcinomas combined). The clinical relevance of these findings is currently unknown.
During the fertility studies, a reduction in the number of corpora lutea and prolonged oestrous cycle were observed at dose levels that were associated with decreased food intake and body weight gain in maternal animals; however, no effects on indices of fertility and conception or embryonic development were observed. In reproductive toxicology studies, skeletal effects and a reduction in foetal growth were observed in the rat and rabbit at exposures of dulaglutide 11- to 44-fold higher than those proposed clinically, but no foetal malformations were observed. Treatment of rats throughout pregnancy and lactation produced memory deficits in female offspring at exposures that were 16-fold higher than those proposed clinically. Dulaglutide dosing of male and female juvenile rats did not produce memory deficits at 91-fold the human exposure.
Indications/Uses
Trulicity is indicated in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycaemic control as: Monotherapy: When diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control in patients for whom the use of metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance or contraindications.
Add-on therapy: In combination with other glucose-lowering medicinal products including insulin, when these, together with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycaemic control (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions for data with respect to different combinations).
Dosage/Direction for Use
Posology: Monotherapy: The recommended dose is 0.75 mg once weekly.
Add-on therapy: The recommended dose is 1.5 mg once weekly.
For potentially vulnerable populations, such as patients ≥ 75 years, 0.75 mg once weekly can be considered as a starting dose.
When Trulicity is added to existing metformin and/or pioglitazone therapy, the current dose of metformin and/or pioglitazone can be continued. When it is added to existing therapy of a sulphonylurea or insulin, a reduction in the dose of sulphonylurea or insulin may be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see Precautions and Adverse Reactions).
The use of Trulicity does not require blood glucose self-monitoring. Self-monitoring may be necessary to adjust the dose of sulphonylurea or insulin.
Elderly: No dose adjustment is required based on age (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). However, the therapeutic experience in patients ≥ 75 years is very limited (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions), and in these patients 0.75 mg once weekly can be considered as a starting dose.
Renal impairment: No dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment (eGFR <90 to ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2).
There is very limited experience in patients with end stage renal disease (<15 ml/min/1.73 m2), therefore Trulicity cannot be recommended in this population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustment is required in patients with hepatic impairment.
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of dulaglutide in children aged less than 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration: Trulicity is to be injected subcutaneously in the abdomen, thigh or upper arm. It should not be administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
The dose can be administered at any time of day, with or without meals.
If a dose is missed, it should be administered as soon as possible if there are at least 3 days (72 hours) until the next scheduled dose. If less than 3 days (72 hours) remain before the next scheduled dose, the missed dose should be skipped and the next dose should be administered on the regularly scheduled day. In each case, patients can then resume their regular once weekly dosing schedule.
The day of weekly administration can be changed if necessary, as long as the last dose was administered 3 or more days (72 hours) before.
Overdosage
Effects of overdose with dulaglutide in clinical studies have included gastrointestinal disorders and hypoglycaemia. In the event of overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated according to the patient's clinical signs and symptoms.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Special Precautions
Dulaglutide should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Use of GLP-1 receptor agonists may be associated with gastrointestinal adverse reactions. This should be considered when treating patients with impaired renal function since these events, i.e. nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhoea, may cause dehydration which could cause a deterioration of renal function. Dulaglutide has not been studied in patients with severe gastrointestinal disease, including severe gastroparesis, and is therefore not recommended in these patients.
Acute pancreatitis: Use of GLP-1 receptor agonists has been associated with a risk of developing acute pancreatitis. In clinical trials, acute pancreatitis has been reported in association with dulaglutide (see Adverse Reactions).
Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptoms of acute pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, dulaglutide should be discontinued. If pancreatitis is confirmed, dulaglutide should not be restarted. In the absence of other signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis, elevations in pancreatic enzymes alone are not predictive of acute pancreatitis (see Adverse Reactions).
Hypoglycaemia: Patients receiving dulaglutide in combination with sulphonylurea or insulin may have an increased risk of hypoglycaemia. The risk of hypoglycaemia may be lowered by a reduction in the dose of sulphonylurea or insulin (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
Populations not studied: There is limited experience in patients with congestive heart failure.
Sodium content: This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per 1.5 mg dose, i.e. essentially 'sodium- free'.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Trulicity has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive or use machines. When it is used in combination with a sulphonylurea or insulin, patients should be advised to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia while driving and using machines (see Precautions).
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no or limited amount of data from the use of dulaglutide in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). Therefore, the use of dulaglutide is not recommended during pregnancy.
Breast-feeding: It is unknown whether dulaglutide is excreted in human milk. A risk to newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Dulaglutide should not be used during breast-feeding.
Fertility: The effect of dulaglutide on fertility in humans is unknown. In the rat, there was no direct effect on mating or fertility following treatment with dulaglutide (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Adverse Reactions
Summary of safety profile: In the completed phase II and phase III registration studies, 4,006 patients were exposed to dulaglutide alone or in combination with other glucose lowering medicinal products. The most frequently reported adverse reactions in clinical trials were gastrointestinal, including nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. In general these reactions were mild or moderate in severity and transient in nature.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: The following adverse reactions have been identified based on evaluation of the full duration of the phase II and phase III clinical studies and post-marketing reports and are listed in Table 10 as MedDRA preferred term by system organ class and in order of decreasing incidence (very common: ≥ 1/10; common: ≥ 1/100 to < 1/10; uncommon: ≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100; rare: ≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000; very rare: < 1/10,000 and not known: cannot be estimated from available data). Within each incidence grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing frequency. (See Table 10.)

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Description of selected adverse reactions: Hypoglycaemia: When dulaglutide 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg were used as monotherapy or in combination with metformin alone or metformin and pioglitazone, the incidences of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia were 5.9% to 10.9% and the rates were 0.14 to 0.62 events/patient/year, and no episodes of severe hypoglycaemia were reported.
The incidences of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia when dulaglutide 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg, respectively, were used in combination with a sulphonylurea and metformin were 39.0% and 40.3% and the rates were 1.67 and 1.67 events/patient/year. The severe hypoglycaemia event incidences were 0% and 0.7%, and rates were 0.00 and 0.01 events/patient/year for each dose, respectively. The incidence of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia when dulaglutide 1.5 mg was used with sulphonylurea alone was 11.3% and the rate was 0.90 events/patient/year, and there were no episodes of severe hypoglycaemia.
The incidence of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia when dulaglutide 1.5 mg was used in combination with insulin glargine was 35.3% and the rate was 3.38 events/patient/year. The severe hypoglycaemia event incidence was 0.7% and the rate was 0.01 events/patient/year.
The incidences when dulaglutide 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg, respectively, were used in combination with prandial insulin were 85.3% and 80.0% and rates were 35.66 and 31.06 events/patient/year. The severe hypoglycaemia event incidences were 2.4% and 3.4%, and rates were 0.05 and 0.06 events/patient/year.
Gastrointestinal adverse reactions: Cumulative reporting of gastrointestinal events up to 104 weeks with dulaglutide 0.75mg and 1.5 mg, respectively, included nausea (12.9% and 21.2 %), diarrhoea (10.7% and 13.7 %) and vomiting (6.9% and 11.5 %). These were typically mild or moderate in severity and were reported to peak during the first 2 weeks of treatment and rapidly declined over the next 4 weeks, after which the rate remained relatively constant.
In clinical pharmacology studies conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus up to 6 weeks, the majority of gastrointestinal events were reported during the first 2-3 days after the initial dose and declined with subsequent doses.
Acute pancreatitis: The incidence of acute pancreatitis in Phase II and III clinical studies was 0.07% for dulaglutide compared to 0.14% for placebo and 0.19% for comparators with or without additional background antidiabetic therapy.
Pancreatic enzymes: Dulaglutide is associated with mean increases from baseline in pancreatic enzymes (lipase and/or pancreatic amylase) of 11 % to 21 % (see Precautions). In the absence of other signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis, elevations in pancreatic enzymes alone are not predictive of acute pancreatitis.
Heart rate increase: Small mean increases in heart rate of 2 to 4 beats per minute (bpm) and a 1.3% and 1.4 % incidence of sinus tachycardia, with a concomitant increase from baseline ≥ 15 bpm, were observed with dulaglutide 0.75mg and 1.5 mg, respectively.
First degree AV block/PR interval prolongation: Small mean increases from baseline in PR interval of 2 to 3 msec and a 1.5% and 2.4 % incidence of first-degree AV block were observed with dulaglutide 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg, respectively.
Immunogenicity: In clinical studies, treatment with dulaglutide was associated with a 1.6 % incidence of treatment emergent dulaglutide anti-drug antibodies, indicating that the structural modifications in the GLP-1 and modified IgG4 parts of the dulaglutide molecule, together with high homology with native GLP-1 and native IgG4, minimise the risk of immune response against dulaglutide. Patients with dulaglutide anti-drug antibodies generally had low titres, and although the number of patients developing dulaglutide anti-drug antibodies was low, examination of the phase III data revealed no clear impact of dulaglutide anti-drug antibodies on changes in HbA1c. None of the patients with systemic hypersensitivity developed dulaglutide anti-drug antibodies.
Hypersensitivity: In the phase II and phase III clinical studies, systemic hypersensitivity events (e.g., urticaria, edema) were reported in 0.5 % of patients receiving dulaglutide. Cases of anaphylactic reaction have been rarely reported with marketed use of dulaglutide.
Injection site reactions: Injection site adverse events were reported in 1.9 % of patients receiving dulaglutide. Potentially immune-mediated injection site adverse events (e.g., rash, erythema) were reported in 0.7 % of patients and were usually mild.
Discontinuation due to an adverse event: In studies of 26 weeks duration, the incidence of discontinuation due to adverse events was 2.6% (0.75 mg) and 6.1% (1.5 mg) for dulaglutide versus 3.7 % for placebo. Through the full study duration (up to 104 weeks), the incidence of discontinuation due to adverse events was 5.1% (0.75 mg) and 8.4 % (1.5 mg) for dulaglutide. The most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation for 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg dulaglutide, respectively, were nausea (1.0%, 1.9 %), diarrhoea (0.5%, 0.6 %), and vomiting (0.4%, 0.6 %), and were generally reported within the first 4-6 weeks.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions: Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions.
Drug Interactions
Dulaglutide delays gastric emptying and has the potential to impact the rate of absorption of concomitantly administered oral medicinal products. Dulaglutide should be used with caution in patients receiving oral medicinal products that require rapid gastrointestinal absorption. For some prolonged release formulations, an increased release due to an extended gastric residence time may slightly increase drug exposure.
Paracetamol: Following a first dose of 1 and 3 mg dulaglutide, paracetamol Cmax was reduced by 36 % and 50 %, respectively, and the median tmax occurred later (3 and 4 hours, respectively). After coadministration with up to 3 mg of dulaglutide at steady state, there were no statistically significant differences on AUC(0-12), Cmax or tmax of paracetamol. No dose adjustment of paracetamol is necessary when administered with dulaglutide.
Atorvastatin: Coadministration of dulaglutide with atorvastatin decreased Cmax and AUC(0-∞) up to 70 % and 21 %, respectively, for atorvastatin and its major metabolite o-hydroxyatorvastatin. The mean t1/2 of atorvastatin and o-hydroxyatorvastatin were increased by 17 % and 41 %, respectively, following dulaglutide administration. These observations are not clinically relevant. No dose adjustment of atorvastatin is necessary when administered with dulaglutide.
Digoxin: After coadministration of steady state digoxin with 2 consecutive doses of dulaglutide, overall exposure (AUC) and tmax of digoxin were unchanged; and Cmax decreased by up to 22 %. This change is not expected to have clinical consequences. No dose adjustment is required for digoxin when administered with dulaglutide.
Anti-hypertensives: Coadministration of multiple dulaglutide doses with steady state lisinopril caused no clinically relevant changes in the AUC or Cmax of lisinopril. Statistically significant delays in lisinopril tmax of approximately 1 hour were observed on Days 3 and 24 of the study. When a single dose of dulaglutide and metoprolol were coadministered, the AUC and Cmax of metoprolol increased by 19 % and 32 %, respectively. While metoprolol tmax was delayed by 1 hour, this change was not statistically significant. These changes were not clinically relevant; therefore no dose adjustment of lisinopril or metoprolol is necessary when administered with dulaglutide.
Warfarin: Following dulaglutide coadministration, S- and R-warfarin exposure and R-warfarin Cmax were unaffected, and S-warfarin Cmax decreased by 22 %. AUCINR increased by 2 %, which is unlikely to be clinically significant, and there was no effect on maximum international normalised ratio response (INRmax). The time of international normalised ratio response (tINRmax) was delayed by 6 hours, consistent with delays in tmax of approximately 4 and 6 hours for S- and R-warfarin, respectively. These changes are not clinically relevant. No dose adjustment for warfarin is necessary when given together with dulaglutide.
Oral contraceptives: Coadministration of dulaglutide with an oral contraceptive (norgestimate 0.18 mg/ethinyl estradiol 0.025 mg) did not affect the overall exposure to norelgestromin and ethinyl estradiol. Statistically significant reductions in Cmax of 26 % and 13 % and delays in tmax of 2 and 0.30 hours were observed for norelgestromin and ethinyl estradiol, respectively. These observations are not clinically relevant. No dose adjustment for oral contraceptives is required when given together with dulaglutide.
Metformin: Following coadministration of multiple dose dulaglutide with steady state metformin (immediate release formula [IR]), metformin AUC increased up to 15 % and Cmax decreased up to 12 %, respectively, with no changes in tmax. These changes are consistent with the gastric emptying delay of dulaglutide and within the pharmacokinetic variability of metformin and thus are not clinically relevant. No dose adjustment for metformin IR is recommended when given with dulaglutide.
Sitagliptin: Sitagliptin exposure was unaffected when coadministered with a single dose of dulaglutide. Following coadministration with 2 consecutive doses of dulaglutide, sitagliptin AUC(0-τ) and Cmax decreased by approximately 7.4 % and 23.1 %, respectively. Sitagliptin tmax increased approximately 0.5 hours following coadministration with dulaglutide compared to sitagliptin alone.
Sitagliptin can produce up to 80 % inhibition of DPP-4 over a 24-hour period. Dulaglutide coadministration with sitagliptin increased dulaglutide exposure and Cmax by approximately 38 % and 27 %, respectively, and median tmax increased approximately 24 hours. Therefore, dulaglutide does have a high degree of protection against DPP-4 inactivation (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). The increased exposure may enhance the effects of dulaglutide on blood glucose levels.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Instructions for use: The pre-filled pen is for single-use only.
The instructions for using the pen, included with the package leaflet, must be followed carefully.
Trulicity should not be used if particles appear or if the solution is cloudy and/or discoloured.
Trulicity that has been frozen must not be used.
Incompatibilities: In the absence of compatibility studies this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.
Storage
Store in a refrigerator (2ºC-8ºC).
Do not freeze.
Store in original package in order to protect from light.
In use: Trulicity may be stored unrefrigerated for up to 14 days at a temperature not above 30ºC.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
A10BJ05 - dulaglutide ; Belongs to the class of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
Soln for inj (clear, colorless solution in a pre-filled pen) 0.75 mg/0.5 mL x 4's. 1.5 mg x 0.5 mL x 4's.
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