Allopurinol: The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin substantially increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared with patients receiving ampicillin alone.
Aminoglycosides: Mixing ampicillin with aminoglycosides in vitro has resulted in substantial mutual inactivation; if these groups of antibacterials are to be administered concurrently, they should be administered at separate sites at least 1 hour apart (see Incompatibilities under Cautions for Usage).
Anticoagulants: Parenteral penicillins can produce alterations in platelet aggregation and coagulation tests. These effects may be additive with anticoagulants.
Bacteriostatic drugs (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, sulfonamides and tetracyclines): Bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal effect of penicillins; it is best to avoid concurrent therapy.
Estrogen-containing oral contraceptives: There have been case reports of reduced oral contraceptive effectiveness in women taking ampicillin, resulting in unplanned pregnancy. Although the association is weak, patients should be given the option to use an alternate or additional method of contraception while taking ampicillin.
Methotrexate: Concurrent use with penicillins has resulted in decreased clearance of methotrexate and a corresponding increase in methotrexate toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored. Leucovorin dosages may need to be increased and administered for longer periods of time.
Probenecid: Probenecid decreases renal tubular secretion of ampicillin and sulbactam when used concurrently; this effect results in increased and prolonged serum concentrations, prolonged elimination half-life, and increased risk of toxicity.
Laboratory test interactions: False positive glycosuria may be observed in urinalysis using Benedict reagent, Fehling reagent, and Clinitest. Following administration of ampicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone and estradiol has been noted. This effect may also occur with sulbactam sodium/ampicillin sodium IM/IV.