Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection is intended for intravenous use. In selected patients in need of fluid restriction, a concentration up to 10 mg/mL may be used; use of such higher concentrations may increase the risk of infusion-related events. An infusion rate of 10 mg/min or less is associated with fewer infusion-related events (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Infusion-related events are related to both concentration and rate of administration of vancomycin. Concentrations of no more than 5 mg/mL and rates of no more than 10 mg/min are recommended in adults (see also age-specific recommendations).
Patients with Normal Renal Function: Adults: The usual daily intravenous dose is 2 g divided either as 500 mg every six hours or 1 g every 12 hours. Each dose should be administered at no more than 10 mg/min, or over a period of at least 60 minutes, whichever is longer. Other patient factors, such as age or obesity, may call for modification of the usual intravenous daily dose.
Pediatric Patients: The usual intravenous dosage of vancomycin is 10 mg/kg per dose given every six hours. Each dose should be administered over a period of at least 60 minutes. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin is recommended in these patients.
Neonates: In pediatric patients up to the age of 1 month, the total daily intravenous dosage may be lower. In neonates, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg is suggested, followed by 10 mg/kg every 12 hours for neonates in the first week of life and every eight hours thereafter up to the age of one month. Each dose should be administered over 60 minutes. In premature infants, vancomycin clearance decreases as postconceptional age decreases. Therefore, longer dosing intervals may be necessary in premature infants. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin is recommended in these patients.
Patients with Impaired Renal Function and Elderly Patients Dosage adjustment must be made in patients with impaired renal function. In the elderly, greater dosage reductions than expected may be necessary because of decreased renal function. Measurement of vancomycin serum concentrations can be helpful in optimizing therapy, especially in seriously ill patients with changing renal function. Vancomycin serum concentrations can be determined by use of microbiologic assay, radioimmunoassay, fluorescence polarization immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, or high-pressure liquid chromatography.
If creatinine clearance can be measured or estimated accurately, the dosage for most patients with renal impairment can be calculated using the following table. The dosage of vancomycin per day in mg is about 15 times the glomerular filtration rate in mL/min: (see Table 2).
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The initial dose should be no less than 15 mg/kg, even in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. The table is not valid for functionally anephric patients. For such patients, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight should be given to achieve prompt therapeutic serum concentrations. The dose required to maintain stable concentrations is 1.9 mg/kg/24 h. In patients with marked renal impairment, it may be more convenient to give maintenance doses of 250 to 1000 mg once every several days rather than administering the drug on a daily basis. In anuria, a dose of 1000 mg every 7 to 10 days has been recommended.
When only the serum creatinine concentration is known, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to calculate creatinine clearance. Calculated creatinine clearances (mL/min) are only estimates. The creatinine clearance should be measured promptly. (See equation.)
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The serum creatinine must represent a steady state of renal function. Otherwise the estimated value for creatinine clearance is not valid. Such a calculated clearance is an overestimate of actual clearance in patients with conditions: characterized by decreasing renal function, such as shock, severe heart failure, or oliguria;
in which a normal relationship between muscle mass and total body weight is not present, such as obese patients or those with liver disease, edema, or ascites; and accompanied by debilitation, malnutrition, or inactivity.
The safety and efficacy of vancomycin administration by the intrathecal (intralumbar or intraventricular) routes have not been established.
Intermittent infusion is the recommended method of administration.
Instructions for Use: For Intravenous Administration: At the time of use, the 500milligrams vial should be reconstituted with 10mL of Water for Injections. The resulting solution contains vancomycin 50 mg/mL. The reconstituted solutions containing 500 milligrams of vancomycin must be further diluted with at least 100 mL of sodium chloride Intravenous Infusion 0.9% or Glucose Intravenous Infusion 5%. The desired dose, diluted in this manner, should be administered by intermittent intravenous infusion over a period of at least 60 minutes. Prior to administration, parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration whenever solution and container permit. After reconstitution, the vials have to be used immediately.
Mode of Administration: Parenteral-Intravenous.