The active substance latanoprost, a prostaglandin F2α
analogue, is a selective prostanoid FP receptor agonist that reduces the IOP by increasing the outflow of aqueous humor, primarily through the uveoscleral route and also through the trabecular meshwork. Reduction of the intraocular pressure in man starts about three to four hours after administration and maximum effect is reached after eight to twelve hours. Pressure reduction is maintained for at least 24 hours.
Clinical trials have shown that latanoprost has no significant effect on the production of aqueous humour. Latanoprost has not been found to have any effect on the blood-aqueous barrier.
Latanoprost has not induced fluorescein leakage in the posterior segment of pseudophakic human eyes during short-term treatment.
Latanoprost in clinical doses has not been found to have any significant pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular or respiratory system.
The efficacy of latanoprost in paediatric patients ≤18 years of age was demonstrated in a 12-week, double-masked clinical study of latanoprost compared with timolol in 107 patients diagnosed with ocular hypertension and paediatric glaucoma. Neonates were required to be at least 36 weeks gestational age. Patients received either latanoprost 0.005% once daily or timolol 0.5% (or optionally 0.25% for subjects younger than 3 years old) twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean reduction in IOP from baseline at Week 12 of the study. Mean IOP reductions in the latanoprost and timolol groups were similar. In all age groups studied (0 to <3 years, 3 to <12 years and 12 to 18 years of age) the mean IOP reduction at Week 12 in the latanoprost group was similar to that in the timolol group. Nevertheless, efficacy data in the age group 0 to <3 years were based on only 13 patients for latanoprost and no relevant efficacy was shown from the 4 patients representing the age group 0 to <1 year old in the clinical paediatric study. No data are available for preterm infants (less than 36 weeks gestational age).
IOP reductions among subjects in the primary congenital/infantile glaucoma (PCG) subgroup were similar between the latanoprost group and the timolol group. The non-PCG (e.g. juvenile open angle glaucoma, aphakic glaucoma) subgroup showed similar results as the PCG subgroup.
The effect on IOP was seen after the first week of treatment and was maintained throughout the 12-week period of study, as in adults (see Table 1).
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Latanoprost is absorbed through the cornea where the isopropyl ester prodrug is hydrolyzed to the acid form to become biologically active. Studies in man indicate that the peak concentration in the aqueous humor is reached about two hours after topical administration.
The distribution volume in humans is 0.16 ± 0.02 L/kg. The acid of latanoprost can be measured in aqueous humor during the first four hours, and in plasma only during the first hour after local administration.
Latanoprost, an isopropyl ester prodrug, is hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to the biologically active acid. The active acid of latanoprost reaching the systemic circulation is primarily metabolized by the liver to the 1,2-dinor and 1,2,3,4-tetranor metabolites via fatty acid β-oxidation.
The elimination of the acid of latanoprost from human plasma is rapid (t½
=17 min) after both intravenous and topical administration. Systemic clearance is approximately 7 mL/min/kg. Following hepatic β-oxidation, the metabolites are mainly eliminated via the kidneys. Approximately 88% and 98% of the administered dose is recovered in the urine after topical and intravenous dosing, respectively.
An open-label pharmacokinetic study of plasma latanoprost acid concentrations was undertaken in 22 adults and 25 paediatric patients (from birth to <18 years of age) with ocular hypertension and glaucoma. All age groups were treated with latanoprost 0.005%, one drop daily in each eye for a minimum of 2 weeks. Latanoprost acid systemic exposure was approximately 2-fold higher in 3 to <12 year olds and 6-fold higher in children <3 years old compared with adults, but a wide safety margin for systemic adverse effects was maintained (see Overdosage). Median time to reach peak plasma concentration was 5 minutes post-dose across all age groups. The median plasma elimination half-life was short (<20 minutes), similar for paediatric and adult patients, and resulted in no accumulation of latanoprost acid in the systemic circulation under steady-state conditions.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data:
Systemic/Ocular Effects: The ocular as well as systemic toxicity of latanoprost has been investigated in several animal species. Generally, latanoprost is well tolerated with a safety margin between clinical ocular dose and systemic toxicity of at least 1000 times. High doses of latanoprost, approximately 100 times the clinical dose/kg body weight, administered intravenously to unanesthetized monkeys have been shown to increase the respiration rate probably reflecting bronchoconstriction of short duration. In monkeys, latanoprost has been infused intravenously in doses of up to 500 mcg/kg without major effects on the cardiovascular system. In animal studies, latanoprost has not been found to have sensitizing properties.
In the eye, no toxic effects have been detected with doses of up to 100 micrograms/eye/day in rabbits or monkeys (clinical dose is approximately 1.5 micrograms/eye/day). Latanoprost has no or negligible effects on the intraocular blood circulation when used at the clinical dose and studied in monkeys.
In chronic ocular toxicity studies, administration of latanoprost 6 micrograms/eye/day has also been shown to induce increased palpebral fissure. This effect is reversible and occurs at doses above the clinical dose level. The effect has not been seen in humans.
Carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats were negative.
Latanoprost was found negative in reverse mutation tests in bacteria, gene mutation in mouse lymphoma and mouse micronucleus test. Chromosome aberrations were observed in vitro
with human lymphocytes. Similar effects were observed with prostaglandin F2α
, a naturally occurring prostaglandin, and indicates that this is a class effect.
Additional mutagenicity studies on in vitro
unscheduled DNA synthesis in rats were negative and indicate that latanoprost does not have mutagenic potency.
Impairment of Fertility:
Latanoprost has not been found to have any effect on male or female fertility in animal studies. In the embryotoxicity study in rats, no embryotoxicity was observed at intravenous doses (5, 50 and 250 micrograms/kg/day) of latanoprost. However, latanoprost induced embryolethal effects in rabbits at doses of 5 micrograms/kg/day and above. Latanoprost has been shown to cause embryofetal toxicity in rabbits characterized by increased incidences of late resorption and abortion and reduced fetal weight when given in intravenous doses approximately 100 times the human dose.
No teratogenic potential has been detected.