Ranitidine has the potential to affect the absorption, metabolism or renal excretion of other drugs. The altered pharmacokinetics may necessitate dosage adjustment of the affected drug or discontinuation of treatment.
Interactions occur by several mechanisms including: Inhibition of cytochrome P450-linked mixed function oxygenase system: Ranitidine at usual therapeutic doses does not potentiate the actions of drugs which are inactivated by this enzyme system such as diazepam, lidocaine, phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline.
There have been reports of altered prothrombin time with coumarin anticoagulants (e.g. warfarin). Due to the narrow therapeutic index, close monitoring of increased or decreased prothrombin time is recommended during concurrent treatment with ranitidine.
Competition for renal tubular secretion: Since ranitidine is partially eliminated by the cationic system, it may affect the clearance of other drugs eliminated by this route. High doses of ranitidine (e.g such as those used in the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) may reduce the excretion of procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide resulting in increased plasma levels of these drugs.
Alteration of gastric pH: The bioavailability of certain drugs may be affected. This can result in either an increase in absorption (e.g. triazolam, midazolam, glipizide) or a decrease in absorption (e.g. ketoconazole, atazanavir, delaviridine, gefitnib).
There is no evidence of an interaction between oral ranitidine and amoxicillin and metronidazole.
If high doses (2 g) of sucralfate are co-administered with oral ranitidine the absorption of the latter may be reduced. This effect is not seen if sucralfate is taken after an interval of 2 hours.