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Zavicefta

Zavicefta

Manufacturer:

Pfizer

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Ceftazidime pentahydrate, avibactam sodium.
Description
Each vial contains ceftazidime (as pentahydrate) equivalent to 2000 mg ceftazidime and avibactam (as sodium salt) equivalent to 500 mg avibactam.
After reconstitution, 1 mL of solution contains 167.3 mg of ceftazidime (CAZ) and 41.8 mg of avibactam (AVI).
Ceftazidime (as pentahydrate) is a white to almost white crystalline powder. It is soluble in acid, alkali and dimethyl sulphoxide and slightly soluble in water, methanol and dimethylformamide.
Avibactam (as sodium) is a crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water, relatively soluble in methanol and insoluble in ethanol.
The reconstituted solution is a clear and colourless to yellow solution free from visible particulate matter.
Excipients with known effect: Each vial contains approximately 6.3744 mmol of sodium (approximately 146 mg).
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antibacterials for systemic use, ceftazidime, combinations. ATC code: J01DD52.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Ceftazidime inhibits bacterial peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis following binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), which leads to bacterial cell lysis and death. Avibactam is a non β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor that acts by forming a covalent adduct with the enzyme that is stable to hydrolysis. It inhibits both Ambler class A and class C β-lactamases, and some class D enzymes including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), KPC and OXA-48 carbapenemases, and AmpC enzymes. Avibactam does not inhibit class B enzymes (metallo-β-lactamases) and is not able to inhibit many class D enzymes.
Resistance: Bacterial resistance mechanisms that could potentially affect ceftazidime/avibactam include mutant or acquired PBPs, decreased outer membrane permeability to either compound, active efflux of either compound, and β-lactamase enzymes refractory to inhibition by avibactam and able to hydrolyze ceftazidime.
Antibacterial activity in combination with other antibacterial agents: No synergy or antagonism was demonstrated in in vitro drug combination studies with ceftazidime/avibactam and metronidazole, tobramycin, levofloxacin, vancomycin, linezolid, colistin and tigecycline.
Cross-resistance: An absence of cross-resistance between ceftazidime-avibactam and fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides has been demonstrated in vitro using molecularly-characterized clinical isolates. Some isolates resistant to ceftazidime (and other cephalosporins) or to carbapenems are susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam. There is cross-resistance with β-lactam antibacterial agents, including carbapenems, when the mechanism is production of metallo-β-lactamases, such as VIM-2.
Susceptibility testing breakpoints: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) breakpoints established by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) for ceftazidime/avibactam are as follows: See Table 1.

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Clinical efficacy against specific pathogens: As detailed in the clinical studies discussed as follows, efficacy has been demonstrated against the following pathogens that were susceptible to ceftazidime/avibactam in vitro.
Complicated intra-abdominal infections: Gram-negative micro-organisms: Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii); Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae); Escherichia coli (E.coli); Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca); Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa).
Complicated urinary-tract infections: Gram-negative micro-organisms: E. coli; K. pneumoniae; Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis); E. cloacae; P. aeruginosa.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia including ventilator-associated pneumonia: Gram-negative micro-organisms: E. cloacae; E. coli; K. pneumoniae; P. mirabilis; Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens); P. aeruginosa.
Clinical efficacy has not been established against the following pathogens that are relevant to the approved indications although in vitro studies suggest that they would be susceptible to ceftazidime/avibactam in the absence of acquired mechanisms of resistance.
Gram-negative micro-organisms: Citrobacter koseri (C. koseri); Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes); Morganella morganii (M. morganii); Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris); Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri).
In-vitro data indicate that the following species are not susceptible to ceftazidime/avibactam.
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant); Anaerobes; Enterococcus spp.; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Acinetobacter spp.
Clinical trials: Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI): In two identical randomised, multi-centre, multinational, double-blind studies (RECLAIM 1 and RECLAIM 2), a total of 1058 adults with cIAI were randomised to receive treatment comparing Zavicefta (2000 mg of CAZ and 500 mg of AVI) administered intravenously over 120 minutes every 8 hours plus metronidazole (500 mg) to meropenem (1000 mg) administered intravenously over 30 minutes. Treatment duration was 5 to 14 days. cIAI (defined as infections that require surgical intervention and extend beyond the hollow viscus into the intraperitoneal space) included appendicitis, cholecystitis, diverticulitis, gastric/duodenal perforation, perforation of the intestine, and other causes of intra-abdominal abscesses and peritonitis.
The modified intent-to-treat (MITT) population included all patients who met the disease definition of cIAI and received at least 1 dose of the study drug. The clinically evaluable (CE) population included patients who had an appropriate diagnosis of cIAI and excluded patients with a bacterial species typically not expected to respond to both study drugs (i.e. Acinetobacter baumannii or Stenotrophomonas spp.) and/or who had an important protocol deviation impacting the assessment of efficacy.
The primary efficacy endpoint was the clinical response at the Test of Cure (TOC) visit in the co-primary populations of the CE and MITT patients in Table 2 as follows.

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Clinical cure rates at TOC by pathogen in the microbiologically Modified Intent to Treat (mMITT) population for Gram-negative aerobes are shown in Table 3 as follows.

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A further 432 adults with complicated intra-abdominal infections were randomised and received treatment in a multi-centre, double-blind study (RECLAIM 3) conducted in 3 Asian countries (China, Republic of Korea and Vietnam). The patient population and key aspects of the study design were identical to RECLAIM apart from the primary efficacy endpoint of clinical response at the TOC visit being solely in the CE population (see Table 4).

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Clinical cure rates at TOC by pathogen in the microbiologically modified Intent to Treat (mMITT) population for Gram-negative aerobes are shown in Table 5 as follows.

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In Phase 3 cIAI clinical trials, death occurred in 2.1% (18/857) of patients who received Zavicefta and metronidazole and in 1.4% (12/863) of patients who received meropenem. Among a subgroup with baseline CrCL 30 to 50 mL/min, death occurred in 16.7% (9/54) of patients who received Zavicefta and metronidazole and 6.8% (4/59) of patients who received meropenem. Patients with CrCL 30 to 50 mL/min received a lower dose of Zavicefta than is currently recommended for patients in this sub-group.
In a phase 3 cIAI clinical trial, clinical cure rates were lower in a subgroup of patients with baseline CrCl of 30 to 50 mL/min compared to those with CrCl > 50 mL/min. The reduction in clinical cure rates was more marked in patients treated with Zavicefta plus metronidazole compared to meropenem-treated patients. The decreased clinical response was not observed for patients with moderate renal impairment at baseline (CrCl of 30 to 50 mL/min) in the Phase 3 cUTI trials or the Phase 3 HAP/VAP trial. See Dosage & Administration, Use in renal impairment under Precautions, Renal impairment under Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI): A total of 1020 adults with documented cUTI (737 with acute pyelonephritis and 283 with cUTI without acute pyelonephritis) were randomised and received treatment in a phase III multicentre, double-blind, comparative study. cUTI included acute pyelonephritis and complicated lower urinary tract infections. Treatment was with either ceftazidime/avibactam (2000 mg/500 mg) IV over 120 mins every 8 hours or doripenem 500 mg IV over 60 mins every 8 hours. There was an optional switch to oral therapy for patients who had clinical improvement as defined in the study protocol after a minimum of 5 days IV treatment. Total duration of antibiotic therapy (IV plus oral) was 10 days (optionally up to 14 if bacteraemic). The mMITT population included all patients with a confirmed cUTI diagnosis, received at least 1 dose of study treatment and had a study-qualifying pre-treatment urine culture containing 105 CFU/mL of a Gram-negative pathogen and no more than 2 species of microorganisms. Any patient with a Gram-positive pathogen, or a bacterial species not expected to respond to both study drugs was excluded. Patients with CrCl < 30 mL/min were excluded.
The primary efficacy endpoint was per-patient microbiological response at the TOC visit in the mMITT analysis set. (See Table 6.)

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Favourable microbiological response rates at TOC by pathogen in the mMITT population are shown in Table 7 as follows. (See Table 7.)

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Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP): In a phase III double-blind, comparative study, a total of 808 adults with nosocomial pneumonia (280/808, 34.7% with VAP and 40/808 (5.0%) were bacteraemic at baseline) were randomised to receive treatment of ceftazidime/avibactam (2000 mg/500 mg) IV over 120 mins every 8 hours or meropenem 1g IV over 30 mins every 8 hours. Treatment duration was 7 to 14 days. Nosocomial pneumonia was defined as an onset of relevant signs and symptoms ≥48 hours after admission or <7 days after discharge from an inpatient acute or chronic care facility, and a new or worsening infiltrate on chest X-ray obtained within 48 hours prior to randomisation. Patients with infections only due to Gram-positive organisms were excluded from the trial, when this could be determined before enrollment. Following randomisation, patients in both treatment groups could receive empiric open-label linezolid or vancomycin to cover for Gram-positive pathogens while awaiting culture results. Treatment with Gram-positive coverage continued in patients with Gram-positive pathogens.
The clinically modified intent to treat (cMITT) population included patients who met the minimum disease criteria, received at least 1 dose of study treatment and who had properly obtained baseline respiratory or blood cultures demonstrating Gram-negative pathogens excluding patients with monomicrobial Gram-negative infections with species not expected to respond to both study drugs (e.g. Acinetobacter species or Stenotrophomonas species). The cMITT also included patients in whom no etiologic pathogens were identified from respiratory or blood cultures at baseline. The CE at TOC analyses set was the clinically evaluable subset of the cMITT.
The primary efficacy endpoint was the clinical response at the TOC visit in the co-primary populations of the cMITT and CE at TOC. See Table 8 as follows.

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All-cause mortality rates at Day 28 (cMITT) was 8.4% (30/356) and 7.3% (27/370) ceftazidime-avibactam and meropenem treated patients, respectively.
Clinical cure rate and favourable microbiological response rate at TOC by pathogen in mMITT for Gram-negative aerobes are shown in Tables 9 and 10.

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Limitations of clinical trial data: Patients with evidence of significant immunocompromise were excluded from the Phase 3 clinical trials.
Pharmacokinetics: Distribution: The human protein binding of both ceftazidime and avibactam is, approximately 10% and 8%, respectively. The steady-state volumes of distribution of ceftazidime and avibactam were, about 22 L and 18 L, respectively in healthy adults following multiple doses of 2000 mg/500 mg ceftazidime-avibactam infused over 2 hours every 8 hours. Both ceftazidime and avibactam penetrate into human bronchial epithelial lining fluid (ELF) to the same extent with concentrations around 30% of those in plasma. The concentration time profiles are similar for ELF and plasma.
Penetration of ceftazidime into the intact blood-brain barrier is poor. Ceftazidime concentrations of 4 to 20 mg/L or more are achieved in the CSF when the meninges are inflamed. Avibactam penetration of the blood brain barrier has not been studied clinically, however, in rabbits with inflamed meninges, CSF exposures of ceftazidime and avibactam were 43% and 38% of plasma AUC, respectively. Ceftazidime crosses the placenta readily, and is excreted in the breast milk.
Metabolism: Ceftazidime is not metabolized. No metabolism of avibactam was observed in human liver preparations (microsomes and hepatocytes). Unchanged avibactam was the major drug-related component in human plasma and urine following dosing with [14C]-avibactam.
Excretion: The terminal half-life (t½) of both ceftazidime and avibactam is about 2 h after intravenous administration. Ceftazidime is excreted unchanged into the urine by glomerular filtration; approximately 80 - 90% of the dose is recovered in the urine within 24 h. Avibactam is excreted unchanged into the urine with a renal clearance of approximately 158 mL/min, suggesting active tubular secretion in addition to glomerular filtration, Approximately 97% of the avibactam dose is recovered in the urine, 95% within 12 h. Less than 1% of ceftazidime is excreted via the bile and less than 0.25% of avibactam is excreted into faeces.
Linearity/non-linearity: The pharmacokinetics of both ceftazidime and avibactam are approximately linear across the dose range studied (50 mg to 2000 mg) for a single intravenous administration. No appreciable accumulation of ceftazidime or avibactam was observed following multiple intravenous infusions of 2000 mg/500 mg of ceftazidime/avibactam administered every 8 hours for up to 11 days in healthy adults with normal renal function.
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship(s): The antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against specific pathogens has been shown to best correlate with the percent time of free-drug concentration above the ceftazidime/avibactam minimum inhibitory concentration over the dose interval (%fT >MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam). For avibactam the PK-PD index is the percent time of the free drug concentration above a threshold concentration over the dose interval (% fT >CT).
Renal impairment: Ceftazidime is eliminated almost solely by the kidneys; its serum half-life is significantly prolonged in patients with impaired renal function. The clearance of avibactam was significantly decreased in subjects with mild (CrCl > 50 to 80 mL/min, n = 6), moderate (CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min, n = 6), and severe (≤ CrCl 30 mL/min, not requiring haemodialysis; n = 6) renal impairment compared to healthy subjects with normal renal function (CrCl ≥ 80 mL/min, n = 6) following administration of a single 100 mg intravenous dose of avibactam. The slower clearance resulted in increases in systemic exposure (AUC) of avibactam of 2.6-fold, 3.8-fold and 7-fold in subjects with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively.
A single 100 mg dose of avibactam was administered to subjects with ESRD (n = 6) either 1 hour before or after haemodialysis. The avibactam AUC following the post-haemodialysis infusion was 19.5-fold the AUC of healthy subjects with normal renal function. Avibactam was extensively removed by haemodialysis, with an extraction coefficient of 0.77 and a mean haemodialysis clearance of 9.0 L/h. Approximately 55% of the avibactam dose was removed during a 4-hour haemodialysis session.
Dosage adjustment of Zavicefta is recommended in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease. Population PK models for ceftazidime and avibactam were used to conduct simulations for patients with impaired renal function. Simulations demonstrated that the recommended dose adjustments provide comparable exposures of ceftazidime and avibactam in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease to those in patients with normal renal function or mild renal impairment. For patients with changing renal function, CrCl should be monitored at least daily and the dose of Zavicefta adjusted accordingly (see Dosage & Administration, Use in renal impairment under Precautions).
Hepatic impairment: Mild to moderate hepatic impairment had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in individuals administered 200 mg intravenously every 8 hours for 5 days, provided renal function was not impaired. The pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been established. The pharmacokinetics of avibactam in patients with any degree of hepatic impairment has not been studied.
As ceftazidime and avibactam do not appear to undergo significant hepatic metabolism, the systemic clearance of either active substance is not expected to be significantly altered by hepatic impairment.
Use in the elderly: Reduced clearance of ceftazidime was observed in elderly patients which was primarily due to age-related decrease in renal clearance of ceftazidime. The mean elimination half-life of ceftazidime ranged from 3.5 to 4 hours following intravenous bolus dosing with 2000 mg every 12 hours in elderly patients aged 80 years or older.
Following single intravenous administration of 500 mg avibactam as a 30-minute IV infusion, the elderly had a slower terminal half-life of avibactam, which may be attributed to age related decrease in renal clearance.
Gender and race: The pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime/avibactam is not significantly affected by gender or race.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Genotoxicity: For ceftazidime a mouse Micronucleus test and an Ames test were both negative for mutagenic effects. In genotoxicity assays with avibactam, there was no induction of gene mutation in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation tests, nor were there any indications of genotoxicity in an in vitro micronucleus test in mouse lymphoma cells. In cultured human lymphocytes, statistically significant increases in chromosomal aberrations were observed under a single treatment condition (44h harvest time, -S9). As these findings were not replicated in an independent study, the results are considered to be of limited biological relevance. When administered up to the limit dose of 2 g/kg IV, avibactam was negative in a rat in vivo micronucleus assay. No genetic toxicology studies have been conducted on ceftazidime-avibactam.
Carcinogenicity: Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with ceftazidime-avibactam.
Indications/Uses
Zavicefta is indicated for the treatment of the following infections in adults (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions): Complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), in combination with metronidazole.
Complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), including pyelonephritis.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), including ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP).
Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.
Zavicefta should be used in combination with an antibacterial agent(s) active against Gram-positive and/or anaerobic pathogens when these are known or suspected to be contributing to the infectious process.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Dosage: The recommended dosage is 1 vial where each vial contains 2000 mg ceftazidime and 500 mg avibactam. Treatment is repeated every 8 hours. For patients with renal impairment, see dosage adjustments, renal impairment as follows. (See Table 11.)

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For cUTI including pyelonephritis, the total duration of treatment could be increased to 14 days for patients with bacteraemia.
The duration of treatment should be guided by the severity of the infection, the pathogen(s) and the patient's clinical and bacteriological progress.
Dosage adjustments: Renal impairment: No dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild renal impairment (estimated creatinine clearance (CrCL) ≥51 ≤80 mL/min).
Dosage adjustment of Zavicefta is recommended in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease. Table 12 shows the recommended dose adjustments for patients with estimated CrCL ≤50 mL/min. For patients with changing renal function, CrCL should be monitored at least daily and the dosage of Zavicefta adjusted accordingly. (see Use in renal impairment under Precautions, Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical trials and Pharmacokinetics: Renal impairment under Actions). (See Table 12.)

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Hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustment is required in patients with hepatic impairment (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). Close clinical monitoring for safety and efficacy is advised.
Haemodialysis: Both ceftazidime and avibactam are haemodialyzable; thus, Zavicefta should be administered after haemodialysis on haemodialysis day.
Haemofiltration: There is insufficient data to make specific dosage adjustment recommendations for patients undergoing continuous veno-venous haemofiltration.
Peritoneal dialysis: There is insufficient data to make specific dosage adjustment recommendations for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
Elderly: No dosage adjustment is required in elderly patients (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Paediatric patients: Safety and efficacy in children and adolescents below 18 years of age have not been established. No data are available.
Method of administration: Zavicefta is administered by intravenous infusion over 120 minutes in an infusion volume of 100 mL.
The powder must be reconstituted with water for injections and the resulting concentrate must then be immediately diluted prior to use. The reconstituted solution is pale yellow solution and free of particles.
Standard aseptic techniques should be used for solution preparation and administration. 1. Introduce the syringe needle through the vial closure and inject 10 mL of sterile water for injections.
2. Withdraw the needle and shake the vial to give a clear solution.
3. Do not insert a gas relief needle until the product has dissolved. Insert a gas relief needle through the vial closure to relieve the internal pressure.
4. Transfer the entire contents (approximately 12.0 mL) of the resultant solution to an infusion bag immediately. Reduced doses may be achieved by transfer of an appropriate volume of the resultant solution to an infusion bag, based upon ceftazidime and avibactam content of 167.3 mg/mL and 41.8 mg/mL, respectively. A dose of 1000 mg/250 mg or 750 mg/187.5 mg is achieved with 6.0 mL or 4.5 mL aliquots, respectively.
Note: To preserve product sterility, it is important that the gas relief needle is not inserted through the vial closure before the product is dissolved.
Vials of ceftazidime/avibactam powder should be reconstituted with 10 mL of sterile water for injections, followed by shaking until the content dissolves.
An infusion bag may contain any of the following: sodium chloride 9 mg/mL (0.9%); dextrose 50 mg/mL (5%); sodium chloride 4.5 mg/mL and dextrose 25 mg/mL (0.45% sodium chloride and 2.5% dextrose); Lactated Ringer's solution.
A 100 mL infusion bag can be used to prepare the infusion, based on the patient's volume requirements. The total time interval between starting reconstitution and completing preparation of the intravenous infusion should not exceed 30 minutes.
Product is for single use in one patient only. Discard any residue.
Overdosage
Overdose with ceftazidime/avibactam can lead to neurological sequelae including encephalopathy, convulsions and coma, due to the ceftazidime component.
Serum levels of ceftazidime can be reduced by haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. During a 4- hour haemodialysis period, 55% of the avibactam dose was removed.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Hypersensitivity to any cephalosporin antibacterial agent.
Severe hypersensitivity (e.g. anaphylactic reaction, severe skin reaction) to any other type of β-lactam antibacterial agent (e.g. penicillins, monobactams or carbapenems).
Special Precautions
Hypersensitivity reactions: Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions are possible (see Contraindications and Adverse Reactions). In case of hypersensitivity reactions, treatment with Zavicefta must be discontinued immediately and adequate emergency measures must be initiated.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylactoid and severe cutaneous adverse reactions) have been reported in patients receiving therapy with beta-lactams. Before initiating therapy with Zavicefta, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems or other beta-lactam agents. If an allergic reaction occurs, Zavicefta must be discontinued immediately and appropriate alternative therapy instituted.
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea has been reported with ceftazidime/avibactam, and can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. This diagnosis should be considered in patients who present with diarrhoea during or subsequent to the administration of Zavicefta (see Adverse Reactions). Discontinuation of therapy with Zavicefta and the administration of specific treatment for Clostridium difficile should be considered. Medicinal products that inhibit peristalsis should not be given.
Nephrotoxicity: Concurrent treatment with high doses of cephalosporins and nephrotoxic medicinal products such as aminoglycosides or potent diuretics (e.g. furosemide) may adversely affect renal function.
Direct antiglobulin test (DAGT or Coombs test) seroconversion and potential risk of haemolytic anaemia: Ceftazidime/avibactam use may cause development of a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAGT, or Coombs test), which may interfere with the cross-matching of blood and/or may cause drug induced immune haemolytic anaemia (see Adverse Reactions). While DAGT seroconversion in patients receiving Zavicefta was very common in clinical studies (the estimated range of seroconversion across Phase 3 studies was 3.2% to 20.8% in patients with a negative Coombs test at baseline and at least one follow-up test), there was no evidence of haemolysis in patients who developed a positive DAGT on treatment. However, the possibility that haemolytic anaemia could occur in association with Zavicefta treatment cannot be ruled out. Patients experiencing anaemia during or after treatment with Zavicefta should be investigated for this possibility.
Dermatological adverse events: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) have been reported in patients taking beta-lactam antibiotics. When SCAR is suspected, Zavicefta should be discontinued immediately and an alternative treatment should be considered. See Adverse Reactions.
Spectrum of activity of ceftazidime/avibactam: Ceftazidime has little or no activity against the majority of Gram-positive organisms and anaerobes (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). Additional antibacterial agents should be used when these pathogens are known or suspected to be contributing to the infectious process.
The inhibitory spectrum of avibactam includes many of the enzymes that inactivate ceftazidime, including Ambler class A β-lactamases and class C β-lactamases. Avibactam does not inhibit class B enzymes (metallo-β-lactamases) and is not able to inhibit many of the class D enzymes (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Non-susceptible organisms: Prolonged use may result in the overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms (e.g. Enterococci, fungi), which may require interruption of treatment or other appropriate measures.
Controlled sodium diet: Each vial contains a total of approximately 6.3744 mmol of sodium (approximately 146 mg). This should be considered when administering Zavicefta to patients who are on a controlled sodium diet.
Use in renal impairment: Ceftazidime and avibactam are eliminated via the kidneys, therefore the dose should be reduced according to the degree of renal impairment (see Dosage & Administration). Neurological sequelae, including tremor, myoclonus, non-convulsive status epilepticus, convulsion, encephalopathy and coma, have occasionally been reported with ceftazidime when the dose has not been reduced in patients with renal impairment.
In patients with renal impairment, close monitoring of estimated creatinine clearance is advised. In some patients, the creatinine clearance estimated from serum creatinine can change quickly, especially early in the course of treatment for the infection (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical trials and Pharmacokinetics: Renal impairment under Actions).
Effects on laboratory tests: Ceftazidime may interfere with copper reduction methods (Benedict's, Fehling's, Clinitest) for detection of glycosuria leading to false positive results. Ceftazidime does not interfere with enzyme-based tests for glycosuria.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Undesirable effects may occur (e.g. dizziness), which may influence the ability to drive and use machines following administration of Zavicefta (see Adverse Reactions).
Use in the elderly: No dosage adjustment is required in elderly patients (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Use in children: The safety and efficacy of Zavicefta in paediatric patients (< 18 years of age) have not been established.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Effects on fertility: The effects of ceftazidime/avibactam on fertility in humans have not been studied. No data are available on animal studies with ceftazidime. Animal studies with avibactam do not indicate harmful effects with respect to male fertility. Studies in female rats showed a dose-related increase in pre-and post-implantation losses and smaller live litter size at ≥500 mg/kg/day (≥3 times the human therapeutic exposure at 500 mg three times a day, based on AUC).
Use in pregnancy: Ceftazidime: The safety of ceftazidime in pregnancy has not been established, although animal studies have not produced evidence of embryopathic or teratogenic effects attributable to ceftazidime.
Avibactam: Animal studies with avibactam have shown reproductive toxicity without evidence of teratogenic effects.
In pregnant rabbits administered avibactam at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day (5-21 times the human therapeutic exposure based on AUC), there was a dose-related lower mean fetal weight and delayed ossification, associated with maternal toxicity (decreased food consumption and body weight gain). Plasma exposure levels at maternal and fetal NOAEL (100 mg/kg/day) indicate low margins of safety (1.5 times the human therapeutic exposure based on AUC).
In the rat, no adverse effects were observed on embryofetal development at up to 1000 mg/kg/day (6 times the human therapeutic exposure based on AUC). Following administration of avibactam throughout pregnancy and lactation in the rat, there was no effect on pup survival, growth or development, however there was an increase in incidence of dilation of the renal pelvis and ureters in less than 10% of the rat pups at maternal exposures ≥ 450 mg/kg/day (greater than or equal to approximately 3 times the human therapeutic exposures based on AUC). Ceftazidime/avibactam should only be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit outweighs the possible risk.
Use in lactation: Ceftazidime is excreted in human milk in small quantities.
It is unknown whether avibactam is excreted in human milk. Avibactam was excreted in rat milk (~20% of plasma Cmax), and very low levels were detected in pup plasma (<0.03% of nonclinical maternal plasma Cmax) as a result of exposure from milk.
A risk to newborns/infants cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast feeding or to discontinue/abstain from ceftazidime/avibactam therapy taking into account the benefit of breast feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.
Adverse Reactions
In seven Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials, 2024 adult patients were treated with Zavicefta. The table as follows lists the adverse events (regardless of causality) occurring in ≥1% of patients treated with Zavicefta with or without metronidazole or comparator from Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials. (See Table 13.)

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The most common adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of patients treated with Zavicefta were Coombs direct test positive, nausea, and diarrhoea. Nausea and diarrhoea were usually mild or moderate in intensity. No clinically significant differences were observed in the safety profile across indications.
The following adverse reactions have been reported with ceftazidime alone and/or identified during the Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials with Zavicefta. Adverse reactions are classified according to frequency and System Organ Class. Frequency categories are derived from adverse reactions and/or potentially clinically significant laboratory abnormalities. (See Table 14.)

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Drug Interactions
In vitro, avibactam is a substrate of OAT1 and OAT3 transporters which might contribute to the active uptake of avibactam from the blood compartment and therefore affect its excretion. Probenecid (a potent OAT inhibitor) inhibits this uptake by 56% to 70% in vitro and therefore, has the potential to alter the elimination of avibactam. Since a clinical interaction study of avibactam and probenecid has not been conducted, co-administration of avibactam with probenecid is not recommended.
Avibactam showed no significant inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. Avibactam and ceftazidime showed no in vitro cytochrome P450 induction at clinically relevant concentrations. Avibactam and ceftazidime do not inhibit the major renal or hepatic transporters in the clinically relevant exposure range, therefore the interaction potential via these mechanisms is considered to be low.
Clinical data have demonstrated that there is no interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, and between ceftazidime/avibactam and metronidazole.
Other types of interaction: Concurrent treatment with high doses of cephalosporins and nephrotoxic medicinal products such as aminoglycosides or potent diuretics (e.g. furosemide) may adversely affect renal function (see Precautions).
Chloramphenicol is antagonistic in vitro with ceftazidime and other cephalosporins. The clinical relevance of this finding is unknown, but due to the possibility of antagonism in vivo this drug combination should be avoided.
Caution For Usage
Instructions for use, handling and disposal: Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Incompatibilities: This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in Dosage & Administration.
Storage
Store below 30°C.
Store in the original package in order to protect from light.
For storage conditions of the reconstituted and diluted medicinal product, see Shelf-Life as follows.
Shelf-Life: Dry powder: 3 years when stored below 30°C.
After reconstitution: The reconstituted vial should be used immediately.
The chemical and physical in-use stability of the reconstituted product has been demonstrated for up to 24 hours at 2°-8°C followed by up to 12 hours at not more than 25°C.
From a microbiological point of view, the medicinal product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 12 hours at not more than 25°C or 24 hours at 2°- 8°C, unless reconstitution/dilution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
J01DD52 - ceftazidime and beta-lactamase inhibitor ; Belongs to the class of third-generation cephalosporins. Used in the systemic treatment of infections.
Presentation/Packing
Powd for infusion (white to yellow sterile powder in vial) 20 mL x 10's.
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