Zoladex

Zoladex Special Precautions

goserelin

Manufacturer:

AstraZeneca

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Special Precautions
There is an increased risk of incident depression (which may be severe) in patients undergoing treatment with GnRH agonists, such as Goserelin. Patients should be informed accordingly and treated as appropriate if symptoms occur.
Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT interval.
In patients with a history of or risk factors for QT prolongation and in patients receiving concomitant medicinal products that might prolong the QT interval (see Interactions) physicians should assess the benefit risk ratio including the potential for Torsade de pointes prior to initiating Zoladex.
Injection site injury has been reported with Zoladex, including events of pain, haematoma, haemorrhage and vascular injury. Monitor affected patients for signs or symptoms of abdominal haemorrhage. In very rare cases, administration error resulted in vascular injury and haemorrhagic shock requiring blood transfusions and surgical intervention. Extra care should be taken when administering Zoladex to patients with a low BMI and/or receiving full anticoagulation medications (see Dosage & Administration).
Males: The use of Zoladex in men at particular risk of developing ureteric obstruction or spinal cord compression should be considered carefully, and the patients monitored closely during the first month of therapy. If spinal cord compression or renal impairment due to ureteric obstruction are present or develop, specific standard treatment of these complications should be instituted.
Consideration should be given to the initial use of an anti-androgen (e.g. cyproterone acetate 300 mg daily for three days before and three weeks after commencement of Zoladex) at the start of LHRH analogue therapy since this has been reported to prevent the possible sequelae of the initial rise in serum testosterone.
The use of LHRH agonists may cause a reduction in bone mineral density. In men, preliminary data suggest that the use of a bisphosphonate in combination with an LHRH agonist may reduce bone mineral loss. Particular caution is necessary in patients with additional risk factors for osteoporosis (e.g. chronic alcohol abusers, smokers, long-term therapy with anticonvulsants or corticosteroids, family history of osteoporosis).
Patients with known depression and patients with hypertension should be monitored carefully.
Reduction in glucose tolerance has been observed in men receiving LHRH agonists. This may manifest as diabetes or loss of glycaemic control in patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus. Thus, monitoring blood glucose levels should be considered.
Myocardial infarction and cardiac failure were observed in a pharmacoepidemiology study of LHRH agonists used in the treatment of prostate cancer. The risk appears to be increased when used in combination with anti-androgens.
Females: Breast cancer indication: Reduced bone mineral density: The use of LHRH agonists may cause reduction in bone mineral density. Following two years treatment for early breast cancer, the average loss of bone mineral density was 6.2% and 11.5% at the femoral neck and lumbar spine respectively. This loss has been shown to be partially reversible at the one year off treatment follow-up with recovery to 3.4% and 6.4% relative to baseline at the femoral neck and lumbar spine respectively, although this recovery is based on very limited data. In the majority of women, currently available data suggest that recovery of bone loss occurs after cessation of therapy.
Preliminary data suggest that the use of Zoladex in combination with tamoxifen in patients with breast cancer may reduce bone mineral loss.
Benign indication: Loss of bone mineral density: The use of LHRH agonists is likely to cause reduction in bone mineral density averaging 1% per month during a six month treatment period. Every 10% reduction in bone mineral density is linked with about a two to three times increased fracture risk. In the majority of women, currently available data suggest that recovery of bone loss occurs after cessation of therapy.
In patients receiving Zoladex for the treatment of endometriosis, the addition of hormone replacement therapy has been shown to reduce bone mineral density loss and vasomotor symptoms.
No specific data is available for patients with established osteoporosis or with risk factors for osteoporosis (e.g. chronic alcohol abusers, smokers, long-term therapy with drugs that reduce bone mineral density, e.g. anticonvulsants or corticosteroids, family history of osteoporosis, malnutrition, e.g. anorexia nervosa). Since reduction in bone mineral density is likely to be more detrimental in these patients, treatment with Zoladex should be considered on an individual basis and only be initiated if the benefits of treatment outweigh the risks following a very careful appraisal.
Consideration should be given to additional measures in order to counteract loss of bone mineral density.
Withdrawal bleeding: During early treatment with Zoladex some women may experience vaginal bleeding of variable duration and intensity. If vaginal bleeding occurs it is usually in the first month after starting treatment. Such bleeding probably represents oestrogen withdrawal bleeding and is expected to stop spontaneously. If bleeding continues, the reason should be investigated.
There are no clinical data on the effects of treating benign gynaecological conditions with Zoladex for periods in excess of six months.
The use of Zoladex may cause an increase in cervical resistance and care should be taken when dilating the cervix.
Zoladex should only be administered as part of a regimen for assisted reproduction under the supervision of a specialist experienced in the area.
As with other LHRH agonists, there have been reports of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), associated with the use of Zoladex 3.6 mg in combination with gonadotrophin. The stimulation cycle should be monitored carefully to identify patients at risk of developing OHSS. If OHSS risk is present, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) should be withheld, if possible.
It is recommended that Zoladex is used with caution in fertilisation treatment of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome as follicle recruitment may be increased.
Fertile women should use non-hormonal contraceptive methods during treatment with Zoladex and until reset of menstruation following discontinuation of treatment with Zoladex.
Patients with known depression and patients with hypertension should be monitored carefully.
Treatment with Zoladex may lead to positive reactions in anti-doping tests.
Effect on ability to drive or operate machinery: Zoladex has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Use in Children: Zoladex is not indicated for use in children, as safety and efficacy have not been established in this patient group.
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