Pharmacology: Mode of Action: Animal and human studies have shown that albendazole exhibits vermicidal, ovicidal and larvicidal activity. Albendazole is thought to exert its anthelmintic effect by blocking glucose uptake in susceptible helminths, thereby, depleting the energy level until it becomes inadequate for survival. Immobilization is followed by death of the parasite.
Pharmacodynamics: In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that albendazole selectively blocks glucose uptake by adult intestinal dwelling helminths and tissue dwelling larvae. Consequently, there is a decrease in the formation of ATP. Thus, the energy level of susceptible helminths is depleted leading to mobilization and death of parasite.
In addition to being effective against most nematodes, albendazole is also effective against larvae migrating stages of N. americanus and is ovicidal in ascariasis, hookworm infections and trichuriasis.
Pharmacokinetics: Albendazole is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and maximum mean plasma levels are reached within 2½-3 hrs post-dosing. It rapidly undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism. The principal metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide has anthelmintic activity and a plasma half-life of about 8.5 hrs. Unchanged albendazole is generally not excreted in urine.
Hookworm infections (Ancylostoma duodenale); roundworm infections (Ascaris lumbricoides); capillariasis (Capillaria philippinensis); whipworm infections (Trichuris trichiura); strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercolaris); tapeworm infections (Taenia saginata); opisthorchiasis (Opisthorchis viverrini); hydatid disease (Cestodes).
Adults and Children >2 years: As a general recommendation, a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole once daily for 3 consecutive days. The tablet may be chewed, swallowed or crushed. No special procedures eg, fasting or purging is required.
Children 1-2 years: Albendazole has not been fully evaluated in children <2 years, however, 200 mg once daily can be recommended in children 1-2 years.
Reports on overdosage is not available.
Hypersensitivity to albendazole.
Use in pregnancy & lactation: Albendazole should not be given during pregnancy and lactation.
Use in children: Albendazole should be given with caution in children <2 years (see Dosage & Administration).
Albendazole should not be given during pregnancy and lactation.
Clinical trials on albendazole have shown that adverse effects occur only in a small percentage of patients and these are usually mild and transient. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of adverse effects in albendazole and placebo groups in controlled trials. These effects include epigastric pain, diarrhoea, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, constipation, pruritus and dry mouth. Haematological and biochemical parameters remain unaltered following short-term treatment with albendazole, but rise in transaminase levels have been reported with long-term dosing.
Store below 25°C, in a dry place. Protect from direct sunlight.
P02CA03 - albendazole ; Belongs to the class of benzimidazole derivative agents. Used as antinematodal.