Amiodar

Amiodar

amiodarone

Manufacturer:

Micro Labs

Distributor:

Zizawa Healthcare
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Amiodarone HCl.
Description
Each uncoated tablet contains Amiodarone Hydrochloride BP 100 mg / 200 mg.
Chemistry: Amiodarone HCl is a benzofuran derivative : 2-butyl-3-benzofuranyl 4-[2-(diethylamino)-ethoxy]-3-5-diiodophenyl ketone, hydrochloride.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Amiodarone Hydrochloride is a member of antiarrhythmic drugs with predominantly class III (Vaughan William's classification) effects.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: The antiarrhythmic effect of Amiodarone HCl may be due to at least 2 major properties: a prolongation of the myocardial cell-action potential duration and refractory period; and noncompetitive alpha- and beta-adrenergic inhibition.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Following oral administration in man, Amiodarone HCl is slowly and variably absorbed. The bioavailability of Amiodarone HCl is approximately 50%, but varies between 35 and 65% in various studies. Maximum plasma concentrations are attained 3 to 7 hours after a single dose.
Distribution: Amiodarone HCl has a very large but variable volume of distribution, averaging about 60 L/kg because of extensive accumulation in various sites, especially adipose tissue and highly perfused organs such as the liver, lung, and spleen.
Metabolism: One major metabolite of Amiodarone HCl, desethylamiodarone, has been identified in man.
Elimination: The main route of elimination is via hepatic excretion into bile, and some enterohepatic recirculation may occur.
Indications/Uses
Amiodarone HCl is mainly indicated in life threatening recurrent ventricular arrhythmias: Recurrent ventricular fibrillation and recurrent hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia.
Dosage/Direction for Use
For Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias such as Ventricular Fibrillation or Hemodynamically Unstable Ventricular Tachycardia: Close monitoring of the patients is indicated during the loading phase, particularly, until risk of recurrent ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation has abated. Loading doses of 800 to 1,600 mg/day are required for 1 to 3 weeks (occasionally longer) until initial therapeutic response occurs. When adequate arrhythmia control is achieved, or if side effects become prominent, Amiodarone HCl dose should be reduced to 600 to 800 mg/day for one month and then to the maintenance dose, usually 400 mg/day.
Overdosage
There have been reported cases of Amiodarone HCl overdose in which 3 to 8 grams were taken. There were no deaths of permanent sequelae. In addition to general supportive measures, the patient's cardiac rhythm and blood pressure should be monitored, and if bradycardia ensues, a beta adrenergic agonist or a pacemaker may be used.
Contraindications
Amiodarone HCl is contraindicated in severe sinus-node dysfunction, causing marked sinus bradycardia; second and third-degree atrioventricular block; and when episodes of bradycardia have caused syncope (except when used in conjunction with a pacemaker). Amiodarone HCl is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug.
Special Precautions
Corneal Microdeposits: Impairment of Vision: Corneal microdeposits appear in the majority of adults treated with Amiodarone HCl.
Photosensitivity: Amiodarone HCl has induced photosensitization in about 10% of patients. Some protection may be afforded by the use of sun-barrier creams or protective clothing.
Thyroid Abnormalities: Amiodarone HCl may cause increased thyroxine levels. If any new signs of arrhythmia appear, the possibility of hyperthyroidism should be considered.
Amiodarone HCl is intended for use only in patients with indicated life-threatening arrhythmias because its use is accompanied by substantial toxicity. Amiodarone HCl has several potentially fatal toxicities, the most important of which is pulmonary toxicity. Even in patients at high risk of arrhythmic death, in whom the toxicity of Amiodarone HCl is an acceptable risk, Amiodarone HCl poses major management problems that could be life-threatening in a population at risk of sudden death, so that every effort should be made to utilize alternative agents first.
Pediatric use: The safety and effectiveness of Amiodarone HCl in children have not been established.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Amiodarone HCl should be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit to the mother justifies the unknown risk to the fetus. When Amiodarone HCl therapy is indicated, the mother should be advised to discontinue nursing.
Adverse Reactions
Neurologic problems are extremely common, including malaise and fatigue, tremor and involuntary movements and peripheral neuropathy. Gastrointestinal complaints, as vomiting, constipation and anorexia. Rarely hepatitis may occur.
Endocrine: Testicular swelling and gynecomastia in the male; breast enlargement and galactorrhoea in the female.
Drug Interactions
Digitalis: Administration of amiodarone HCl to patients receiving digoxin therapy regularly results in an increase in the serum digoxin concentration that may reach toxic levels with resultant clinical toxicity.
Anticoagulants: Potentiation of warfarin-type anticoagulant response is almost always seen in patients receiving Amiodarone HCl and can result in serious or fatal bleeding.
Storage
Store below 35°C, in a dry place. Protect from light.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
C01BD01 - amiodarone ; Belongs to class III antiarrhythmics.
Presentation/Packing
Tab 100 mg x 3 x 10's. 200 mg x 3 x 10's.
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