Adult: 0.5-1 g as a single dose 15-30 min before bedtime or 30 min prior to surgery. Max: 2 g daily. Treatment duration: ≤2 wk. Child: 2-11 yr 30-50 mg/kg as a single dose 15-30 min before bedtime. Max: 1 g daily; ≥12 yr 0.5-1 g as a single dose 15-30 min before bedtime. Max: 2 g daily. Treatment duration: ≤2 wk. Elderly: 250 mg 15-30 min before bedtime.
Adult: 250 mg tid. Max: 2 g daily.
Dilute w/ water or other liquids (e.g. fruit juice, ginger ale).
Avoid contact w/ skin or mucous membranes. Avoid prolonged use or abrupt withdrawal. This drug may cause drowsiness, if affected, do not drive or operate machinery.
Monitor vital signs, oxygen saturation, and BP.
Symptoms: Resp depression, arrhythmia, hypothermia, hypotension, pin-point pupils, coma, muscle flaccidity, icterus, jaundice, albuminuria, vomiting, oesophageal stricture; gastric necrosis, perforation, and haemorrhage. Management: Symptomatic and supportive treatment including oxygen admin, assisted respiration, and maintenance of airway, body temp, and circulation. Continuously monitor cardiac function. Employ activated charcoal or gastric lavage, and induce emesis.
Enhanced sedative effect w/ opiates, barbiturates, TCAs, antipsychotics, antihistamines, and other sedatives. May cause hot flushes, sweating, and HTN w/ IV furosemide. May cause delirium w/ anticholinergics or psychotropics. May produce a transient increase in hypoprothrombinemic response to warfarin.
Enhanced sedative effect and may cause tachycardia, palpitations, facial flushing, and dysphoria w/ alcohol.
May interfere w/ tests for determining urinary glucose using copper sulfate (e.g. Clinitest) and urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (e.g. Reddy, Jenkins, and Thorn procedure), fluorometric tests for urine catecholamine, and thyroid function tests.
Description: Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic w/ properties similar to paraldehyde and barbiturates. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, however, it is believed that its CNS depressant effects are due to its active metabolite, trichloroethanol. Onset: W/in 30 min. Duration: 4-8 hr. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Rapidly and well absorbed from the GI tract. Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the body, including CSF. Crosses the placenta and enters breast milk. Plasma protein binding: 35-40% (trichloroethanol); approx 94% (trichloroacetic acid). Metabolism: Rapidly metabolised in the liver, erythrocytes, and other tissues by alcohol dehydrogenase to the active metabolite, trichloroethanol, and further oxidised in the liver and kidneys to the inactive metabolite, trichloroacetic acid. Trichloroethanol may also be conjugated w/ glucuronic acid to form an inactive metabolite, urochloralic acid. Excretion: Via urine (as metabolites) and faeces (in small amounts). Elimination half-life: 8-10 hr (trichloroethanol); 67.2 hr (trichloroacetic acid).
N05CC01 - chloral hydrate ; Belongs to the class of aldehydes and derivatives. Used as hypnotics and sedatives.
Anon. Chloral Hydrate. Lexicomp Online. Hudson, Ohio. Wolters Kluwer Clinical Drug Information, Inc. https://online.lexi.com
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