Diclotol

Diclotol

aceclofenac

Manufacturer:

Kusum

Distributor:

JDS
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Aceclofenac.
Description
Each film-coated tablet contains: Aceclofenac EP 100 mg.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, colloidal anhydrous silica, stearic acid, opadry white, isopropyl alcohol and dichloromethane.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory & Antirheumatic. ATC code: M01AB16.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: The mode of action of aceclofenac is largely based on the inhibition to prostaglandin synthesis. Aceclofenac is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase, which is involved in the production of prostaglandins.
Pharmacokinetics: After oral administration, aceclofenac is rapidly and completely absorbed as unchanged drug. Peak plasma concentrations are reached approximately 1.25 to 3.00 hours following ingestion. Aceclofenac penetrates into the synovial fluid, where the concentrations reach approximately 57% of those in plasma. The volume of distribution is approximately 25 L.
The mean plasma elimination half-life is around 4 hours. Aceclofenac is highly protein bound (>99%). Aceclofenac circulates mainly as unchanged drug. 4' Hydroxyaceclofenac is the main metabolite detected in plasma. Approximately two thirds of the administered dose is excreted via the urine, mainly as hydroxymetabolites.
No changes in the pharmacokinetics of aceclofenac have been detected in the elderly.
Indications/Uses
Diclotol is indicated for the relief of pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Recommended dose: Adults: The recommended dose is 200 mg daily, taken as two separate 100 mg doses, one tablet in the morning and one tablet in the evening.
Children: No clinical data on the use of Aceclofenac tablets in children and therefore it is not recommended for use in children.
Elderly: The elderly, who are more likely to be suffering from impaired renal, cardiovascular or hepatic function and receiving concomitant medication, are at increased risk of the serious consequences of adverse reactions. If an NSAID is considered necessary, the lowest effective dose should be used and for the shortest possible duration. The patient should be monitored regularly for GI bleeding during NSAID therapy.
The pharmacokinetics is not altered in elderly patients, therefore it is not necessary to modify the dose or dose frequency.
Renal insufficiency: There is no evidence that the dosage of Aceclofenac needs to be modified in patients with mild renal impairment, but as with other NSAIDs, caution should be exercised.
Hepatic insufficiency: There is some evidence that the dose of Aceclofenac should be reduced in patients with hepatic impairment and it is suggested that an initial daily dose of 100 mg be used.
MODE OF ADMINISTRATION: Diclotol tablets should be swallowed whole with a sufficient quantity of liquid.
To be taken preferably with or after food.
Overdosage
Symptoms: Symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, gastrointestinal irritation, gastrointestinal bleeding, rarely diarrhoea, disorientation, excitation, coma, drowsiness, dizziness, tinnitus, hypotension, respiratory depression, fainting, occasionally convulsions. In cases of significant poisoning acute renal failure and liver damage are possible.
Therapeutic measure: Patients should be treated symptomatically as required.
Within one hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount, activated charcoal should be considered. Alternatively, in adults, gastric lavage should be considered within one hour of ingestion of a potentially life-threatening overdose.
Specific therapies such as dialysis or haemoperfusion are probable of no help in eliminating NSAIDs due to their high rate of protein binding and extensive metabolism.
Good urine output should be ensured.
Renal and liver function should be closely monitored. Patients should be observed for at least four hours after ingestion of potentially toxic amounts.
In case of frequent or prolonged convulsions, patients should be treated with intravenous diazepam.
Other measures may be indicated by the patient's clinical condition.
Management of acute poisoning with NSAIDs essentially consists of supportive and symptomatic measures.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to aceclofenac or to any of the excipients.
Active, or history of recurrent peptic ulcer/haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).
NSAIDs are contraindicated in patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. asthma, rhinitis, angioedema or urticaria) in response to ibuprofen, aspirin, or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Severe heart failure, hepatic failure and renal failure.
History of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAIDs therapy.
Aceclofenac should not be prescribed during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester of pregnancy, unless there are compelling reasons for doing so. The lowest effective dosage should be used.
Special Precautions
Undesirable effects may be minimized by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms. The use of Diclotol with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors should be avoided.
Elderly: The elderly have an increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal.
Respiratory disorders: Caution is required if administered to patients suffering from, or with a previous history of, bronchial asthma since NSAIDs have been reported to precipitate bronchospasm in such patients.
Cardiovascular, Renal and Hepatic Impairment: The administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and precipitate renal failure. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, cardiac impairment, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and the elderly. Renal function should be monitored in these patients.
Renal: The importance of prostaglandins in maintaining renal blood flow should be taken into account in patients with impaired cardiac or renal function, those being treated with diuretics or recovering from major surgery. Effects on renal function are usually reversible on withdrawal.
Hepatic: If abnormal liver function tests persist or worsen, clinical signs or symptoms consistent with liver disease develop or if other manifestations occur, Aceclofenac should be discontinued. Close medical surveillance is necessary in patients suffering from mild to moderate impairment of hepatic function. Hepatitis may occur without prodromal symptoms.
Use of Aceclofenac in patients with hepatic porphyria may trigger an attack.
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects: Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.
Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure, established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with aceclofenac after careful consideration. Similar consideration should be made before initiating longer-term treatment of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking).
Gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation: GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at any time during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events.
Close medical surveillance is imperative in patients with symptoms indicative of gastro-intestinal disorders, with a history suggestive of gastro-intestinal ulceration, with ulcerative colitis or with Crohn's disease, bleeding diathesis or haematological abnormalities.
The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation, and in the elderly. These patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available. Combination therapy with protective agents (e.g. misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors) should be considered for these patients, and also for patients requiring concomitant low dose aspirin, or other drugs likely to increase gastrointestinal risk.
Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or antiplatelet agents such as aspirin.
When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving aceclofenac, the treatment should be withdrawn.
NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease as these conditions may be exacerbated.
SLE and mixed connective tissue disease: In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders, there may be an increased risk of aseptic meningitis.
Dermatological: Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs. Aceclofenac should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
Impaired female fertility: The use of Aceclofenac may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of Aceclofenac should be considered.
Hypersensitivity reactions: As with other NSAIDs, allergic reactions, including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, can also occur without earlier exposure to the drug.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Undesirable effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, vertigo, fatigue, visual disturbances or other central nervous system disorders are possible after taking NSAIDs. If affected, patients should not drive or operate machinery.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There is no information on the use of aceclofenac during pregnancy. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis may adversely affect the pregnancy and/or the embryo/fetal development. Data from epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of miscarriage, cardiac malformation or gastroschisis after use of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in early pregnancy. The absolute risk for cardiovascular malformation was increased from less than 1%, up to approximately 1.5%. The risk is believed to increase with dose and duration of therapy.
In animals, administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor has been shown to result in increased pre- and post-implantation loss and embryo-foetal lethality. In addition, increased incidences of various malformations, including cardiovascular, have been reported in animals given a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor during the organogenetic period. During the first and second trimester of pregnancy, aceclofenac should not be given unless clearly necessary. If aceclofenac is used by a woman attempting to conceive, or during the first and second trimester of pregnancy, the dose should be kept as low and duration of treatment as short as possible.
During the third trimester of pregnancy, all prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose the foetus to: cardiopulmonary toxicity (with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension); renal dysfunction, which may progress to renal failure with oligo-hydroamniosis; the mother and the neonate, at the end of pregnancy, to: possible prolongation of bleeding time, an anti-aggregating effect which may occur even at very low doses; inhibition of uterine contractions resulting in delayed or prolonged labour.
Consequently, aceclofenac is contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy.
Lactation: There is no information on the secretion of aceclofenac to breast milk; there was however no notable transfer of radio labelled (14C) aceclofenac to the milk of lactating rats.
The use of Diclotol should therefore be avoided in pregnancy and lactation unless the potential benefits to the other outweigh the possible risks to the foetus.
Fertility: The use of Diclotol may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of Diclotol should be considered.
Adverse Reactions
Inform doctors about unexpected reactions after using drugs.
Side Effects
Gastrointestinal: The most commonly-observed adverse events are gastrointestinal in nature. Peptic ulcers, perforation or GI bleeding, sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly, may occur. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, melaena, haematemesis, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of colitis and Crohn's disease have been reported following administration. Less frequently, gastritis has been observed. Pancreatitis has been reported very rarely.
Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported following treatment with NSAIDs. These may consist of (a) non-specific allergic reactions and anaphylaxis (b) respiratory tract reactivity comprising asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm or dyspnoea, or (c) assorted skin disorders, including rashes of various types, pruritus, urticaria, purpura, angiodema and, more rarely exfoliative and bullous dermatoses (including epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme).
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular: Oedema, hypertension and cardiac failure have been reported in association with NSAID treatment.
Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long term treatment) may be associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events.
The majority of adverse reactions reported have been reversible and of a minor nature. The most frequent are gastro-intestinal disorders, in particular dyspepsia, abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhoea, and occasional occurrence of dizziness. Oedema, hypertension, and cardiac failure, have been reported in association with NSAID treatment.
Investigations: Abnormal hepatic enzyme and serum creatinine levels have also been reported.
Other adverse reactions reported less commonly include: Renal: Nephrotoxicity in various forms, including interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and renal failure.
Hepatic: abnormal liver function, hepatitis and jaundice.
Neurological and special senses: Visual disturbances, optic neuritis, headaches, paraesthesia, reports of aseptic meningitis with symptoms such as stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation, depression, confusion, hallucinations, tinnitus, vertigo, dizziness, malaise, fatigue and drowsiness.
Haematological: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia and haemolytic anaemia.
Dermatological: Bullous reactions including Stevens Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (very rare). Photosensitivity.
If serious adverse reactions occur, Diclotol should be withdrawn.
The following is a table of adverse reactions reported during clinical studies and after authorization, grouped by System-Organ Class and estimated frequencies. (See table.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
Drug Interactions
Other analgesics including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors: Avoid concomitant use of two or more NSAIDs (including aspirin) as this may increase the risk of adverse effects.
Anti-hypertensives: NSAIDs may reduce the effect of antihypertensives. The risk of acute renal insufficiency, which is usually reversible, may be increased in some patients with compromised renal function (e.g. dehydrated patients or elderly patients) when ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists are combined with NSAIDs. Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly. Patients should be adequately hydrated and consideration should be given to monitoring of renal function after initiation of concomitant therapy, and periodically thereafter.
Diuretics: Reduced diuretic effect. Diuretics can increase the risk of nephrotoxicity of NSAIDs. Although it was not shown to affect blood pressure control when co-administered with bendrofluazide, interactions with other diuretics cannot be ruled out. When concomitant administration with potassium-sparing diuretics is employed, serum potassium should be monitored.
Cardiac glycosides like digoxin: NSAIDs may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and inhibit the renal clearance of glycosides, resulting in increased plasma glycoside levels. The combination should be avoided unless frequent monitoring of glycoside levels can be performed.
Lithium: Several NSAID drugs inhibit the renal clearance of lithium, resulting in increased serum concentrations of lithium. The combination should be avoided unless frequent monitoring of lithium can be performed.
Methotrexate: The possible interaction between NSAIDs and methotrexate should be born in mind also when low doses of methotrexate are used, especially in patients with decreased renal function. When combination therapy has to be used, the renal function should be monitored. Caution should be exercised if both an NSAID and methotrexate are administered within 24 hours of each other, since NSAIDs may increase plasma levels of methotrexate, resulting in increased toxicity.
Mifepristone: NSAIDs should not be used for 8-12 days after mifepristone administration as NSAIDs can reduce the effect of mifepristone.
Corticosteroids: Increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding.
Anti-coagulants: NSAIDs may enhance the effects of anti-coagulants, such as warfarin. Close monitoring of patients on combined anti-coagulants and Aceclofenac therapy should be undertaken.
Quinolone antibiotics: Animal data indicate that NSAIDs can increase the risk of convulsions associated with quinolone antibiotics. Patients taking NSAIDs and quinolones may have an increased risk of developing convulsions.
Anti-platelet agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.
Ciclosporin, tacrolimus: Administration of NSAID drugs together with cyclosporin or tacrolimus is thought to increase the risk of nephrotoxicity due to decreased synthesis of prostacyclin in the kidney. During combination therapy, it is therefore important to carefully monitor renal function.
Zidovudine: Increased risk of haematological toxicity when NSAIDs are given with zidovudine. There are indications of an increased risk of haemarthroses and haematoma in HIV(+) haemophiliacs receiving concurrent treatment with zidovudine and ibuprofen.
Antidiabetic agents: Clinical studies have shown that diclofenac can be given together with oral antidiabetic agents without influencing their clinical effect. However, there have been isolated reports of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic effects. Thus with Diclotol, consideration should be given to adjustment of the dosage of hypoglycaemic agents.
Storage
Store below 30°C.
Shelf-Life: 3 years.
ATC Classification
M01AB16 - aceclofenac ; Belongs to the class of acetic acid derivatives and related substances of non-steroidal antiinflammatory and antirheumatic products.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 100 mg (white, circular, biconvex) x 10 x 10's.
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