Absolute: Allergy to copper. Malignant diseases & infections of genital tract. Undiagnosed vag bleeding. Past history of ectopic pregnancy or predisposing factors. STDs during the last 12 mth (except bacterial vaginitis, repeated herpes infection, hepatitis B). Abortion w/ infection during the last 3 mth. Pelvic inflammatory disease. Uterine malformations (congenital or acquired). Pregnancy. Relative: Anemia. Valvular heart disease. Coagulation disorders. Anti-inflammatory treatment. Wilson's disease. Multiple exposures to different sexual partners.