Miglitol


Concise Prescribing Info
Indications/Uses
Type 2 DM.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Adult : PO Initial: 25 mg tid. May increase after 4-8 wk to 50 mg tid and continue for 3 mth. Max: 100 mg tid.
Dosage Details
Oral
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Adult: Initially, 25 mg tid. Increase if necessary after 4-8 wk to 50 mg tid and continue for 3 mth. Max: 100 mg tid.
Administration
Should be taken with food. Take w/ 1st bite of each main meal.
Contraindications
Patient w/ diabetic ketoacidosis, inflammatory bowel disease, colonic ulceration, partial intestinal obstruction or predisposition to this condition, chronic intestinal diseases associated w/ marked disorders of digestion or absorption and co-existing conditions that may deteriorate as a result of increased intestinal gas formation.
Special Precautions
Patient exposed to stress (e.g. fever, trauma, infection, surgery). Renal impairment. Pregnancy and lactation.
Adverse Reactions
Abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhoea, flatulence, skin rash.
Patient Counseling Information
Adhere to diet and exercise regimen.
MonitoringParameters
Periodic monitoring of blood glucose tests. Measure glycosylated Hb to monitor long term glycaemic control.
Drug Interactions
Concomitant use w/ insulin increases the risk of hypoglycaemia. Intestinal adsorbents (e.g. charcoal) and carbohydrate-splitting digestive enzyme supplements (e.g. amylase, pancreatin) may reduce glycaemic effects. May significantly reduce the bioavailability of ranitidine and propranolol.
Action
Description: Miglitol reversibly inhibits membrane-bound intestinal α-glucosidase enzymes which hydrolyse oligosaccharides and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestinal brush border. It delays carbohydrate breakdown, glucose absorption and reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia.
Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: Absorption from GI tract is saturable at high doses. Bioavailability: 50-70% (100 mg); 100% (25 mg). Time to peak plasma concentration: W/in 2-3 hr.
Distribution: It crosses the placenta and enters breast milk (small amounts). Volume of distribution: 0.18 L/kg. Plasma protein binding: <4%.
Metabolism: Not metabolised.
Excretion: Via urine (95%) as unchanged drug. Elimination half-life: Approx 2 hr.
Chemical Structure

Chemical Structure Image
Miglitol

Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Miglitol, CID=441314, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Miglitol (accessed on Jan. 22, 2020)

Storage
Store at 25°C.
MIMS Class
References
Anon. Miglitol. Lexicomp Online. Hudson, Ohio. Wolters Kluwer Clinical Drug Information, Inc. https://online.lexi.com. Accessed 13/08/2014.

Buckingham R (ed). Miglitol. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference [online]. London. Pharmaceutical Press. https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 13/08/2014.

Glycet Tablets. U.S. FDA. https://www.fda.gov/. Accessed 13/08/2014.

Glyset Tablet, Film Coated (Pharmacia and Upjohn Company). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/. Accessed 13/08/2014.

McEvoy GK, Snow EK, Miller J et al (eds). Miglitol. AHFS Drug Information (AHFS DI) [online]. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP). https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 13/08/2014.

Disclaimer: This information is independently developed by MIMS based on Miglitol from various references and is provided for your reference only. Therapeutic uses, prescribing information and product availability may vary between countries. Please refer to MIMS Product Monographs for specific and locally approved prescribing information. Although great effort has been made to ensure content accuracy, MIMS shall not be held responsible or liable for any claims or damages arising from the use or misuse of the information contained herein, its contents or omissions, or otherwise. Copyright © 2020 MIMS. All rights reserved. Powered by MIMS.com
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