telmisartan + hydrochlorothiazide


Pacific Pharma (Korea)


AA Medical
Full Prescribing Info
Telmisartan, hydrochlorothiazide.
Each uncoated tablet contains: Telmisartan 40 mg, Hydrochlorothiazide BP 12.5 mg.
PACSARTAN-TH (telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide) is a combination of telmisartan, an orally active angiotensin II antagonist acting on the AT1 receptor subtype, and hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, stimulation of synthesis and release of aldosterone, cardiac stimulation, and renal reabsorption of sodium. Telmisartan blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor in many tissues, such as vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal gland. Its action is therefore independent of the pathways for angiotensin II synthesis.
There is also an AT2 receptor found in many tissues, but AT2 is not known to be associated with cardiovascular homeostasis. Telmisartan has much greater affinity (> 3,000 fold) for the AT1 receptor than for the AT2 receptor.
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibitors, which inhibit the biosynthesis of angiotensin II from angiotensin I, is widely used in the treatment of hypertension. ACE inhibitors also inhibit the degradation of bradykinin, a reaction also catalyzed by ACE. Because telmisartan does not inhibit ACE (kininase II), it does not affect the response to bradykinin. Whether this difference has clinical relevance is not yet known. Telmisartan does not bind-to or block other hormone receptors or ion channels known to be important in cardiovascular regulation.
Blockade of the angiotensin II receptor inhibits the negative regulatory feedback of angiotensin II on renin secretion, but the resulting increased plasma renin activity and angiotensin II circulating levels do not overcome the effect of telmisartan on blood pressure.
Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic. Thiazides affect the renal tubular mechanisms of electrolyte reabsorption, directly increasing excretion of sodium salt and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Indirectly, the diuretic action of hydrochlorothiazide reduces plasma volume, with consequent increases in plasma renin activity, increases in aldosterone secretion, increases in urinary potassium loss, and decreases in serum potassium. The renin-aldosterone link is mediated by angiotensin II, so coadministration of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist tends to reverse the potassium loss associated with these diuretics.
The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of thiazides is not fully understood.
Pharmacokinetics: General: Telmisartan: Following oral administration, peak concentrations (Cmax) of telmisartan are reached in 0.5-1 hour after dosing. Food slightly reduces the bioavailability of telmisartan, with a reduction in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of about 6% with the 40 mg tablet and about 20% after a 160 mg dose. The absolute bioavailability of telmisartan is dose dependent. At 40 and 160 mg the bioavailability was 42% and 58%, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered telmisartan are nonlinear over the dose range 20-160 mg, with greater than proportional increases of plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) with increasing doses. Telmisartan shows bi-exponential decay kinetics with a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 24 hours. Trough plasma concentrations of telmisartan with once daily dosing are about 10-25% of peak plasma concentrations. Telmisartan has an accumulation index in plasma of 1.5 to 2.0 upon repeated once daily dosing.
Hydrochlorothiazide: When plasma levels have been followed for at least 24 hours, the plasma half-life has been observed to vary between 5.6 and 14.8 hours.
Metabolism and Elimination: Telmisartan: Following either intravenous or oral administration of 14C-labeled telmisartan, most of the administered dose ( > 97%) was eliminated unchanged in feces via biliary excretion; only minute amounts were found in the urine (0.91% and 0.49% of total radioactivity, respectively).
Telmisartan is metabolized by conjugation to form a pharmacologically inactive acylglucuronide; the glucuronide of the parent compound is the only metabolite that has been identified in human plasma and urine. After a single dose, the glucuronide represents approximately 11% of the measured radioactivity in plasma. The cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are not involved in the metabolism of telmisartan. Total plasma clearance of telmisartan is >800 mL/min. Terminal half-life and total clearance appear to be independent of dose.
Hydrochlorothiazide: Hydrochlorothiazide is not metabolized but is eliminated rapidly by-the kidney. At least 61% of the oral dose is eliminated as unchanged drug within 24 hours.
Distribution: Telmisartan: Telmisartan is highly bound to plasma proteins (>99.5%), mainly albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein. Plasma protein binding is constant over the concentration range achieved with recommended doses. The volume of distribution for telmisartan is approximately 500 liters, indicating additional tissue binding.
Hydrochlorothiazide: Hydrochlorothiazide crosses the placental but not the blood-brain barrier and is excreted in breast milk.
PACSARTAN-TH (telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide) is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. This fixed dose combination is not indicated for initial therapy.
Dosage/Direction for Use
The usual starting dose of telmisartan is 40 mg once a day; blood pressure response is dose related over the range of 20-80 mg. Patients with depletion of intravascular volume should have the condition corrected or telmisartan tablets should be initiated under dose medical supervision.
Patients with biliary obstructive disorders or hepatic insufficiency should have treatment started under close medical supervision.
Hydrochlorothiazide is effective in doses of 12.5 mg to 50 mg once daily.
To minimize dose-independent side effects, it is usually appropriate to begin combination therapy only after a patient has failed to achieve the desired effect with monotherapy. The side effects of telmisartan are generally rare and apparently independent of dose; those of hydrochlorothiazide are a mixture of dose-dependent phenomena (primarily hypokalemia) and dose-independent phenomena (e.g., pancreatitis), the former much more common than the latter. Therapy with any combination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide will be associated with both sets of dose-independent side effects. PACSARTAN-TH (telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide) tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents.
PACSARTAN-TH tablets may be administered with or without food.
Replacement Therapy: The combination may be substituted for the titrated components.
Dose Titration by Clinical Effect: PACSARTAN-TH is available as tablets containing either telmisartan 40 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg, or telmisartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg or 25 mg. A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with telmisartan monotherapy 80 mg (see above) may be switched to PACSARTAN-TH, telmisartan 80 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg once daily, and finally titrated up to 160/25 mg, if necessary.
A patient whose blood pressure is inadequately controlled by 25 mg once daily of hydrochlorothiazide may be switched to PACSARTAN-TH (telmisartan 80 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg or telmisartan 80 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg) once daily. The clinical response to PACSARTAN-TH should be subsequently evaluated and if blood pressure remains uncontrolled after 2-4 weeks of therapy, the dose may be titrated up to 160/25 mg, if necessary. Those patients controlled by 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide but who experience hypokalemia with this regimen, may be switched to PACSARTAN-TH (telmisartan 80 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) once daily, reducing the dose of hydrochlorothiazide without reducing the overall expected antihypertensive response.
Patients with Renal Impairment: The usual regimens of therapy with PACSARTAN-TH may be followed as long as the patient's creatinine clearance is > 30 mL/min. In patients with more severe renal impairment, loop diuretics are preferred to thiazides, so PACSARTAN-TH is not recommended.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment: PACSARTAN-TH is not recommended for patients with severe hepatic impairment. Patients with biliary obstructive disorders or hepatic insufficiency should have treatment started under close medical supervision using the 40/12.5 mg combination.
Telmisartan: Limited data are available with regard to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestations of overdosage with telmisartan would be hypotension, dizziness and tachycardia; bradycardia could occur from parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be instituted. Telmisartan is not removed by hemodialysis.
Hydrochlorothiazide: The most common signs and symptoms observed in patients are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The degree to which hydrochlorothiazide is removed by hemodialysis has not been established. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in both mice and rats.
PACSARTAN-TH (telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide) is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.
Because of the hydrochlorothiazide component, this product is contraindicated in patients with anuria or hypersensitivity to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.
Special Precautions
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality: Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and death when administered to pregnant women. Several dozen cases have been reported in the world literature in patients who were taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. When pregnancy is detected, PACSARTAN-TH (telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide) tablets should be discontinued as soon as possible.
Serum Electrolytes: Telmisartan & Hydrochlorothiazide: In controlled trials using the telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination treatment, no patient administered 40/12.5 mg, 80/12.5 mg or 80/25 mg had a decrease in potassium 1.4 mEq/L, and no patient experienced hyperkalemia. No discontinuations due to hypokalemia occurred during treatment with the telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination. The absence of significant changes in serum potassium levels may be due to the opposing mechanisms of action of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide on potassium excretion on the kidney.
Hydrochlorothiazide: Periodic determinations of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance should be performed at appropriate intervals. All patients receiving thiazide therapy should be observed for clinical signs of fluid or electrolyte imbalance: hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hypokalemia. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are particularly important when the patient experiences excessive vomiting or receives parenteral fluids. Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, irrespective of cause, include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, seizures, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting.
Effects on ability to drive and use machine: No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, when driving vehicles or operating machinery it must be borne in mind that dizziness or drowsiness may occasionally occur when taking antihypertensive therapy.
Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Geriatric Use: In the controlled clinical trials (n=1017), approximately 20% of patients treated with telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide were 65 years of age or older, and 5% were 75 years of age or older. No overall differences in effectiveness and safety of telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide were observed in these patients compared to younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: Pregnancy Categories C (first trimester) and D (second and third trimesters).
Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether telmisartan is excreted in human milk, but telmisartan was shown to be present in the milk of lactating rats. Thiazides appear in human. milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Adverse Reactions
Telmisartan: Adverse experiences that have been reported with telmisartan, without regard to causality, are listed as follows: Autonomic Nervous System: impotence, increased sweating, flushing.
Body as a Whole: allergy, fever, leg pain, malaise, chest pain.
Cardiovascular: palpitation, dependent edema, angina pectoris, leg edema, abnormal ECG, hypertension, peripheral edema.
CNS: insomnia, somnolence, migraine, vertigo, paresthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, hypoaesthesia.
Gastrointestinal: flatulence, constipation, gastritis, dry mouth, hemorrhoids, gastroenteritis, enteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, toothache, non-specific gastrointestinal disorders.
Metabolic: gout, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus.
Musculoskeletal: arthritis, arthralgia, leg cramps, myalgia.
Psychiatric: anxiety, depression, nervousness.
Resistance Mechanism: infection, fungal infection, abscess, otitis media.
Respiratory: asthma, rhinitis, dyspnea, epistaxis.
Skin: dermatitis, eczema, pruritus.
Urinary: micturition frequency, cystitis.
Vascular: cerebrovascular disorder.
Special Senses: abnormal-vision, conjunctivitis, tinnitus, earache.
A single case of angioedema was reported (among a total of 3781 patients treated with telmisartan).
Hydrochlorothiazide: Adverse experiences that have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide, without regard to causality, are listed as follows: Body as a whole: weakness.
Digestive: pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), sialadenitis, cramping, gastric irritation.
Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia.
Hypersensitivity: purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions.
Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia.
Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm.
Nervous System/Psychiatric: restlessness.
Renal: renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis.
Skin: erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Special Senses: transient blurred vision, xanthopsia.
Clinical Laboratory Findings: In controlled trials, clinically relevant changes in standard laboratory test parameters were rarely associated with administration of PACSARTAN-TH tablets.
Drug Interactions
Telmisartan: Digoxin: When telmisartan was coadministered with digoxin, median increases in digoxin peak plasma concentration (49%) and in trough concentration (20%) were observed. It is, therefore, recommended that digoxin levels be monitored when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing telmisartan to avoid possible over- or under-digitalization.
Warfarin: Telmisartan administered for 10 days slightly decreased the mean warfarin trough plasma concentration; this decrease did not result in a change in International Normalized Ratio (INR).
Other Drugs: Coadministration of telmisartan did not result in a clinically significant interaction with acetaminophen, amlodipine, glibenclamide, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide or ibuprofen. Telmisartan is not metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and had no effects in vitro on cytochrome P450 enzymes, except for some inhibition of CYP2C19. Telmisartan is not expected to interact with drugs that inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes; it is also not expected to interact with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, except for possible inhibition of the metabolism of drugs metabolized by CYP2C19.
Hydrochlorothiazide: When administered concurrently, the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics: Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics: Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.
Antidiabetic drugs (oral agents and insulin):
Dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.
Other antihypertensive drugs: Additive effect or potentiation.
Cholestyramine and colestipol resins: Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively.
Corticosteroids, ACTH: Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.
Pressor amines (e.g., norepinephrine): Possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use.
Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing (e.g., tubocurarine): Possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant.
Lithium: Should not generally be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the product information for lithium preparations before use of such preparations with PACSARTAN-TH.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: In some patients, the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when PACSARTAN-TH and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
Caution For Usage
Incompatibilities: None.
Store below 30°C, protect from light.
Shelf-Life: 36 months.
ATC Classification
C09DA07 - telmisartan and diuretics ; Belongs to the class of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in combination with diuretics. Used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
40/12.5 mg tab x 3 x 10's.
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