Patients w/ conditions predisposing to hyperkalemia eg, chronic renal failure, uncontrolled DM, familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (adynamia episodica), acute dehydration, strenuous physical exercise in unconditioned individuals, adrenal insufficiency, extensive tissue breakdown, severe myocardial damage, administration of K-sparing diuretic. Patient w/ slow gastric emptying, esophageal compression, intestinal obstruction or stricture. Patients on anticholinergic therapy. Active PUD. Active UTI. Renal insufficiency GFR <0.7 mL/kg/min. Resp or metabolic acidosis.