Aclav

Aclav

amoxicillin + clavulanic acid

Manufacturer:

North China Pharma

Distributor:

AGlobal Care
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin & clavulanic acid).
Description
Each vial contains: Amoxicillin (as sodium) 1 g, Potassium clavulanate 200 mg.
Action
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic penicillin (beta-lactam antibiotic) that inhibits one or more enzymes (often referred to as penicillin-binding proteins, PBPs) in the biosynthetic pathway of bacterial peptidoglycan, which is an integral structural component of the bacterial cell wall. Inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis leads to weakening of the cell wall, which is usually followed by cell lysis and death.
Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamases produced by resistant bacteria and therefore the spectrum of activity of amoxicillin alone does not include organisms which produce these enzymes.
Clavulanic acid is a beta-lactam structurally related to penicillins. It inactivates some beta-lactamase enzymes thereby preventing inactivation of amoxicillin. Clavulanic acid alone does not exert a clinically useful antibacterial effect.
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics relationship: The time above the minimum inhibitory concentration (T>MIC) is considered to be the major determinant of efficacy for amoxicillin.
Mechanisms of resistance: The two main mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are: Inactivation by those bacterial beta-lactamases that are not themselves inhibited by clavulanic acid, including class B, C and D.
Alteration of PBPs, which reduce the affinity of the antibacterial agent for the target.
Impermeability of bacteria or efflux pump mechanisms may cause or contribute to bacterial resistance, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: The pharmacokinetic results for studies in which amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was administered to groups of healthy volunteers as either 500 mg/100 mg or 1000 mg/200 mg given as a bolus intravenous injection are presented as follows. (See Table 1.)

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Distribution: About 25% of total plasma clavulanic acid and 18% of total plasma amoxicillin is bound to protein. The apparent volume of distribution is around 0.3-0.4 L/kg for amoxicillin and around 0.2 L/kg for clavulanic acid.
Following intravenous administration, both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid have been found in gall bladder, abdominal tissue, skin, fat, muscle tissues, synovial and peritoneal fluids, bile and pus. Amoxicillin does not adequately distribute into the cerebrospinal fluid.
From animal studies there is no evidence for significant tissue retention of drug-derived material for either component. Amoxicillin, like most penicillins, can be detected in breast milk. Trace quantities of clavulanic acid can also be detected in breast milk.
Biotransformation: Amoxicillin is partly excreted in the urine as the inactive penicilloic acid in quantities equivalent to up to 10 to 25% of the initial dose. Clavulanic acid is extensively metabolized in man, and eliminated in urine and faeces and as carbon dioxide in expired air.
Elimination: The major route of elimination for amoxicillin is via the kidney, whereas for clavulanic acid it is by both renal and non-renal mechanisms.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has a mean elimination half-life of approximately one hour and a mean total clearance of approximately 25 L/h in healthy subjects. Approximately 60 to 70% of the amoxicillin and approximately 40 to 65% of the clavulanic acid are excreted unchanged in urine during the first 6 h after administration of a single 500/100 mg or a single 1000/200 mg bolus intravenous injection. Various studies have found the urinary excretion to be 50-85% for amoxicillin and between 27-60% for clavulanic acid over a 24 hour period. In the case of clavulanic acid, the largest amount of drug is excreted during the first 2 hours after administration.
Concomitant use of probenecid delays amoxicillin excretion but does not delay renal excretion of clavulanic acid.
Age: The elimination half-life of amoxicillin is similar for children aged around 3 months to 2 years and older children and adults. For very young children (including preterm newborns) in the first week of life the interval of administration should not exceed twice daily administration due to immaturity of the renal pathway of elimination. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Renal impairment: The total serum clearance of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid decreases proportionately with decreasing renal function. The reduction in drug clearance is more pronounced for amoxicillin than for clavulanic acid, as a higher proportion of amoxicillin is excreted via the renal route. Doses in renal impairment must therefore prevent undue accumulation of amoxicillin while maintaining adequate levels of clavulanic acid.
Hepatic impairment: Hepatically impaired patients should be dosed with caution and hepatic function monitored at regular intervals.
Indications/Uses
Co-amoxiclav is indicated for the treatment of the following infections in adults and children: Severe infections of the ear, nose and throat (such as mastoiditis, peritonsillar infections, epiglottitis and sinusitis when accompanied by severe systemic signs and symptoms); acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (adequately diagnosed); community acquired pneumonia; cystitis; pyelonephritis; skin and soft tissue infections in particular cellulitis, animal bites, severe dental abscess with spreading cellulitis; bone and joint infections, in particular osteomyelitis; intra-abdominal infections; female genital infections.
Prophylaxis against infections associated with major surgical procedures in adults, such as those involving the: Gastrointestinal tract; pelvic cavity; head and neck; biliary tract surgery.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Doses are expressed throughout in terms of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid content except when doses are stated in terms of an individual component.
The dose of Co-amoxiclav that is selected to treat an individual infection should take into account: The expected pathogens and their likely susceptibility to antibacterial agents; the severity and the site of the infection; the age, weight and renal function of the patient as shown as follows.
The use of alternative presentations of Co-amoxiclav (e.g. those that provide higher doses of amoxicillin and/or different ratios of amoxicillin to clavulanic acid) should be considered as necessary.
This Co-amoxiclav powder for solution for injection or infusion provides a total daily dose of 3000 mg amoxicillin and 600 mg clavulanic acid when administered as recommended as follows. If it is considered that a higher daily dose of amoxicillin is required it is recommended that an alternative intravenous formulation of Co-amoxiclav is selected in order to avoid administration of unnecessarily high daily doses of clavulanic acid.
The duration of therapy should be determined by the response of the patient. Some infections (e.g. osteomyelitis) require longer periods of treatment. Treatment should not be extended beyond 14 days without review.
Consideration should be given to local guidelines on appropriate dosing frequencies for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Adults and children ≥40 kg: For treatment of infections: 1000 mg/ 200 mg every 8 hours acid. (See Table 2.)

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Children <40 kg: Recommended doses: Children aged 3 months and over: 25 mg/5 mg per kg every 8 hours.
Children aged less than 3 months or weighing less than 4 kg: 25 mg/5 mg per kg every 12 hours.
Elderly: No dose adjustment is considered necessary.
Renal impairment: Dose adjustments are based on the maximum recommended level of amoxicillin.
No dose adjustment is required in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) greater than 30 mL/min.
Adults and children ≥40 kg: See Table 3.

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Children <40 kg: See Table 4.

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Hepatic impairment: Dose with caution and monitor hepatic function at regular intervals.
Method of administration: Co-amoxiclav is for intravenous use.
Co-amoxiclav may be administered either by slow intravenous injection over a period of 3 to 4 min directly into a vein or via a drip tube or by infusion over 30 to 40 min. Co-amoxiclav is not suitable for intramuscular administration.
Children aged less than 3 months should be administered Co-amoxiclav by infusion only.
Treatment with Co-amoxiclav may be initiated by the use of an intravenous preparation and completed with an appropriate oral presentation as considered appropriate for the individual patient.
Overdosage
Symptoms and signs of overdose: Gastrointestinal symptoms and disturbance of the fluid and electrolyte balances may be evident. Amoxicillin crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has been observed.
Convulsions may occur in patients with impaired renal function or in those receiving high doses.
Amoxicillin has been reported to precipitate in bladder catheters, predominantly after intravenous administration of large doses. A regular check of patency should be maintained.
Treatment of intoxication: Gastrointestinal symptoms may be treated symptomatically, with attention to the water/electrolyte balance.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid can be removed from the circulation by haemodialysis.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substances, to any of the penicillins or to any of the excipients.
History of a severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction (e.g. anaphylaxis) to another β-lactam agent (e.g. a cephalosporin, carbapenem or monobactam).
History of jaundice/hepatic impairment due to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Special Precautions
Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, careful enquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other beta-lactam agents.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylactoid and severe cutaneous adverse reactions) have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and in atopic individuals. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid therapy should be discontinued and appropriate alternative therapy instituted.
In the case that an infection is proven to be due to an amoxicillin-susceptible organisms(s) then consideration should be given to switching from amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to amoxicillin in accordance with official guidance.
This presentation of Co-amoxiclav may not be suitable for use when there is a high risk that the presumptive pathogens have resistance to beta-lactam agents that is not mediated by beta-lactamases susceptible to inhibition by clavulanic acid. As no specific data for T>MIC are available and the data for comparable oral presentations are borderline, this presentation (without additional amoxicillin) may not be suitable for the treatment of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.
Convulsions may occur in patients with impaired renal function or in those receiving high doses.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be avoided if infectious mononucleosis is suspected since the occurrence of a morbilliform rash has been associated with this condition following the use of amoxicillin.
Concomitant use of allopurinol during treatment with amoxicillin can increase the likelihood of allergic skin reactions.
Prolonged use may occasionally result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms.
The occurrence at the treatment initiation of a feverish generalised erythema associated with pustula may be a symptom of acute generalised exanthemous pustulosis (AGEP). This reaction requires Co-amoxiclav discontinuation and contra-indicates any subsequent administration of amoxicillin.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic impairment.
Hepatic events have been reported predominantly in males and elderly patients and may be associated with prolonged treatment. These events have been very rarely reported in children. In all populations, signs and symptoms usually occur during or shortly after treatment but in some cases may not become apparent until several weeks after treatment has ceased. These are usually reversible. Hepatic events may be severe and in extremely rare circumstances, deaths have been reported. These have almost always occurred in patients with serious underlying disease or taking concomitant medications known to have the potential for hepatic effects.
Antibiotic-associated colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents including amoxicillin and may range in severity from mild to life threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhoea during or subsequent to the administration of any antibiotics. Should antibiotic-associated colitis occur, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should immediately be discontinued, a physician be consulted and an appropriate therapy initiated. Anti-peristaltic drugs are contra-indicated in this situation.
Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic and haematopoietic function is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Prolongation of prothrombin time has been reported rarely in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concomitantly. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.
In patients with renal impairment, the dose should be adjusted according to the degree of impairment. In patients with reduced urine output crystalluria has been observed very rarely, predominantly with parenteral therapy. During administration of high doses of amoxicillin it is advisable to maintain adequate fluid intake and urinary output in order to reduce the possibility of amoxicillin crystalluria. In patients with bladder catheters, a regular check of patency should be maintained.
During treatment with amoxicillin, enzymatic glucose oxidase methods should be used whenever testing for the presence of glucose in urine because false positive results may occur with non-enzymatic methods.
The presence of clavulanic acid in Co-amoxiclav may cause a non-specific binding of IgG and albumin by red cell membranes leading to a false positive Coombs test.
There have been reports of positive test results using the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid who were subsequently found to be free of Aspergillus infection. Cross-reactions with non-Aspergillus polysaccharides and polyfuranoses with Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test have been reported. Therefore, positive test results in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic methods.
1000 mg/200 mg powder for solution for injection or infusion: This medicinal product contains 62.9 mg (2.7 mmol) of sodium per vial. To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
This medicinal product contains 39.3 mg (1.0 mmol) of potassium per vial. To be taken into consideration by patients with reduced kidney function or patients on a controlled potassium diet.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development. Limited data on the use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid during pregnancy in humans do not indicate an increased risk of congenital malformations. In a single study in women with preterm, premature rupture of the foetal membrane it was reported that prophylactic treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid may be associated with an increased risk of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates. Use should be avoided during pregnancy, unless considered essential by the physician.
Lactation: Both substances are excreted into breast milk (nothing is known of the effects of clavulanic acid on the breast-fed infant). Consequently, diarrhoea and fungus infection of the mucous membranes are possible in the breast-fed infant, so that breast-feeding might have to be discontinued.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should only be used during breast-feeding after benefit/risk assessment by the physician in charge.
Adverse Reactions
The most commonly reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. The ADRs derived from clinical studies and post-marketing surveillance with Co-amoxiclav, sorted by MedDRA System Organ Class are listed as follows.
The following terminologies have been used in order to classify the occurrence of undesirable effects.
Very common (≥1/10); Common (≥1/100 to <1/10); Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); Very rare (<1/10,000); Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). (See Table 5.)

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Drug Interactions
Oral anticoagulants: Oral anticoagulants and penicillin antibiotics have been widely used in practice without reports of interaction. However, in the literature there are cases of increased international normalised ratio in patients maintained on acenocoumarol or warfarin and prescribed a course of amoxicillin. If co-administration is necessary, the prothrombin time or international normalised ratio should be carefully monitored with the addition or withdrawal of amoxicillin. Moreover, adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary.
Methotrexate: Penicillins may reduce the excretion of methotrexate causing a potential increase in toxicity.
Probenecid: Concomitant use of probenecid is not recommended. Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concomitant use of probenecid may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin but nit of clavulanic acid.
Mycophenolate mofetil: In patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil, reduction in pre-dose concentration of the active metabolite mycophenolic acid (MPA) of approximately 50% has been reported following commencement of oral amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. The change in pre-dose level may not accurately represent changes in overall MPA exposure. A change in the dose of mycophenolate mofetil should not normally be necessary in the absence of clinical evidence of graft dysfunction. Close clinical monitoring should be performed during the combination and shortly after antibiotic treatment.
Caution For Usage
Directions for Reconstitution: Reconstituted vials (for intravenous injection or before dilution for infusion): 1000 mg/200 mg powder for solution for injection or infusion: The reconstituted solution (1 vial with 20 mL of Water for Injections) should be used or diluted immediately, within 20 minutes.
Diluted for intravenous infusion: 1000 mg/200 mg powder for solution for injection or infusion: Chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated for 2-3 hours at 25°C, or 8 hours at 5°C. From a microbiological point of view, the reconstituted and diluted solution (1 reconstituted vial in a minimum volume of 100 mL of infusion fluid) should be used immediately.
Intravenous infusions of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid may be given in a range of different intravenous fluids. Satisfactory antibiotic concentrations are retained at 5°C and at room temperature (25°C) in the recommended volumes of the following infusion fluids. If reconstituted and maintained at room temperature (25°C), infusions should be completed within the times stated in the table as follows. (See Table 6.)

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For storage at 5°C, reconstituted solutions of Co-Amoxiclav IV may be added to pre-refrigerated infusion bags containing either Water for Injection or sodium chloride BP (0.9% w/v), which may be stored for up to 8 hours. Thereafter, the infusion should be administered immediately after reaching room temperature.
The stability of Co-Amoxiclav IV solutions is concentration dependent. In the event that the use of more concentrated solutions is required, the stability period should be adjusted accordingly.
Co-Amoxiclav IV is less stable in infusions containing glucose, dextran or bicarbonate. Reconstituted solutions of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid may be injected into the drip tubing over a period of 3 to 4 min. Any residual antibiotic solution should be discarded.
Storage
Store at temperatures not exceeding 30°C.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
J01CR02 - amoxicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitor ; Belongs to the class of penicillin combinations, including beta-lactamase inhibitors. Used in the systemic treatment of infections.
Presentation/Packing
Powd for inj (vial) 1.2 g (white or almost white) x 1's.
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