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Metoprolol tartrate, ivabradine hydrochloride.
25mg/5mg: Each film-coated tablet contains 25 mg of metoprolol tartrate and 5 mg of ivabradine (equivalent to 5.390 mg ivabradine as hydrochloride).
50mg/5mg: Each film-coated tablet contains 50 mg of metoprolol tartrate and 5 mg of ivabradine (equivalent to 5.390 mg ivabradine as hydrochloride).
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Ivabradine: The main pharmacodynamic property of ivabradine in humans is a specific dose dependent reduction in heart rate. Analysis of heart rate reduction with doses up to 20 mg twice daily indicates a trend towards a plateau effect which is consistent with a reduced risk of severe bradycardia below 40 bpm. At usual recommended doses, heart rate reduction is approximately 10 bpm at rest and during exercise. This leads to a reduction in cardiac workload and myocardial oxygen consumption. Ivabradine does not influence intracardiac conduction, contractility (no negative inotropic effect) or ventricular repolarizatlon: In clinical electrophysiology studies, ivabradine had no effect on atrioventricular or intraventricular conduction times or corrected QT intervals; in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between 30 and 45%), ivabradine did not have any deleterious influence on LVEF.
Metoprolol: Metoprolol reduces or inhibits the catecholamines effect on the heart, which leads to a decrease in the rhythm, contractility and cardiac output. Metoprolol has an antihypertensive effect, both in the orthostatic and supine position. It also reduces the rise in blood pressure due to exertion.
Pharmacokinetics: The rate and extent of absorption of ivabradine and metoprolol from Implicor are not significantly different, respectively, from the rate and extent of absorption of ivabradine and metoprolol when taken alone as monotherapy.
Ivabradine: Under physiological conditions, ivabradine is rapidly released from tablets and is highly water-soluble (>10 mg/mL). Ivabradine is the S-enantiomer with no bioconversion demonstrated in vivo. The N-desmethylated derivative of ivabradine has been identified as the main active metabolite in humans.
Absorption and bioavailability: Ivabradine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral administration with a peak plasma level reached in about 1 hour under fasting condition. The absolute bioavailability of the film-coated tablets is around 40%, due to first-pass effect in the gut and liver.
Food delayed absorption by approximately 1 hour, and increased plasma exposure by 20 to 30 %. The intake of the tablet during meals is recommended in order to decrease infra-individual variability in exposure.
Distribution: Ivabradine is approximately 70% plasma protein bound and the volume of distribution at steady state is close to 100 L in patients. The maximum plasma concentration following chronic administration at the recommended dose of 5 mg twice daily is 22 ng/mL (CV=29%). The average plasma concentration is 10 ng/mL (CV=38%) at steady state.
Biotransformation: Ivabradine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the gut by oxidation through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) only. The major active metabolite is the N-desmethylated derivative (S 18982) with an exposure about 40% of that of the parent compound. The metabolism of this active metabolite also involves CYP3A4. Ivabradine has low affinity for CYP3A4, shows no clinically relevant CYP3A4 induction or inhibition and is therefore unlikely to modify CYP3A4 substrate metabolism or plasma concentrations. Inversely, potent inhibitors and inducers may substantially affect ivabradine plasma concentrations.
Elimination: Ivabradine is eliminated with a main half-life of 2 hours (70-75% of the AUC) in plasma and an effective half-life of 11 hours. The total clearance is about 400 mL/min and the renal clearance is about 70 mL/min. Excretion of metabolites occurs to a similar extent via feces and urine. About 4% of an oral dose is excreted unchanged in urine.
Linearity/non linearity: The kinetics of ivabradine is linear over an oral dose range of 0.5-24 mg.
Special populations: Older people: No pharmacokinetic differences (AUC and Cmax) have been observed between elderly (≥65 years) or very elderly patients (≥75 years) and the overall population.
Renal impairment: The impact of renal impairment (creatinine clearance from 15 to 60 mL/min) on ivabradine pharmacokinetic is minimal, in relation with the low contribution of renal clearance (about 20%) to total elimination for both ivabradine and its main metabolite S 18982.
Hepatic impairment: In patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child Pugh score up to 7) unbound AUC of ivabradine and the main active metabolite were about 20% higher than in subjects with normal hepatic function. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. No data are available in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship: PK/PD relationship analysis has shown that heart rate decreases almost linearly with increasing ivabradine and S 18982 plasma concentrations for doses of up to 15-20 mg twice daily. At higher doses, the decrease in heart rate is no longer proportional to ivabradine plasma concentrations and tends to reach a plateau. High exposures to ivabradine that may occur when ivabradine is given in combination with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may result in an excessive decrease in heart rate although this risk is reduced with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors.
Metoprolol: Absorption and distribution: Metoprolol is completely absorbed after an oral dose, peak plasma concentrations occurring 1.5-2 hours after dosing. Due to a pronounced first passage metabolism for metoprolol, the bioavailability of a single oral dose is approx. 50%. Concomitant intake of food increases bioavailability by approximately 30-40%. Only a small fraction of metoprolol (approx. 5-10%) binds to plasma proteins.
Biotransformation: Metoprolol is metabolized by hepatic oxidation. The three known main metabolites have been shown not to have a clinically significant beta blocking effect.
Metoprolol is metabolized primarily, but not solely, by the hepatic enzyme cytochrome (CYP) 2D6. Due to the polymorphy of the CYP 2D6 gene, the turnover rates vary with the individual. Individuals with poor metabolic capacity (approx. 7-8%) exhibit higher plasma concentrations and slower elimination than individuals with good metabolic capacity.
Elimination: The plasma concentrations are stable and repeatable in the individuals, however more than 95% of an oral dose is excreted in the urine. Approximately 5% of the dose is excreted in uncharged form: In single cases up to an entire 30%. The elimination half-life of metoprolol in plasma is 3.5 hours on average (interval 1-9 hours). Total clearance is approximately 1 L/min.
Special populations: Older people: The pharmacokinetics of metoprolol in the elderly is not significantly different from that in younger populations.
Hepatic impairment: Increased bioavailability and decreased total clearance.
Pregnancy: Metoprolol crosses into the placenta. The mean ratio of cord blood/maternal blood metoprolol concentration is 1.
Lactation: Metoprolol is excreted in breast milk; the mean ratio of maternal milk/maternal blood metoprolol concentration is 3.7.
Symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris as substitution therapy in adult patients with normal sinus rhythm already controlled by metoprolol and ivabradine taken concomitantly at the same dose level.
The recommended dose of Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) is one tablet twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening.
This medicine should only be used in patients controlled on stable doses of the monocomponents given concurrently when metoprolol is at the optimal dose.
It is recommended that the decision to titrate treatment takes place with the availability of serial heart measurements, ECG or ambulatory 24-hour monitoring and titration should be done with the individual components metoprolol and ivabradine, ensuring the patient is maintained at an optimal dose of metoprolol and ivabradine. If during treatment, heart rate decreases below 50 beats per minute at rest or the patient experiences symptoms related to bradycardia such as dizziness, fatigue or hypotension, down titration should be done with the individual monocomponents metoprolol and ivabradine, ensuring the patient is maintained at an optimal dose of metoprolol. After dose reduction, heart rate should be monitored.
Treatment must be discontinued if heart rate remains below 50 bpm or symptoms of bradycardia persist despite dose reduction.
Patients with renal impairment: No dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal insufficiency and creatinine clearance above 15 mL/min.
This medicine should be used with precaution in patients with creatinine clearance below 15 mL/min.
Patients with hepatic impairment: Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) can be administered in patients with mild hepatic impairment.
Caution should be exercised when administering in patients with moderate hepatic impairment.
This medicine is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Older people: Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) can be administered in elderly patients with caution.
Pediatric population: The safety and efficacy of this medicine in children and adolescents have not been established. No data are available.
Method of administration: Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) should be taken orally twice daily during meals. The exposure of metoprolol is increased when administered with food. This should be considered in patients who currently take metoprolol in a fasting state and switch to Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor).
There is no information on overdose with Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) in humans.
Symptoms: Linked to ivabradine: Overdose may lead to severe and prolonged bradycardia.
Linked to metoprolol: Poisoning due to an overdose of metoprolol may lead to severe hypotension, sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular block, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, bronchospasm, impairment of consciousness, coma, nausea, vomiting and cyanosis.
Symptoms may worsen, if using alcohol, blood pressure medicine, quinidines or barbiturates simultaneously.
The first manifestations usually appear 20 minutes to two hours after drug ingestion.
Management: In addition to general measures (e.g. gastric lavage which could be considered within 4 hours after ingestion and in case of serious intoxication, active charcoal) patients should be transferred to an intensive care setting, where vital parameters can be monitored and, if necessary, corrected.
Severe bradycardia should be treated symptomatically. In the event of bradycardia with poor hemodynamic tolerance, symptomatic treatment including intravenous beta-stimulating medicinal products such as isoprenaline may be considered. Temporary cardiac electrical pacing may be instituted if required.
Potential antidotes to metoprolol include Orciprenaline (0.5-1 mg) i.v., Atropine 0.5 to 2 mg i.v. and initially Glucagon 1-5 mg (max. 10 mg) i.v. In addition, beta sympathomimetic agents may be given, with exact doses depending upon body weight and effect (e.g. Dobutamine, Isoprenaline, Orciprenaline, and Adrenaline). Dosage may need to be above recommended therapeutic levels. Slow intravenous administration of Diazepam is advised in the event of seizures.
Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients or to other beta-blockers (cross sensitivity between beta blockers may occur).
Sick sinus syndrome (including Sino-atrial block).
AV-block of 2nd and 3rd degree.
Acute myocardial infarction or patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction complicated by significant bradycardia, first degree heart block, systolic hypotension (less than 100 mmHg) and/or severe heart failure.
Severe (<90/50 mmHg) or symptomatic hypotension.
Unstable or acute heart failure.
Patients undergoing intermittent inotropic therapy with beta-receptor agonist.
Pacemaker dependent (heart rate imposed exclusively by the pacemaker).
Severe peripheral vascular disease.
Severe hepatic insufficiency.
Combination with strong cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors such as azole antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole), macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin per os, josamycin, telithromycin), HIV protease inhibitors (nelfinavir, ritonavir) and nefazodone.
Combination with verapamil or diltiazem which are moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with heart rate reducing properties.
Pregnancy, lactation and women of child-bearing potential not using appropriate contraceptive measures.
Special warnings: Lack of benefit on clinical outcomes in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina pectoris: Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) is indicated only for symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris because ivabradine has no benefits on cardiovascular outcomes (e.g. myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death).
Measurement of heart rate: Given that the heart rate may fluctuate considerably over time, serial heart rate measurements, ECG or ambulatory 24-hour monitoring should be considered when determining resting heart rate in patients on treatment with ivabradine when titration is considered. This also applies to patients with a low heart rate, in particular when heart rate decreases below 50 bpm, or after dose reduction.
Cardiac arrhythmias: Ivabradine is not effective in the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias and likely loses its efficacy when a tachyarrhythmia occurs (e.g. ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia). Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) is therefore not recommended in patients with atrial fibrillation or other cardiac arrhythmias that interfere with sinus node function.
In patients treated with ivabradine the risk of developing atrial fibrillation is increased. Atrial fibrillation has been more common in patients using concomitantly amiodarone or potent class I anti-arrhythmics. It is recommended to regularly clinically monitor Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) treated patients for the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (sustained or paroxysmal), which should also include ECG monitoring if clinically indicated (e.g. in case of exacerbated angina, palpitations, irregular pulse). Patients should be informed of signs and symptoms of atrial fibrillation and be advised to contact their physician if these occur.
If atrial fibrillation develops during treatment, the balance of benefits and risks of continued ivabradine treatment should be carefully reconsidered.
Chronic heart failure patients with intraventricular conduction defects (bundle branch block left, bundle branch block right) and ventricular dyssynchrony should be monitored closely.
Use in patients with a low heart rate: Ivabradine must not be initiated in patients with a pre-treatment resting heart rate below 70 beats per minutes.
If, during treatment with Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor), resting heart rate decreases persistently below 50 bpm or the patient experiences symptoms related to bradycardia such as dizziness, fatigue or hypotension, down titration should be done with the individual monocomponents ensuring the patient is maintained at an optimal dose of metoprolol or treatment discontinued.
Combination with calcium channel blockers: Concomitant use of Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) with heart rate reducing calcium channel blockers such as verapamil or diltiazem is contraindicated. No safety issue has been raised on the combination of ivabradine with nitrates and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine. Additional efficacy of ivabradine in combination with dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers has not been established.
Chronic heart failure: Heart failure must be stable before considering ivabradine treatment. Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) should be used with caution in heart failure patients with NYHA functional classification IV due to limited amount of data in this population.
Stroke: The use of Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) is not recommended immediately after a stroke since no data is available in these situations with ivabradine.
Visual function: Ivabradine influences on retinal function. To date, there is no evidence of a toxic effect of ivabradine on the retina, but the effects of long-term ivabradine treatment beyond one year on retinal function are currently not known. Cessation of Metoprolol tartrate + ivabradine (Implicor) should be considered if any unexpected deterioration in visual function occurs. Caution should be exercised in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.
Precautions for Use: Stopping treatment: Abrupt cessation of therapy with a beta-blocker should be avoided, especially in patients with ischemic heart disease. The cessation of the therapy should immediately be followed by the intake of metoprolol mono-component ensuring the patient is maintained at an optimal dose of metoprolol. Ivabradine intake can be interrupted if necessary. Posology of metoprolol mono-component should be decreased gradually; ideally over a period of at least two weeks while at the same time starting the replacement therapy if necessary. If the patient develops any symptoms the dose should be reduced more slowly.
Patients with hypotension: Limited data are available in patients with mild to moderate hypotension treated with ivabradine, and Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) should therefore be used with caution in these patients. This medicine is contraindicated in patients with severe hypotension (blood pressure <90/50 mmHg).
Atrial fibrillation - Cardiac arrhythmias: There is no evidence of risk of (excessive) bradycardia on return to sinus rhythm when pharmacological cardioversion is initiated in patients treated with ivabradine. However, in the absence of extensive data, non urgent DC-cardioversion should be considered 24 hours after the last dose of ivabradine.
Use in patients with congenital QT-syndrome or treated with QT prolonging medicinal products: The use of Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) in patients with congenital QT syndrome or treated with QT prolonging medicinal products should be avoided. If the combination appears necessary, close cardiac monitoring is needed.
Heart rate reduction, as caused by ivabradine, may exacerbate QT prolongation, which may give rise to severe arrhythmias, in particular Torsade de pointes.
Hypertensive patients requiring blood pressure treatment modifications: In the SHIFT trial, more patients experienced episodes of increased blood pressure while treated with ivabradine (7.1%) compared to patients treated with placebo (6.1%). These episodes occurred most frequently shortly after blood pressure treatment was modified, were transient, and did not affect the treatment effect on ivabradine. When treatment modifications are made in chronic heart failure patients treated with ivabradine blood pressure should be monitored at an appropriate interval.
Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: Although metoprolol is a cardioselective betablocker, caution is advised in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. If necessary, simultaneously bronchodilator drugs, that selectively stimulate the β2-receptors, for example, such as terbutaline, are prescribed. If the patient is already using a β2-receptor stimulant, it may sometimes be necessary to adjust the dosage.
Severe peripheral arterial disease: In patients suffering from peripheral arterial disorders (Raynaud's disease or syndrome, arteritis or chronic occlusive arterial disease of the lower limbs), beta-blockers can aggravate the condition. In these cases, stop treatment with Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) and titrate with the individual monocomponents. A cardioselective beta-blocker with partial agonist activity is preferable and should be administered with caution.
Pheochromocytoma: When known or suspected to have pheochromocytoma, beta-blockers should always be given in combination with an alpha blocker.
Diabetic patients: Caution is advised when Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) is used in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially those who are using insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. It is recommended to inform diabetic patients that beta-blockers may mask the hypoglycemic tachycardia; however, other signs of hypoglycemia such as drowsiness and sweating may not necessarily be suppressed and increased sweating may occur.
Prinzmetal angina: Beta-blockers may increase the number and duration of attacks in patients with Prinzmetal angina. The use of a cardioselective beta-1 blocker is possible in minor and associated forms, provided it is administered with a vasodilator.
Psoriasis: Exacerbation of psoriasis has been reported with beta-blockers. Patients with psoriasis or with a history of psoriasis should only be given beta-blockers after carefully balancing the benefits against the risks.
Thyrotoxicosis: Beta-blockers can mask the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis.
General anesthesia: Long-term treatment with beta-blockers should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery. The reduced ability of the heart to respond to adrenergic stimulation can increase the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures. Before any surgery requiring general anesthesia, the anesthetist should be informed that the patient is being treated with a beta-blocker. If it is thought necessary to withdraw the beta-blocker before surgery, this should be done gradually and completed about 48 hours before general anesthesia.
Older people: Elderly patients must be closely monitored since an excessive decrease in blood pressure or heart rate may lead to an insufficient blood supply to vital organs with beta-blockers.
Allergic reactions: Caution is advised in patients with a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions and patients undergoing desensitization therapy as there is a risk of more severe anaphylactic reactions.
Metoprolol can increase the sensitivity to allergens and the severity of anaphylactic reactions. Therapy with adrenaline does not always have the desired therapeutic effect in individual patients treated with beta-receptor blockers.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Based on existing data with the monocomponents the use of Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) may affect the ability to drive or use machinery.
Ivabradine may affect the patient's ability to drive. Patients should be warned that ivabradine may cause transient luminous phenomena (consisting mainly of phosphenes). Luminous phenomena may occur in situations when there are sudden variations in light intensity, especially when driving at night. Ivabradine has no influence on the ability to use machines. However, in post-marketing experience, cases of impaired driving ability due to visual symptoms have been reported.
Metoprolol may affect patients' ability to drive and operate machinery. Patients should be warned that headaches, dizziness or fatigue may occur. These effects may possibly be enhanced in the case of concomitant ingestion of alcohol or after changing to another medicinal product.
Women of childbearing potential: Women of child-bearing potential should use appropriate contraceptive measures during treatment.
Use in Pregnancy: Based on existing data with the monocomponents, the use of Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) is contraindicated during pregnancy.
There are no or limited amount of data from the use of ivabradine in pregnant women.
Animal studies with ivabradine have shown reproductive toxicity. These studies have shown embryotoxic and teratogenic effects. The potential risk for humans is unknown. Therefore, ivabradine is contra-indicated during pregnancy.
There are no or limited amount of data (less than 300 pregnancy outcomes) from the use of metoprolol in pregnant women. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity with metoprolol. Metoprolol should only be administered during pregnancy where absolutely necessary. Beta blockers reduce placental perfusion, which may result in intrauterine fetal death, miscarriage or premature delivery. In addition, fetuses and newborns may be affected by adverse effects such as hypoglycemia, bradycardia, hypotension and breathing difficulties. The risk of cardiac and pulmonary complications is higher during the post-natal period. In the event of treatment during pregnancy, close fetal monitoring must be carried out, and continue for a few days after delivery.
Use in Lactation: Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) is contraindicated during breastfeeding.
Animal studies indicate that ivabradine is excreted in milk. Women that need treatment with ivabradine should stop breastfeeding and choose for another way of feeding their child. Metoprolol is concentrated in breast milk in a quantity that corresponds to three times the amount found in the mother's plasma.
Fertility: There are no clinical data on fertility with the use of Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor).
Studies in rats with ivabradine and metoprolol have shown no effect on fertility in males and females.
The safety profile of Metoprolol tartrate + Ivabradine (Implicor) presented as follows is based on the known safety profile of the individual components.
Summary of the profile: The most common adverse reactions with ivabradine is luminous phenomena (phosphenes) and bradycardia are dose dependent and related to the pharmacological effect of the medicinal product. The most commonly reported adverse reactions with metoprolol are bradycardia, nightmares, headache, somnolence, insomnia, dizziness, palpitations, orthostatic hypotension, peripheral coldness, Raynaud's disease, dyspnea exertional, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, fatigue and libido disorder.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: The following undesirable effects have been observed during treatment with ivabradine and metoprolol given separately and ranked under the MedRA classification by body system, and under heading of frequency using the following convention: Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1000); very rare (<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). (See Tables A and B.)
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Description of selected adverse reactions:
Luminous phenomena (phosphenes) were reported by 14.5% of patients, described as a transient enhanced brightness in a limited area of the visual field. They are usually triggered by sudden variations in light intensity. Phosphenes may also be described as a halo, image decomposition (stroboscopic or kaleidoscopic effects), colored bright lights, or multiple images (retinal persistency). The onset of phosphenes is generally within the first two months of treatment after which they may occur repeatedly. Phosphenes were generally reported to be of mild to moderate intensity. All phosphenes resolved during or after treatment, of which a majority (77.5%) resolved during treatment. Fewer than 1% of patients changed their daily routine or discontinued the treatment in relation with phosphenes.
Bradycardia was reported by 3.3% of patients particularly within the first 2 to 3 months of treatment initiation. 0.5% of patients experienced a severe bradycardia below or equal to 40 bpm.
In the SIGNIFY study, atrial fibrillation was observed in 5.3% of patients taking ivabradine compared to 3.8% in the placebo group. In a pooled analysis of all the Phase II/III double blind controlled clinical trials with a duration of at least 3 months including more than 40,000 patients, the incidence of atrial fibrillation was 4.86% in ivabradine treated patients compared to 4.08% in controls, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 1.26, 95% CI [1.15-1.39].
No interactions between metoprolol and ivabradine have been observed in an interaction study conducted in healthy volunteers. Information on interactions with other products that are known for the individual active substances is provided below.
Contraindication of concomitant use: Linked to ivabradine: The concomitant use of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors such as azole antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole), macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin per os, josamycin, telithromycin), HIV protease inhibitors (nelfinavir, ritonavir) and nefazodone is contra-indicated. The potent CYP3A4 inhibitors ketoconazole (200 mg once daily) and josamycin (1 g twice daily) increased ivabradine mean plasma exposure by 7 to 8 fold.
Linked to ivabradine and metoprolol: Moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors: specific interaction studies in healthy volunteers and patients have shown that the combination of ivabradine with the heart rate reducing agents diltiazem or verapamil resulted in an increase in ivabradine exposure (2 to 3 fold increase in AUC) and an additional heart rate reduction of 5 bpm. The concomitant use of ivabradine with these medicinal products is contraindicated.
Calcium channel blockers such as Verapamil or Diltiazem administered intravenously may enhance the depressant effect of beta-blockers on blood pressure, heart rate, myocardial contractility and atrioventricular conduction. An increase in negative inotropic and chronotropic effects can occur, therefore these medicinal products should not be administered intravenously to patients who are being treated with beta blockers.
Concomitant use not recommended: Linked to ivabradine: QT prolonging medicinal products: Cardiovascular QT prolonging medicinal products (e.g. quinidine, disopyramide, bepridil, sotalol, ibutilide, amiodarone).
Non cardiovascular QT prolonging medicinal products (e.g. pimozide, ziprasidone, sertindole, mefloquine, halofantrine, pentamidine, cisapride, intravenous erythromycin).
The concomitant use of cardiovascular and non cardiovascular QT prolonging medicinal products with ivabradine should be avoided since QT prolongation may be exacerbated by heart rate reduction. If the combination appears necessary, close cardiac monitoring is needed.
Grapefruit juice: ivabradine exposure was increased by 2-fold following the co-administration with grapefruit juice. Therefore, the intake of grapefruit juice should be avoided.
Linked to metoprolol: The following combinations with metoprolol should be avoided: Barbituric acid derivatives: Barbiturates (studied for pentobarbital) induce the metabolism of metoprolol through enzyme induction. Decreased plasma concentrations of metoprolol with decreased clinical effects (faster hepatic metabolism) has been observed with phenobarbital.
Centrally acting antihypertensive agents (e.g. clonidine).
Significant increase in blood pressure may occur if treatment with the centrally acting antihypertensive agent is stopped suddenly. Avoid stopping the centrally acting antihypertensive agent abruptly. Abrupt withdrawal, particularly if prior to beta-blocker discontinuation, may increase risk of "rebound hypertension".
The concomitant use of clonidine with a non-selective beta blocker, and possibly also with a selective beta blocker, increases the risk of rebound hypertension. If clonidine is administered concomitantly, the administration of the clonidine medication needs to be continued for some time after beta-blocker therapy is discontinued.
Class 1 antiarrhythmic agents (e.g. quinidine, tocainide, procainamide, aimaline, amiodarone, flecainide and disopyramide).
Beta-blockers may increase the negative inotropic effect of antiarrhythmic drugs and their effect on atrial conduction time. In particular, in patients with pre-existing sinus node dysfunction, concomitant administration of amiodarone may cause additional electrophysiological effects including bradycardia, sinus arrest and atrioventricular block. Amiodarone has an extremely long half-life (approximately 50 days), which means that interactions can occur a long time after discontinuation of the preparation. Antiarrhythmics such as quinidine, tocainide, procainamide, aimaline, amiodarone, flecainide and disopyramide may potentiate the effect of metoprolol on heart rate and atrioventricular conduction.
Concomitant use with precaution: Linked to ivabradine: Potassium-depleting diuretics (thiazide diuretics and loop diuretics): Hypokalemia can increase the risk of arrhythmia. As ivabradine may cause bradycardia, the resulting combination of hypokalemia and bradycardia is a predisposing factor to the onset of severe arrhythmias, especially in patients with long QT syndrome, whether congenital or substance-induced.
Moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors: the concomitant use of ivabradine with other moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. fluconazole) may be considered at the starting dose of 2.5 mg twice daily and if resting heart rate is above 70 bpm, with monitoring of heart rate.
CYP3A4 inducers: CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. rifampicin, barbiturates, phenytoin, Hypericum perforatum [St. John's Wort]) may decrease ivabradine exposure and activity. The concomitant use of CYP3A4 inducing medicinal products may require an adjustment of the dose of ivabradine. The combination of ivabradine 10 mg twice daily with St. John's Wort was shown to reduce ivabradine AUC by half. The intake of St. John's Wort should be restricted during the treatment with ivabradine.
Linked to metoprolol: Metoprolol serves as a substrate for CYP2D6, a cytochrome P 450 isoenzyme.
Enzyme inducing and enzyme inhibiting substances can influence the plasma concentration of metoprolol.
Rifampicin lowers the plasma concentration of metoprolol.
Cimetidine, alcohol and hydralazine can increase the plasma concentration of metoprolol. Metoprolol is mainly, but not exclusively, metabolized via the hepatic enzyme cytochrome CYP 2D6.
Substances that have an inhibitory effect on CYP 2D6, as e.g. selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors like paroxetine, fluoxetine and sertraline as well as diphenhydramine, hydroxychloroquine, celecoxib, terbinafine, neuroleptics (e.g. chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, chlorprothixene) and possibly propafenon can increase the plasma concentration of metoprolol.
An inhibitory effect on CYP 2D6 has also been reported for amiodarone and quinidine (antiarrhythmics).
Metoprolol can reduce the elimination of other medicinal products (e.g. lidocaine).
In patients using beta-receptor blockers the bradycardic effect is enhanced by inhalation anesthetics.
When initiating treatment with these medicinal products in patients treated with metoprolol, the dose of metoprolol may need to be reduced: Nitrates may enhance the hypotensive effect of metoprolol.
Digitalis glucosides (digoxin): Digitalis glycosides in combination with beta-receptor blockers may increase the atrioventricular conduction time and induce bradycardia.
Beta-receptor blockers (e.g. eye drops) or MAO-inhibitors: Patients concomitantly treated with metoprolol and other beta-receptor blockers (e.g. eye drops) or MAO-inhibitors should be closely monitored. Concomitant administration with beta-blockers may result in bradycardia and an enhanced hypotensive effect.
Adrenaline: if, under certain circumstances, adrenaline is administered to patients who take beta-receptor blockers, cardioselective beta-receptor blockers have a markedly lower impact on blood pressure control than non-selective beta-receptor blockers.
Parasympathomimetic drugs: The concomitant use of parasympathomimetics may cause long-term bradycardia.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory/antirheumatic agents (NSAIDs) The concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin may reduce the ant hypertensive effect of metoprolol.
Insulin and oral antidiabetic agents: Metoprolol may increase their hypoglycemic effect and symptoms of hypoglycemia may be masked. In this case, the dosage of the oral blood glucose-reducing drug must be adjusted.
Combinations use to be taken into consideration: Linked to ivabradine: Specific drug-drug interaction studies have shown no clinically significant effect of the following medicinal products on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ivabradine: proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole), sildenafil, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (simvastatin), dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (amlodipine, lacidipine), digoxin and warfarin. In addition there was no clinically significant effect of ivabradine on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin, amlodipine, lacidipine, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of digoxin, warfarin and on the pharmacodynamics of aspirin.
In pivotal phase III clinical trials the following medicinal products were routinely combined with ivabradine with no evidence of safety concerns: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, beta-blockers, diuretics, anti-aldosterone agents, short and long acting nitrates, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, fibrates, proton pump inhibitors, oral antidiabetics, aspirin and other anti-platelet medicinal products.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4): Ivabradine is metabolized by CYP3A4 only and it is a very weak inhibitor of this cytochrome. Ivabradine was shown not to influence the metabolism and plasma concentrations of other CYP3A4 substrates (mild, moderate and strong inhibitors). CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers are liable to interact with ivabradine and influence its metabolism and pharmacokinetics to a clinically significant extent. Drug-drug interaction studies have established that CYP3A4 inhibitors increase ivabradine plasma concentrations, while inducers decrease them. Increased plasma concentrations of ivabradine may be associated with the risk of excessive bradycardia.
Linked to metoprolol: Tricyclic antidepressants and neuroleptics: Increased antihypertensive effect and risk of orthostatic hypotension (additive effect).
Mefloquine: Risk of excessive bradycardia (additive bradycardiac effects).
Dipyridamole (IV): Increased antihypertensive effect.
Urology alpha-blockers (alfuzosin, doxazosin, prazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin): Increased hypotensive effect. Greater risk of orthostatic hypotension.
Ergotamine: Increase of the vasoconstrictive effect.
Skeletal muscle relaxant: Curare-type muscle relaxant (enhancement of the neuromusular block).
Floctafenine: Beta blockers may impede the compensatory cardiovascular reactions associated with hypotension or shock that may be induced by floctafenine.
Antacid: An increase in the plasma concentrations of metoprolol has been observed when the drug was co-administered with an antacid.
Pediatric population: Linked to ivabradine: Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
Store at temperatures not exceeding 30°C.
C07FX05 - metoprolol and ivabradine ; Belongs to the class of beta-blocking agents in combination with other cardiac drugs. Used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
25 mg/5 mg FC tab (white, round, 7.3 mm diameter, engraved with 1 on one face and Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
on the other) 28's. 50 mg/5 mg FC tab (white, round, 8.5 mm diameter, engraved with 2 on one face and Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
on the other) 28's.