Iritero

Iritero

irinotecan

Manufacturer:

Hetero Labs

Distributor:

Camber
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Irinotecan hydrochloride.
Description
IRITERO 40 mg/2 mL (Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection 40 mg/2 mL) (20 mg/mL): Each ml contains: Irinotecan Hydrochloride Trihydrate equivalent to Irinotecan 20 mg.
IRITERO 100 mg/5 mL (Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection 100 mg/5 mL) (20 mg/mL): Each ml contains: Irinotecan Hydrochloride Trihydrate equivalent to Irinotecan 20 mg.
Irinotecan hydrochloride injection is an antineoplastic agent of the topoisomerase I inhibitor class.
Irinotecan hydrochloride is a pale yellow to yellow crystalline powder. Irinotecan hydrochloride injection is available in 40 mg (2 mL) and 100 mg (5 mL) multi dose vials. Each mL contains irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate, 20 mg; sorbitol, 45 mg; lactic acid, 0.9 mg; water for injection, q.s.
Irinotecan hydrochloride is a semisynthetic derivative of camptothecin, an alkaloid extract from plants such as Camptotheca acuminata or is chemically synthesized.
The chemical name is (S)-4,11-diethyl-3,4,12,14-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-3,14-dioxo1H-pyrano[3',4':6,7]-indolizino[1,2-b]quinolin-9-yl-[1,4'bipiperidine]-1'-carboxylate, monohydrochloride, trihydrate. Its empirical formula is C33H38N4O6·HCl·3H2O and molecular weight is 677.19. It is slightly soluble in water and organic solvents.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Cytostatic topoisomerase I inhibitor. ATC Code: L01XX19.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Experimental data: Irinotecan is a semi-synthetic derivative of Irinotecan hydrochloride injection. It is an antineoplastic agent which acts as a specific inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I. It is metabolised by carboxylesterase in most tissues to SN-38, which was found to be more active than irinotecan in purified topoisomerase I and more cytotoxic than irinotecan against several murine and human tumour cell lines. The inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I by irinotecan or SN-38 induces single-strand DNA lesions which blocks the DNA replication fork and are responsible for the cytotoxicity. This cytotoxic activity was found time-dependent and was specific to the S phase.
In vitro, irinotecan and SN-38 were not found to be significantly recognised by the P-glycoprotein MDR, and displays cytotoxic activities against doxorubicin and vinblastine resistant cell lines.
Furthermore, irinotecan has a broad antitumor activity in vivo against murine tumour models (P03 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, MA16/C mammary adenocarcinoma, C38 and C51 colon adenocarcinomas) and against human xenografts (Co-4 colon adenocarcinoma, Mx-1 mammary adenocarcinoma, ST-15 and SC-16 gastric adenocarcinomas). Irinotecan is also active against tumors expressing the P-glycoprotein MDR (vincristine- and doxorubicin-resistant P388 leukaemia's).
Beside the antitumor activity of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection, the most relevant pharmacological effect of irinotecan is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase.
Pharmacokinetics: In a phase I study in 60 patients with a dosage regimen of a 30-minute intravenous infusion of 100 to 750 mg/m2 every three weeks, irinotecan showed a biphasic or triphasic elimination profile. The mean plasma clearance was 15 L/h/m2 and the volume of distribution at steady state (Vs): 157 L/m2. The mean plasma half-life of the first phase of the triphasic model was 12 minutes, of the second phase 2.5 hours, and the terminal phase half-life was 14.2 hours. SN-38 showed a biphasic elimination profile with a mean terminal elimination half-life of 13.8 hours. At the end of the infusion, at the recommended dose of 350 mg/m2, the mean peak plasma concentrations of irinotecan and SN-38 were 7.7 μg/mL and 56 ng/mL, respectively, and the mean area under the curve (AUC) values were 34 μg.h/mL and 451 ng.h/mL, respectively. A large inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetic parameters is generally observed for SN-38.
A population pharmacokinetic analysis of irinotecan has been performed in 148 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, treated with various schedules and at different doses in phase II trials. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated with a three compartment model were similar to those observed in phase I studies. All studies have shown that irinotecan (CPT-11) and SN-38 exposure increase proportionally with CPT-11 administered dose; their pharmacokinetics are independent of the number of previous cycles and of the administration schedule.
In vitro, plasma protein binding for irinotecan and SN-38 was approximately 65% and 95% respectively.
Mass balance and metabolism studies with 14 C-labelled drug have shown that more than 50% of an intravenously administered dose of irinotecan is excreted as unchanged drug, with 33% in the faeces mainly via the bile and 22% in urine.
Two metabolic pathways account each for at least 12% of the dose: Hydrolysis by carboxylesterase into active metabolite SN-38, SN-38 is mainly eliminated by glucuronidation, and further by biliary and renal excretion (less than 0.5% of the irinotecan dose) The SN-38 glucuronite is subsequently probably hydrolysed in the intestine.
Cytochrome P450 3A enzymes-dependent oxidations resulting in opening of the outer piperidine ring with formation of APC (aminopentanoic acid derivate) and NPC (primary amine derivate).
Unchanged irinotecan is the major entity in plasma, followed by APC, SN-38 glucuronide and SN-38. Only SN-38 has significant cytotoxic activity.
Irinotecan clearance is decreased by about 40% in patients with bilirubinemia between 1.5 and 3 times the upper normal limit. In these patients a 200 mg/m2 irinotecan dose leads to plasma drug exposure comparable to that observed at 350 mg/m2 in cancer patients with normal liver parameters.
Indications/Uses
Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer: In combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients without prior chemotherapy for advanced disease.
As a single agent in patients who have failed an established 5-fluorouracil containing treatment regimen.
Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection in combination with cetuximab is indicated for the treatment of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing, KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, who had not received prior treatment for metastatic disease or after failure of irinotecan-including cytotoxic therapy.
Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection in combination with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and bevacizumab is indicated for first-line treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum.
Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection in combination with capecitabine with or without bevacizumab is indicated for first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
Dosage/Direction for Use
For adults only. Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection solution for infusion should be infused into a peripheral or central vein.
Recommended dosage: In monotherapy (for previously treated patient): The recommended dosage of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection is 350 mg/m2 administered as an intravenous infusion over a 30- to 90- minute period every three weeks.
In combination therapy (for previously untreated patient): Safety and efficacy of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and folinic acid (FA) have been assessed with the following schedule: Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection plus 5FU/FA in every 2 weeks schedule: The recommended dose of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection is 180 mg/m2 administered once every 2 weeks as an intravenous infusion over a 30- to 90-minute period, followed by infusion with folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil. For the posology and method of administration of concomitant cetuximab, refer to the product information for this medicinal product.
Normally, the same dose of irinotecan is used as administered in the last cycles of the prior irinotecan-containing regimen. Irinotecan must not be administered earlier than 1 hour after the end of the cetuximab infusion.
For the posology and method of administration of bevacizumab, refer to the bevacizumab summary of product characteristics.
Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection should be administered after appropriate recovery of all adverse events to grade 0 or 1 NCI-CTC grading (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) and when treatment-related diarrhoea is fully resolved.
At the start of a subsequent infusion of therapy, the dose of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection, and 5FU when applicable, should be decreased according to the worst grade of adverse events observed in the prior infusion. Treatment should be delayed by 1 to 2 weeks to allow recovery from treatment-related adverse events.
With the following adverse events a dose reduction of 15 to 20 % should be applied for Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection and/or 5FU when applicable: haematological toxicity (neutropenia grade 4, febrile neutropenia (neutropenia grade 3-4 and fever grade 2-4), thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (grade 4)); non haematological toxicity (grade 3-4).
Recommendations for dose modifications of cetuximab when administered in combination with irinotecan must be followed according to the product information for this medicinal product.
In combination with capecitabine for patients 65 years of age or more, a reduction of the starting dose of capecitabine to 800 mg/m2 twice daily is recommended according to the summary of product characteristics for capecitabine. Refer also to the recommendations for dose modifications in combination regimen given in the summary of product characteristics for capecitabine.
Treatment Duration: Treatment with Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection should be continued until there is an objective progression of the disease or an unacceptable toxicity.
Special populations: Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function: In monotherapy: Blood bilirubin levels (up to 3 times the upper limit of the normal range (UNL)) in patients with performance status ≤ 2, should determine the starting dose of Irinotecan hydrochloride injection. In these patients with hyperbilirubinemia and prothrombin time greater than 50%, the clearance of irinotecan is decreased and therefore the risk of hematotoxicity is increased. Thus, weekly monitoring of complete blood counts should be conducted in this patient population.
In patients with bilirubin up to 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range (ULN), the recommended dosage of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection is 350 mg/m2; In patients with bilirubin ranging from 1.5 to 3 times the ULN, the recommended dosage of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection is 200 mg/m2; Patients with bilirubin beyond to 3 times the ULN should not be treated with Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection.
No data are available in patients with hepatic impairment treated by Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection in combination.
Patients with impaired renal function: Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection is not recommended for use in patients with impaired renal function, as studies in this population have not been conducted.
Elderly: No specific pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in elderly. However, the dose should be chosen carefully in this population due to their greater frequency of decreased biological functions.
Overdosage
There have been reports of overdosage at doses up to approximately twice the recommended therapeutic dose, which may be fatal. The most significant adverse reactions reported were severe neutropenia and severe diarrhoea. There is no known antidote for Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection. Maximum supportive care should be instituted to prevent dehydration due to diarrhea and to treat any infectious complications.
Contraindications
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease and/or bowel obstruction (see Precautions).
History of severe hypersensitivity reactions to irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate or to one of the excipients of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection.
Lactation (see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation and Precautions).
Bilirubin > 3 times the upper limit of the normal range (see Precautions).
Severe bone marrow failure.
For additional contraindications of cetuximab or bevacizumab or capecitabine, refer to the product information for these medicinal products.
Special Precautions
The use of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection should be confined to units specialized in the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy and it should only be administered under the supervision of a physician qualified in the use of anticancer chemotherapy.
Given the nature and incidence of adverse events, Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection will only be prescribed in the following cases after the expected benefits have been weighted against the possible therapeutic risks: In patients presenting a risk factor, particularly those with a WHO performance status = 2.
In the few rare instances where patients are deemed unlikely to observe recommendations regarding management of adverse events (need for immediate and prolonged antidiarrhoeal treatment combined with high fluid intake at onset of delayed diarrhoea). Strict hospital supervision is recommended for such patients.
When Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection is used in monotherapy, it is usually prescribed with the every-3-week-dosage schedule. However, the weekly-dosage schedule (see Pharmacology under Actions) may be considered in patients who may need a closer follow-up or who are at particular risk of severe neutropenia.
Delayed diarrhoea: Patients should be made aware of the risk of delayed diarrhoea occurring more than 24 hours after the administration of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection and at any time before the next cycle. In monotherapy, the median time of onset of the first liquid stool was on day 5 after the infusion of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection. Patients should quickly inform their physician of its occurrence and start appropriate therapy immediately.
Patients with an increased risk of diarrhoea are those who had a previous abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy, those with baseline hyperleucocytosis, those with performance status > 2 and women. If not properly treated, diarrhoea can be life-threatening, especially if the patient is concomitantly neutropenic.
As soon as the first liquid stool occurs, the patient should start drinking large volumes of beverages containing electrolytes and an appropriate antidiarrhoeal therapy must be initiated immediately. This antidiarrhoeal treatment will be prescribed by the department where Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection has been administered. After discharge from the hospital, the patients should obtain the prescribed drugs so that they can treat the diarrhoea as soon as it occurs. In addition, they must inform their physician or the department administering Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection when/if diarrhoea is occurring.
The currently recommended antidiarrhoeal treatment consists of high doses of loperamide (4 mg for the first intake and then 2 mg every 2 hours). This therapy should continue for 12 hours after the last liquid stool and should not be modified. In no instance should loperamide be administered for more than 48 consecutive hours at these doses, because of the risk of paralytic ileus, nor for less than 12 hours.
In addition to the anti-diarrhoeal treatment, a prophylactic broad spectrum antibiotic should be given, when diarrhoea is associated with severe neutropenia (neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3).
In addition to the antibiotic treatment, hospitalisation is recommended for management of the diarrhoea, in the following cases: Diarrhoea associated with fever; Severe diarrhoea (requiring intravenous hydration); Diarrhoea persisting beyond 48 hours following the initiation of high-dose loperamide therapy.
Loperamide should not be given prophylactically, even in patients who experienced delayed diarrhoea at previous cycles.
In patients who experienced severe diarrhoea, a reduction in dose is recommended for subsequent cycles (see Dosage & Administration).
Haematology: Weekly monitoring of complete blood cell counts is recommended during Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection treatment. Patients should be aware of the risk of neutropenia and the significance of fever. Febrile neutropenia (temperature > 38°C and neutrophil count ≤1,000 cells/mm3) should be urgently treated in the hospital with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics.
In patients who experienced severe haematological events, a dose reduction is recommended for subsequent administration (see Dosage & Administration).
There is an increased risk of infections and haematological toxicity in patients with severe diarrhoea. In patients with severe diarrhoea, complete blood cell counts should be performed.
Liver impairment: Liver function tests should be performed at baseline and before each cycle.
Weekly monitoring of complete blood counts should be conducted in patients with bilirubin ranging from 1.5 to 3 times ULN, due to decrease of the clearance of irinotecan (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions) and thus increasing the risk of hematotoxicity in this population. For patients with a bilirubin >3 times ULN (see Contraindications).
Nausea and vomiting: A prophylactic treatment with antiemetics is recommended before each treatment with Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection. Nausea and vomiting have been frequently reported. Patients with vomiting associated with delayed diarrhoea should be hospitalised as soon as possible for treatment.
Acute cholinergic syndrome: If acute cholinergic syndrome appears (defined as early diarrhoea and various other signs and symptoms such as sweating abdominal cramping, myosis and salivation) atropine sulphate (0.25 mg subcutaneously) should be administered unless clinically contraindicated (see Adverse Reactions).
Caution should be exercised in patients with asthma. In patients who experienced an acute and severe cholinergic syndrome, the use of prophylactic atropine sulphate is recommended with subsequent doses of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection.
Respiratory Disorders: Interstitial pulmonary disease presenting as pulmonary infiltrates is uncommon during irinotecan therapy. Interstitial pulmonary disease can be fatal. Risk factors possibly associated with the development of interstitial pulmonary disease include the use of pneumotoxic drugs, radiation therapy and colony stimulating factors.
Patients with risk factors should be closely monitored for respiratory symptoms before and during irinotecan therapy.
Extravasation: While irinotecan is not a known vesicant, care should be taken to avoid extravasation and the infusion site should be monitored for signs of inflammation. Should extravasation occur, flushing the site and application of ice is recommended.
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease and/or bowel obstruction: Patients must not be treated with Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection until resolution of the bowel obstruction (see Contraindications).
Patients with impaired renal function: Studies in this population have not been conducted (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Cardiac disorders: Myocardial ischaemic events have been observed following irinotecan therapy predominately in patients with underlying cardiac disease, other known risk factors for cardiac disease, or previous cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Consequently, patients with known risk factors should be closely monitored, and action should be taken to try to minimize all modifiable risk factors (e.g. smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia).
Immunosuppressant effects/increased susceptibility to infections: Administration of live or live-attenuated vaccines in patients immunocompromised by chemotherapeutic agents including irinotecan, may result in serious or fatal infections. Vaccination with a live vaccine should be avoided in patients receiving irinotecan. Killed or inactivated vaccines may be administered; however, the response to such vaccines may be diminished.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: Patients should be warned about the potential for dizziness or visual disturbances which may occur within 24 hours following the administration of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection, and advised not to drive or operate machinery if these symptoms occur.
Use in Elderly: Due to the greater frequency of decreased biological functions, in particular hepatic function, in elderly patients, dose selection with Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection should be cautious in this population (see Dosage & Administration).
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There is no data from the use of irinotecan in pregnant women. Irinotecan has been shown to be embryotoxic and teratogenic in animals. Therefore, based on results from animal studies and the mechanism of action of irinotecan, Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.
Women of child-bearing potential: Women of childbearing potential and men have to use effective contraception during and up to 1 month and 3 months after treatment respectively.
Breast-feeding: In lactating rats, 14C-irinotecan was detected in milk. It is not known whether irinotecan is excreted in human milk.
Consequently, because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants, breast-feeding must should be discontinued for the duration of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection therapy (see Contraindications).
Fertility: There are no human data on the effect of irinotecan on fertility. In animals adverse effects of irinotecan on the fertility of offspring has been documented.
Side Effects
Undesirable effects detailed in this section refer to irinotecan. There is no evidence that the safety profile of irinotecan is influenced by cetuximab or vice versa. In combination with cetuximab, additional reported undesirable effects were those expected with cetuximab (such as acneform rash 88%). For information on adverse reactions on irinotecan in combination with cetuximab, also refer to their respective summary of product characteristics.
For information on adverse reactions in combination with bevacizumab, refer to the bevacizumab summary of product characteristics.
Adverse drug reactions reported in patients treated with capecitabine in combination with irinotecan in addition to those seen with capecitabine monotherapy or seen at a higher frequency grouping compared to capecitabine monotherapy include: Very common, all grade adverse drug reactions: thrombosis/embolism; Common, all grade adverse drug reactions: hypersensitivity reaction, cardiac ischemia/infarction; Common, grade 3 and grade 4 adverse drug reactions: febrile neutropenia. For complete information on adverse reactions of capecitabine, refer to the capecitabine summary product of characteristics.
Grade 3 and Grade 4 adverse drug reactions reported in patients treated with capecitabine in combination with irinotecan and bevacizumab in addition to those seen with capecitabine monotherapy or seen at a higher frequency grouping compared to capecitabine monotherapy include: Common, grade 3 and grade 4 adverse drug reactions: neutropenia, thrombosis/embolism, hypertension, and cardiac ischemia/infarction. For complete information on adverse reactions of capecitabine and bevacizumab, refer to the respective capecitabine and bevacizumab summary of product characteristics.
The following adverse reactions considered to be possibly or probably related to the administration of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection have been reported from 765 patients at the recommended dose of 350 mg/m2 in monotherapy, and from 145 patients treated by Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection in combination therapy with 5FU/FA in every 2 weeks schedule at the recommended dose of 180 mg/m2.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Delayed diarrhoea: Diarrhoea (occurring more than 24 hours after administration) is a dose-limiting toxicity of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection.
In monotherapy: Severe diarrhoea was observed in 20 % of patients who follow recommendations for the management of diarrhoea. Of the evaluable cycles, 14 % have a severe diarrhoea. The median time of onset of the first liquid stool was on day 5 after the infusion of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection.
In combination therapy: Severe diarrhoea was observed in 13.1 % of patients who follow recommendations for the management of diarrhoea. Of the evaluable cycles, 3.9 % have a severe diarrhoea.
Uncommon cases of pseudo-membranous colitis have been reported, one of which has been documented bacteriologically (Clostridium difficile).
Nausea and vomiting: In monotherapy: Nausea and vomiting were severe in approximately 10% of patients treated with antiemetics.
In combination therapy: A lower incidence of severe nausea and vomiting was observed (2.1% and 2.8% of patients respectively).
Dehydration: Episodes of dehydration commonly associated with diarrhoea and/or vomiting have been reported.
Infrequent cases of renal insufficiency, hypotension or cardio-circulatory failure have been observed in patients who experienced episodes of dehydration associated with diarrhoea and/or vomiting.
Other gastrointestinal disorders: Constipation relative to Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection and/or loperamide has been observed, shared between: in monotherapy: in less than 10% of patients; in combination therapy: 3.4% of patients.
Infrequent cases of intestinal obstruction, ileus, or gastrointestinal haemorrhage and rare cases of colitis, including typhlitis, ischemic and ulcerative colitis, were reported. Rare cases of intestinal perforation were reported. Other mild effects include anorexia, abdominal pain and mucositis.
Rare cases of symptomatic or asymptomatic pancreatitis have been associated with irinotecan therapy.
Blood disorders: Neutropenia is a dose-limiting toxic effect. Neutropenia was reversible and not cumulative; the median day to nadir was 8 days whatever the use in monotherapy or in combination therapy.
In monotherapy: Neutropenia was observed in 78.7% of patients and was severe (neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3) in 22.6% of patients. Of the evaluable cycles, 18 % had a neutrophil count below 1,000 cells/mm3 including 7.6% with a neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3.
Total recovery was usually reached by day 22.
Fever with severe neutropenia was reported in 6.2% of patients and in 1.7% of cycles.
Infectious episodes occurred in about 10.3% of patients (2.5% of cycles) and were associated with severe neutropenia in about 5.3% of patients (1.1% of cycles), and resulted in death in 2 cases.
Anaemia was reported in about 58.7% of patients (8% with haemoglobin < 8 g/dl and 0.9 % with haemoglobin <6.5 g/dl).
Thrombocytopenia (<100,000 cells/mm3) was observed in 7.4% of patients and 1.8% of cycles with 0.9% with platelets count 50,000 cells/mm3 and 0.2% of cycles.
Nearly all the patients showed a recovery by day 22.
In combination therapy: Neutropenia was observed in 82.5% of patients and was severe (neutrophil count <500 cells/mm3) in 9.8 % of patients. Of the evaluable cycles, 67.3% had a neutrophil count below 1,000 cells/mm3 including 2.7% with a neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3.
Total recovery was usually reached within 7-8 days.
Fever with severe neutropenia was reported in 3.4% of patients and in 0.9% of cycles.
Infectious episodes occurred in about 2% of patients (0.5% of cycles) and were associated with severe neutropenia in about 2.1% of patients (0.5% of cycles), and resulted in death in 1 case.
Anaemia was reported in 97.2% of patients (2.1% with haemoglobin <8 g/dl).
Thrombocytopenia (<100,000 cells/mm3) was observed in 32.6% of patients and 21.8% of cycles. No severe thrombocytopenia (<50,000 cells/mm3) has been observed.
One case of peripheral thrombocytopenia with antiplatelet antibodies has been reported in the post-marketing experience.
Infection and infestation: Infrequent cases of renal insufficiency, hypotension or cardio-circulatory failure have been observed in patients who experienced sepsis.
General disorders and infusion site reactions: Acute cholinergic syndrome: Severe transient acute cholinergic syndrome was observed in 9 % of patients treated in monotherapy and in 1.4 % of patients treated in combination therapy. The main symptoms were defined as early diarrhoea and various other symptoms such as abdominal pain, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, hypotension, vasodilatation, sweating, chills, malaise, dizziness, visual disturbances, myosis, lacrimation and increased salivation occurring during or within the first 24 hours after the infusion of Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection. These symptoms disappear after atropine administration (see Precautions).
Asthenia was severe in less than 10 % of patients treated in monotherapy and in 6.2 % of patients treated in combination therapy. The causal relationship to Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection has not been clearly established. Fever in the absence of infection and without concomitant severe neutropenia, occurred in 12 % of patients treated in monotherapy and in 6.2 % of patients treated in combination therapy.
Mild infusion site reactions have been reported although uncommonly.
Cardiac disorder: Rare cases of hypertension during or following the infusion have been reported.
Respiratory disorders: Interstitial pulmonary disease presenting as pulmonary infiltrates is uncommon during irinotecan therapy. Early effects such as dyspnoea have been reported.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Alopecia was very common and reversible. Mild cutaneous reactions have been reported although uncommonly.
Immune system disorders: Uncommon mild allergy reactions and rare cases of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have been reported.
Musculoskeletal disorders: Early effects such as muscular contraction or cramps and paresthesia have been reported.
Laboratory tests: In monotherapy, transient and mild to moderate increases in serum levels of either transaminases, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin were observed in 9.2%, 8.1% and 1.8% of the patients, respectively, in the absence of progressive liver metastasis.
Transient and mild to moderate increases of serum levels of creatinine have been observed in 7.3% of the patients.
In combination therapy transient serum levels (grades 1 and 2) of either SGPT, SGOT, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin were observed in 15%, 11%, 11% and 10% of the patients, respectively, in the absence of progressive liver metastasis. Transient grade 3 was observed in 0%, 0%, 0% and 1% of the patients, respectively. No grade 4 was observed.
Increases of amylase and/or lipase have been very rarely reported.
Rare cases of hypokalemia and hyponatremia mostly related with diarrhea and vomiting have been reported.
Nervous system disorders: There have been very rare postmarketing reports of transient speech disorders associated with Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection infusions.
Drug Interactions
Interaction between irinotecan and neuromuscular blocking agents cannot be ruled out. Since Irinotecan Hydrochloride Injection has anticholinesterase activity, drugs with anticholinesterase activity may prolong the neuromuscular blocking effects of suxamethonium and the neuromuscular blockade of non-depolarising drugs may be antagonised.
Several studies have shown that concomitant administration of CYP3A-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (e.g., carbamazepine, phenobarbital or phenytoin) leads to reduced exposure to irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide and reduced pharmacodynamic effects. The effects of such anticonvulsant drugs was reflected by a decrease in AUC of SN-38 and SN-38G by 50% or more. In addition to induction of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes, enhanced glucuronidation and enhanced biliary excretion may play a role in reducing exposure to irinotecan and its metabolites.
A study has shown that the co-administration of ketoconazole resulted in a decrease in the AUC of APC of 87% and in an increase in the AUC of SN-38 of 109% in comparison to irinotecan given alone.
Caution should be exercised in patients concurrently taking drugs known to inhibit (e.g., ketoconazole) or induce (e.g., rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital or phenytoin) drug metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4. Concurrent administration of irinotecan with an inhibitor/inducer of this metabolic pathway may alter the metabolism of irinotecan and should be avoided.
Coadministration of 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid in the combination regimen does not change the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan.
Atazanavir sulphate. Coadministration of atazanavir sulfate, a CYP3A4 and UGT1A1 inhibitor, has the potential to increase systemic exposure to SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. Physicians should take this into consideration when co-administering these drugs.
Interactions common to all cytotoxics: The use of anticoagulants is common due to increased risk of thrombotic events in tumoral diseases. If vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants are indicated, an increased frequency in the monitoring of INR (International Normalised Ratio) is required due to their narrow therapeutic index, the high intra-individual variability of blood thrombogenicity and the possibility of interaction between oral anticoagulants and anticancer chemotherapy.
Concomitant use contraindicated: Yellow fever vaccine: risk of fatal generalized reaction to vaccines.
Concomitant use not recommended: Live attenuated vaccines (except yellow fever): risk of systemic, possible fatal disease (eg-infections). This risk is increased in subjects who are already immunosuppressed by their underlying disease.
Use an inactivated vaccine where this exists (poliomyelitis).
Phenytoin: Risk of exacerbation of convulsions resulting from the decrease of phenytoin digestive absorption by cytotoxic drug or risk of toxicity enhancement due to increased hepatic metabolism by phenytoin.
Concomitant use to take into consideration: Ciclosporine, Tacrolimus: Excessive immunosuppression with risk of lymphoproliferation There is no evidence that the safety profile of irinotecan is influenced by cetuximab or vice versa.
Results from a dedicated drug-drug interaction trial demonstrated no significant effect of bevacizumab on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38. However, this does not preclude any increase of toxicities due to their pharmacological properties.
Storage
Store at temperatures not exceeding 30°C. Protect from light.
MIMS Class
Cytotoxic Chemotherapy
ATC Classification
L01CE02 - irinotecan ; Belongs to the class of Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitors. Used in the treatment of cancer.
Presentation/Packing
Soln for IV infusion (pale yellow color aqueous solution free from visible particles) 40 mg/2 mL x 2 mL x 1's. 100 mg/5 mL x 5 mL x 1's.
Register or sign in to continue
Asia's one-stop resource for medical news, clinical reference and education
Sign up for free
Already a member? Sign in