potassium chloride




Full Prescribing Info
Potassium chloride.
Each sustained release tablet contains: Potassium Chloride 750 mg eq. to 10 mEq Potassium.
Potassium chloride is an electrolyte replenisher that occurs as a white, granular powder or as colorless crystals. It is odorless and has a saline taste. Its solutions are neutral to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.
Pharmacology: The potassium ion is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Potassium ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity, the transmission of nerve impulses, the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle, and the maintenance of normal renal function.
The intracellular concentration of potassium is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane.
Potassium is a normal dietary constituent and, under steady-state conditions, the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of potassium is 50 to 100 mEq per day.
Potassium depletion will occur whenever the rate of potassium loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of potassium intake. Such depletion usually develops as a consequence of therapy with diuretics, primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, diabetic ketoacidosis, or inadequate replacement of potassium in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition. Depletion can develop rapidly with severe diarrhea, especially if associated with vomiting. Potassium depletion due to these causes is usually accompanied by a concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Potassium depletion may produce weakness, fatigue, disturbances of cardiac rhythm (primarily ectopic beats), prominent U-waves in the electrocardiogram, and, in advanced cases, flaccid paralysis and/or impaired ability to concentrate urine.
If potassium depletion associated with metabolic alkalosis cannot be managed by correcting the fundamental cause of the deficiency, e.g., where the patient requires long-term, diuretic therapy, supplemental potassium in the form of high-potassium food or potassium chloride may be able to restore normal potassium levels.
In rare circumstances (e.g., patients with renal tubular acidosis) potassium depletion may be associated with metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In such patients potassium replacement should be accomplished with potassium salts other than the chloride, such as potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium acetate, or potassium gluconate.
Pharmacokinetics: Potasssium salts other than the phosphate, sulfate, and tartrate are generally readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Potassium is excreted mainly by the kidneys; it is secreted in the distal tubules in exchange for sodium or hydrogen tons. The capacity of the kidneys to conserve potassium continues even when there is severe depletion. Some potassium is excreted in the faeces and small amounts may also be excreted in sweat.
Potassium chloride is used to prevent or to treat low levels of potassium.
Dosage/Direction for Use
The usual dose for the prevention of hypokalemia is 20 mEq in single or divided dose or as prescribed by the physician.
The usual dose for the treatment of potassium depletion is 40-100 mEq or as prescribed by the physician. Dosage should be divided so that no more than 20 mEq is given in a single dose.
Potassium salts are contraindicated in patients with hyperkalemia, renal failure or severe renal impairment, severe hemolytic reactions, untreated Addison's disease, and acute dehydration. Solid oral dosage forms should not be used in patients where Gastrointestinal motility is impaired. Use cautiously in digitalized patients.
Special Precautions
Potassium chloride should not be used by patients with kidney failure, Addison's disease, severe burns or other tissue injuries, patients that are hydrated or are taking diuretics and those who have high levels of potassium in the blood.
Potassium salts should be administered with considerable care to patients with cardiac disease or conditions predisposing to hyperkalaemia such as renal or adrenocortical insufficiency. Acute dehydration, or extensive tissue destruction as occurs with severe burns. Regular monitoring of clinical status, serum electrolytes, and the ECG is advisable in patients receiving potassium therapy, particularly those with cardiac or renal impairment.
Solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts should not to be given to patients with gastrointestinal ulceration or obstruction. Potassium chloride should not be used in patients with hyperchloraemia.
Adverse Reactions
The most common adverse effects in taking potassium chloride include gastrointestinal discomforts such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and bleeding of the digestive tract, uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain and numbness or tingling in hands, feet or mouth. Ulceration has also occurred after the use of sustained-release tablets.
Drug Interactions
Potassium supplement should be used with caution, if at all, in patients receiving drugs that increase serum-potassium concentrations. These include potassium-sparing diuretics. ACE inhibitors, ciclosporin, and drugs that contain potassium such as the potassium salts of penicillin. Similarly, that concomitant use of potassium-containing salt substitutes for flavouring food should be avoided. Antimuscarinics delay gastric emptying and consequently may increase the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects in patients receiving solid oral dosage forms of potassium.
Store at temperatures not exceeding 30°C.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
A12BA01 - potassium chloride ; Belongs to the class of potassium-containing preparations. Used as dietary supplements.
SR tab 750 mg x 50's.
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