Side effects include hypotension, chest pain, hypertension, hypervolemia, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), cramps, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, elevated liver enzymes, skin irritation, pruritus, application site reaction, dizziness, dyspnea, pneumonia, cough, headache, fever, asthenia, malaise.
Cardiovascular effects such as chest pain or tightness, shock, myocardial infarction, hypertension, tachycardia, bradycardia, and arrhythmias may occur with either route. Rashes, urticaria, purpura, and pruritus have been reported. Other reactions include gastrointestinal disturbances, haematuria, dyspnoea, and taste disturbance. Patients may also experience delayed reactions 1 to 2 days after injection of iron dextran, such as backache, arthralgia, myalgia, lymphadenopathy, chills, fever, paraesthesia, dizziness, malaise, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose of parenteral iron is unlikely to be associated with any acute manifestations.
Unwarranted parenteral iron therapy will result in iron overload and excess storage of iron (haemochromatosis) in the long term. The consequences of this include liver and endocrine dysfunction and heart disease, and possibly an increased risk of infection. Iron overload may require chelation therapy with desferrioxamine.