Mentra 10

Mentra 10 Mechanism of Action

memantine

Manufacturer:

Cadila Healthcare

Distributor:

Metro Drug

Marketer:

Zydus Healthcare Phils
Full Prescribing Info
Action
Clinical Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Persistent activation of central nervous system N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by the excitatory amino acid glutamase has been hypothesized to contribute to the symptomatology of Alzheimer's disease. Memantine is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect through its action as a low to moderate affinity uncompetitive (open-channel) NMDA receptor antagonist which binds preferentially to the NMDA receptor-operated cation channels. There is no evidence that memantine prevents or slows neurodegeneration in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Memantine showed low to negligible affinity for GABA, benzodiazepine, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine and glycine receptors and for voltage-dependent Ca2+, Na+ or K+ channels. Memantine also showed antagonistic effects at the 5HT3 receptor with a potency similar to that for the NMDA receptor and blocked nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with one-sixth to one-tenth the potency. In vitro studies have shown that memantine does not affect the reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by donepezil, galantamine, or tacrine.
Pharmacodynamics: There is increasing evidence that malfunctioning of glutamatergic neurotransmission, in particular at NMDA-receptors, contributes to both expression of symptoms and disease progression in neurodegenerative dementia.
Memantine is a voltage-dependent, moderate-affinity uncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist. It modulates the effects of pathologically elevated tonic levels of glutamate that may lead to neuronal dysfunction.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Memantine has an absolute bioavailability of approximately 100%. Tmax is between 3 and 8 hours. There is no indication that food influences the absorption of memantine.
Distribution: Daily doses of 20 mg lead to steady-state plasma concentrations of memantine ranging from 70 to 150 ng/mL (0.5 - 1 μmol) with large interindividual variations. When daily doses of 5 to 30 mg were administered, a mean cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum ratio of 0.52 was calculated. The volume of distribution is around 10 L/kg. About 45% of memantine is bound to plasma-proteins.
Biotransformation: In man, about 80% of the circulating memantine-related material is present as the parent compound. Main human metabolites are N-3,5-dimethyl-gludantan, the isomeric mixture of 4- and 6-hydroxy-memantine, and 1-nitroso- 3,5-dimethyl-adamantane. None of these metabolites exhibit NMDA-antagonistic activity. No cytochrome P 450 catalysed metabolism has been detected in vitro.
In a study using orally administered 14C-memantine, a mean of 84% of the dose was recovered within 20 days, more than 99% being excreted renally.
Elimination: Memantine is eliminated in a monoexponential manner with a terminal t½ of 60 to 100 hours. In volunteers with normal kidney function, total clearance (Cltot) amounts to 170 mL/min/1.73 m2 and part of total renal clearance is achieved by tubular secretion.
Renal handling also involves tubular reabsorption, probably mediated by cation transport proteins. The renal elimination rate of memantine under alkaline urine conditions may be reduced by a factor of 7 to 9. Alkalisation of urine may result from drastic changes in diet, e.g. from a carnivore to a vegetarian diet, or from the massive ingestion of alkalising gastric buffers.
Linearity: Studies in volunteers have demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics in the dose range of 10 to 40 mg.
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship: At a dose of memantine of 20 mg per day the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels match the ki-value (ki = inhibition constant) of memantine, which is 0.5 μmol in human frontal cortex.
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