Relvar Ellipta

Relvar Ellipta

Manufacturer:

GlaxoSmithKline

Distributor:

GlaxoSmithKline
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Fluticasone furoate, vilanterol trifenatate.
Description
Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) Dry Powder for Inhalation 100 mcg/25 mcg: Each pre-dispensed dose contains 100 micrograms of fluticasone furoate and 25 micrograms of vilanterol (as trifenatate). Each single inhalation provides a delivered dose of 92 micrograms fluticasone furoate and 22 micrograms of vilanterol.
Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) Dry Powder for Inhalation 200 mcg/25 mcg: Each pre-dispensed dose contains 200 micrograms of fluticasone furoate and 25 micrograms of vilanterol (as trifenatate). Each single inhalation provides a delivered dose of 184 micrograms fluticasone furoate and 22 micrograms of vilanterol.
The plastic device Ellipta inhaler consists of a light grey body, a pale blue mouthpiece cover and a dose counter, packed into a foil laminate tray containing a desiccant packet. The tray is sealed with a peelable foil lid.
The inhaler contains two strips of 30 regularly distributed blisters, each containing a white powder.
Action
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol represent two classes of medications (a synthetic corticosteroid and a selective, long-acting beta2-receptor agonist).
Pharmacodynamic effects: Fluticasone furoate: Fluticasone furoate is a synthetic trifluorinated corticosteroid with potent anti-inflammatory activity. The precise mechanism through which fluticasone furoate affects asthma and COPD symptoms is not known. Corticosteroids have been shown to have a wide range of actions on multiple cell types (e.g. eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g. cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation).
Vilanterol trifenatate: Vilanterol trifenatate is a selective long-acting, beta2-adrenergic agonist (LABA).
The pharmacologic effects of beta2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs, including vilanterol trifenatate, are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenylate cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells, especially from mast cells.
Molecular interactions occur between corticosteroids and LABAs, whereby steroids activate the beta2-receptor gene, increasing receptor number and sensitivity; and LABAs prime the glucocorticoid receptor for steroid-dependent activation and enhance cell nuclear translocation. These synergistic interactions are reflected in enhanced anti-inflammatory activity, which has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in a range of inflammatory cells relevant to the pathophysiology of both asthma and COPD. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with COPD, a larger anti-inflammatory effect was seen in the presence of the combination of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol compared with fluticasone furoate alone at concentrations achieved with clinical doses.
Clinical Studies: Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) clinical studies: Asthma: The safety and efficacy of fluticasone furoate (FF) and vilanterol (VI) in the treatment of asthma has been evaluated in 3 randomised, double-blind clinical trials of between 12 to 76 weeks in duration (HZA106827, HZA106829 and HZA106837) involving 3,210 patients 12 years of age and older with persistent asthma.
All subjects were using an ICS (Inhaled Corticosteroid) with or without LABA for at least 12 weeks prior to Visit 1. In HZA106837 all patients had at least one exacerbation that required treatment with oral corticosteroids in the year prior to Visit 1. Results for HZA106827 and HZA106829 are shown in the table as follows: See Table 1.

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

HZA106837 was of variable treatment duration (from a minimum of 24 weeks to a maximum of 76 weeks with the majority of patients treated for at least 52 weeks) and compared Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms [N=1009] and FF 100 micrograms [N=1010]. The primary endpoint was the time to first severe asthma exacerbation (a severe asthma exacerbation was defined as deterioration of asthma requiring the use of systemic corticosteroids or an inpatient hospitalization or emergency department visit.
The risk of experiencing a severe asthma exacerbation in patients receiving Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 was reduced by 20% compared with FF 100 alone (hazard ratio 0.795, p=0.036 95% CI (0.642, 0.985)). The rate of severe asthma exacerbations per patient per year was 0.19 in the FF 100 group and 0.14 in the Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 group. The ratio of the exacerbation rate for Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 versus FF 100 was 0.755 (95% CI 0.603, 0.945). This represents a 25% reduction in the rate of severe asthma exacerbations for subjects treated with Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 compared with FF 100 (p=0.014). The 24-hour bronchodilator effect of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) was maintained throughout a one-year treatment period with no evidence of loss in efficacy (no tachyphylaxis). Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms consistently demonstrated 83 mL to 95 mL improvements in trough FEV1 at Weeks 12, 36 and 52 and Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 group were well controlled (ACQ7 ≤0.75) at end of treatment compared to 36% of subjects in the FF 100 group (p<0.001 95% CI 1.23, 1.82).
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The efficacy of fluticasone furoate and vilanterol in the treatment of patients with COPD has been evaluated in two 6-month (HZC112206, HZC112207) and two one-year randomised controlled studies (HZC102970, HZC102871), and one long-term study (SUMMIT) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD.
Six month studies: HZC112206 and HZC112207 were 24 week randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group studies comparing the effect of the combination to vilanterol and FF alone and placebo. HZC112206 evaluated the efficacy of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 50/25 micrograms [n=206] and Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms [n=206] compared with FF (100 micrograms [n=206]) and vilanterol (25 micrograms [n=205]) and placebo (n=207), all administered once daily.
HZC112207 evaluated the efficacy of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms [n=204] and Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 200/25 [n=205] compared with FF (100 micrograms [n=204] and 200 micrograms [n=203]) and vilanterol (25 micrograms [n=203]) and placebo (n=205), all administered once daily.
The co-primary endpoints in both studies were the weighted mean FEV1 from zero to 4 hours post-dose and change from baseline in pre-dose trough FEV1 at the end of the study.
In an integrated analysis of both studies, Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms showed clinically meaningful improvements in lung function. At the 24-week time point Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms and vilanterol increased trough FEV1 by 129 mL (95% CI 91, 167 mL, p<0.001) and 83 mL (95% CI 46, 121 mL, p<0.001) respectively compared with placebo. Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms increased trough FEV1 by 46 mL compared with vilanterol (95% CI 8, 83 mL, p=0.017).
At the 24-week time point Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms and vilanterol had a higher weighted mean FEV1 over 0-4 hours of 193 mL (95% CI 156, 230 mL, p<0.001) and 145 mL (95% CI 108, 181 mL, p<0.001) respectively compared with placebo. The difference in weighted mean FEV1 over 0-4 hours between the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/25 and vilanterol groups was 48 mL (95% CI 12, 84 mL, p=0.009).
12 months studies: Studies HZC102970 and HZC102871 were 52 week randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, studies comparing the efficacy and safety of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 200/25 micrograms, Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms, fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 50/25 micrograms and vilanterol 25 micrograms, all administered once daily. The primary endpoint was the reduction in the annual rate of moderate and severe exacerbations in subjects with COPD.
The results of both studies showed that treatment with Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms once daily resulted in a 27% reduction in the annual rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations compared with vilanterol (95% CI:16, 37%, p≤0.001). Reductions in risk of time to first moderate or severe exacerbation and rate of exacerbations requiring corticosteroid use were also observed with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/25 micrograms once daily compared with vilanterol.
In a pooled analysis of HZC102970 and HZC102871, at Week 52, the Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 microgram group demonstrated greater improvement in trough FEV1 compared with the vilanterol 25 microgram group (a difference of 42 mL in adjusted mean change from baseline; 95% CI: 19, 64 mL, p<0.001).
Long-term study: SUMMIT was a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind study evaluating the effect on survival of Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms compared with placebo in 16,568 subjects. Subjects were treated for up to 4 years (mean 1.7 years) with either Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms, fluticasone furoate 100 micrograms, vilanterol 25 micrograms, or placebo. All subjects had COPD with moderate airflow limitation (≥50% and ≤70% predicted FEV1) and a history of, or an increased risk of, cardiovascular disease.
Survival with Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) was not significantly improved compared with placebo (HR 0.878; 95% CI: 0.739, 1.042; p=0.137), FF (HR 0.964; 95% CI: 0.808, 1.149; p=0.681) or VI (HR 0.912; 95% CI: 0.767, 1.085; p=0.299). All-cause mortality was: fluticasone furoate/vilanterol, 6.0%; placebo, 6.7%; fluticasone furoate, 6.1%; vilanterol, 6.4%).
Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) slowed the rate of decline in lung function as measured by FEV1, by 8 mL/year compared with placebo (95% CI: 1, 15; p=0.019). There was no impact (0 mL/year; 95% CI: -6, 7; p=0.913) on the rate of decline for Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) compared with fluticasone furoate; there was a difference of 10 mL/year for Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) compared with vilanterol (95% CI: 3, 16; p=0.004). The mean rate of decline in FEV1 was: Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta), 38 mL/year; placebo, 46 mL/year; fluticasone furoate, 38 mL/year; vilanterol, 47 mL/year.
The risk of a cardiovascular composite event (on-treatment cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina, or transient ischemic attack) with Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) was not significantly lower than placebo (HR 0.926; 95% CI: 0.750, 1.143; p=0.475), FF (HR 1.033; 95% CI: 0.834, 1.281; p=0.763) or VI (HR 0.938; 95% CI: 0.761, 1.155; p=0.545). The incidence of cardiovascular composite events was: Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta), 4.2%; placebo, 4.2%; fluticasone furoate, 3.9%; vilanterol 4.4%.
Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) demonstrated a larger mean change from baseline in post-bronchodilator FEV1 at Day 360 compared with placebo (89 mL; 95% CI: 76, 102; p<0.001), FF (40 mL; 95% CI: 27, 53; p<0.001), and VI (26 mL; 95% CI: 13, 39; p<0.001). The adjusted mean change from baseline was: Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) l 50 mL, placebo, -39 mL; fluticasone furoate, 9 mL; vilanterol, 24 mL. Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) reduced the annual rate of moderate or severe exacerbations by 29% (95% CI: 22, 35; p<0.001) compared with placebo, by 19% compared with FF (95% CI: 12, 26; p<0.001) and by 21% compared with VI (95% CI: 14, 28; p<0.001). The annual rate of moderate or severe exacerbations was 0.25 for Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta), 0.35 for placebo, 0.31 for fluticasone furoate, and 0.31 for vilanterol.
Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) reduced the annual rate of severe exacerbations (i.e. requiring hospitalisation) by 27% (95% CI: 13, 39; p<0.001) compared with placebo, by 11% compared with FF (95% CI: -6, 25; p=0.204) and by 9% compared with VI (95% CI: -8, 24; p=0.282). The annual rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalisation was 0.05 for Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta), 0.07 for placebo, 0.06 for fluticasone furoate, and 0.06 for vilanterol.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: The absolute bioavailability for fluticasone furoate and vilanterol when administered by inhalation as Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) was on average 15.2% and 27.3%, respectively. The oral bioavailability of both fluticasone furoate and vilanterol was low, on average 1.26% and <2%, respectively. Given this low oral bioavailability, systemic exposure for fluticasone furoate and vilanterol following inhaled administration is primarily due to absorption of the inhaled portion of the dose delivered to the lung.
Distribution: Following intravenous dosing, both fluticasone furoate and vilanterol are extensively distributed with average volumes of distribution at steady state of 661 L and 165 L, respectively.
Both fluticasone furoate and vilanterol have a low association with red blood cells. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma of fluticasone furoate and vilanterol was high, on average >99.6% and 93.9%, respectively. There was no decrease in the extent of in vitro plasma protein binding in subjects with renal or hepatic impairment.
Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol are substrates for P-gp, however, concomitant administration of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol with P-gp inhibitors is considered unlikely to alter fluticasone furoate or vilanterol systemic exposure since they are both well absorbed molecules.
Metabolism: Based on in vitro data, the major routes of metabolism of both fluticasone furoate and vilanterol in human are mediated primarily by CYP3A4.
Fluticasone furoate is primarily metabolised through hydrolysis of the S-fluoromethyl carbothioate group to metabolites with significantly reduced corticosteroid activity.
Vilanterol is primarily metabolised by O-dealkylation to a range of metabolites with significantly reduced β1- and β2-agonist activity.
A repeat dose CYP3A4 drug interaction study was performed in healthy subjects with the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination (200/25) and the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole (400 mg). Co-administration increased mean fluticasone furoate AUC(0-24) and Cmax by 36% and 33%, respectively. The increase in fluticasone furoate exposure was associated with a 27% reduction in 0-24 h weighted mean serum cortisol.
Co-administration increased mean vilanterol AUC(0-t) and Cmax 65% and 22%, respectively. The increase in vilanterol exposure was not associated with an increase in beta-agonist related systemic effects on heart rate, blood potassium or QTcF interval.
Elimination: Following oral administration, fluticasone furoate was eliminated in humans mainly by metabolism with metabolites being excreted almost exclusively in faeces, with <1% of the recovered radioactive dose eliminated in the urine. The apparent plasma elimination half-life of fluticasone furoate following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol was, on average, 24 hours.
Following oral administration, vilanterol was eliminated in humans mainly by metabolism followed by excretion of metabolites in urine and faeces approximately 70% and 30% of the radioactive dose respectively. The apparent plasma elimination half-life of vilanterol following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol was, on average, 2.5 hours.
Special Patient Populations: Population PK meta-analyses for fluticasone furoate and vilanterol were conducted in phase III studies in subjects with asthma or COPD. The impact of demographic covariates (age, gender, weight, BMI, racial group, ethnicity) on the pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate and vilanterol were evaluated as part of the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Race: In subjects with asthma or COPD estimates of fluticasone furoate AUC(0-24) for East Asian, Japanese and South East Asian subjects (12-14% subjects) were up to 53% higher on average compared with Caucasian subjects. However, there was no evidence for the higher systemic exposure in these populations to be associated with greater effect on 24 hour urinary cortisol excretion. There was no effect of race on pharmacokinetic parameter estimates of vilanterol in subjects with COPD.
On average, vilanterol Cmax is estimated to be 220 to 287% higher and AUC(0-24) comparable for those subjects from an Asian heritage compared with subjects from other racial groups. However, there was no evidence that this higher vilanterol Cmax resulted in clinically significant effects on heart rate.
Children: In adolescents (12 years or older), there are no recommended dose modifications.
The pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol in patients less than 12 years of age has not been studied. The safety and efficacy of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol in children under the age of 12 years has not yet been established.
Elderly: The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate and vilanterol were determined in phase III studies in COPD and asthma.
There was no evidence for age (12-84) to affect the PK of fluticasone furoate and vilanterol in subjects with asthma.
There was no evidence for age to affect the PK of fluticasone furoate in subjects with COPD while there was an increase (37%) in AUC(0-24) of vilanterol over the observed age range of 41 to 84 years. For an elderly subject (aged 84 years) with low bodyweight (35 kg) vilanterol AUC(0-24) is predicted to be 35% higher than the population estimate (subject with COPD aged 60 years and bodyweight of 70 kg), whilst Cmax was unchanged. These differences are unlikely to be of clinical relevance.
Renal impairment: A clinical pharmacology study of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol showed that severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) did not result in significantly greater exposure to fluticasone furoate or vilanterol or more marked corticosteroid or beta2-agonist systemic effects compared with healthy subjects. No dose adjustment is required for patients with renal impairment.
The effects of haemodialysis have not been studied.
Hepatic Impairment: Following repeat dosing of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol for 7 days, there was an increase in fluticasone furoate systemic exposure (up to three-fold as measured by AUC(0-24)) in subjects with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A, B or C) compared with healthy subjects. The increase in fluticasone furoate systemic exposure (fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 200/25 micrograms) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) was associated with an average 34% reduction in serum cortisol compared with healthy subjects. In subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh C) that received a lower dose of 100/12.5 micrograms there was no reduction in serum cortisol. For patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment the maximum dose is 100/25 micrograms (see Dosage & Administration).
Following repeat dosing of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol for 7 days, there was no significant increase in systemic exposure to vilanterol (Cmax and AUC) in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A, B or C).
There were no clinically relevant effects of the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination on beta-adrenergic systemic effects (heart rate or serum potassium) in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (vilanterol, 25 micrograms) or with severe hepatic impairment (vilanterol, 12.5 micrograms) compared with healthy subjects.
Gender, Weight and BMI: There was no evidence for gender, weight or BMI to influence the pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis of phase III data in 1213 subjects with asthma (712 females) and 1225 subjects with COPD (392 females).
There was no evidence for gender, weight or BMI to influence the pharmacokinetics of vilanterol based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis in 856 subjects with asthma (500 females) and 1091 subjects with COPD (340 females).
No dosage adjustment is necessary based on gender, weight or body mass index (BMI).
Toxicology: Pre-clinical Safety Data: Pharmacological and toxicological effects seen with fluticasone furoate or vilanterol in nonclinical studies were those typically associated with either glucocorticoids or beta2-agonists. Administration of fluticasone furoate combined with vilanterol did not result in any significant new toxicity.
Carcinogenesis/mutagenesis: Fluticasone furoate was not genotoxic in a standard battery of studies and was not carcinogenic in lifetime inhalation studies in rats or mice at exposures similar to those at the maximum recommended human dose, based on AUC.
Genetic toxicity studies indicate vilanterol does not represent a genotoxic hazard to humans. Consistent with findings for other beta2-agonists, in lifetime inhalation studies vilanterol caused proliferative effects in the female rat and mouse reproductive tract and rat pituitary gland. There was no increase in tumour incidence in rats or mice at exposures 2- or 30-fold, respectively, those at the maximum recommended human dose, based on AUC.
Reproductive Toxicology: Effects seen following inhalation administration of fluticasone furoate in combination with vilanterol in rats were similar to those seen with fluticasone furoate alone.
Fluticasone furoate was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits, but delayed development in rats and caused abortion in rabbits at maternally toxic doses. There were no effects on development in rats at exposures approximately 3-times greater than those at the maximum recommended human dose, based on AUC.
Vilanterol was not teratogenic in rats. In inhalation studies in rabbits, vilanterol caused effects similar to those seen with other beta2-agonists (cleft palate, open eyelids, sternebral fusion and limb flexure/malrotation). When given subcutaneously there were no effects at exposures 84-times greater than those at the maximum recommended human dose, based on AUC.
Neither fluticasone furoate nor vilanterol had any adverse effects on fertility or pre- and post-natal development in rats.
Indications/Uses
Asthma: Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) is indicated for the regular treatment of asthma in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older where use of a combination medicinal product (long-acting beta2-agonist and inhaled corticosteroid) is appropriate: patients not adequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and 'as needed' inhaled short acting beta2-agonists.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease): Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of adults with COPD with a FEV1<70% predicted normal (post-bronchodilator) with an exacerbation history despite regular bronchodilator therapy.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Asthma: Adults and adolescents aged 12 years and over: One inhalation of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100 mcg/25 mcg once daily.
Patients usually experience an improvement in lung function within 15 minutes of inhaling Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta).
However, the patient should be informed that regular daily usage is necessary to maintain control of asthma symptoms and that use should be continued even when asymptomatic.
If symptoms arise in the period between doses, an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist should be taken for immediate relief.
A starting dose of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms should be considered for adults and adolescents 12 years and over who require a low to mid dose of inhaled corticosteroid in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist. If patients are inadequately controlled on Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms, the dose can be increased to 200/25 micrograms, which may provide additional improvement in asthma control.
Patients should be regularly reassessed by a healthcare professional so that the strength of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol they are receiving remains optimal and is only changed on medical advice. The dose should be titrated to the lowest dose at which effective control of symptoms is maintained.
Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 200/25 micrograms should be considered for adults and adolescents 12 years and over who require a higher dose of inhaled corticosteroid in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist.
Patients with asthma should be given the strength of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) containing the appropriate fluticasone furoate (FF) dosage for the severity of their disease. Prescribers should be aware that in patients with asthma, fluticasone furoate (FF) 100 micrograms once daily is approximately equivalent to fluticasone furoate (FP) 250 micrograms twice daily, while FF 200 micrograms once daily is approximately equivalent to FP 500 micrograms twice daily.
Children aged under 12 years: The safety and efficacy of Relvar Ellipta in children under 12 years of age has not yet been established in the indication for asthma.
No data are available.
COPD: Adults aged 18 years and over: One inhalation of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 100/25 micrograms once daily.
Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 200/25 micrograms is not indicated for patients with COPD. There is no additional benefit of the 200/25 micrograms dose compared to the 100/25 micrograms dose and there is a potential increased risk of pneumonia and systemic corticosteroid-related adverse reactions (see Precautions and Adverse Reactions).
Patients usually experience an improvement in lung function within 16-17 minutes of inhaling Relvar Ellipta.
Paediatric population: There is no relevant use of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) in the paediatric population in the indication for COPD.
Special populations: Elderly patients (>65 years): No dose adjustment is required in this population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Renal impairment: No dose adjustment is required in this population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Hepatic impairment: Studies in subjects with mild, moderate and severe hepatic impairment showed an increase in systemic exposure to fluticasone furoate (both Cmax and AUC) (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Caution should be exercised when dosing patients with hepatic impairment who may be more at risk of systemic adverse reactions associated with corticosteroids.
For patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment the maximum dose is 100/25 micrograms (see Precautions).
Overdosage
Symptoms and signs: There are no data available from clinical trials on overdose with Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta).
An overdose of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) may produce signs and symptoms due to the individual components' actions, including those seen with overdose of other beta2-agonists and consistent with the known inhaled corticosteroid class effects (see Precautions).
Treatment: There is no specific treatment for an overdose with Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta). If overdose occurs, the patient should be treated supportively with appropriate monitoring as necessary.
Cardioselective beta-blockade should only be considered for profound vilanterol overdose effects that are clinically concerning and unresponsive to supportive measures. Cardioselective beta-blocking drugs should be used with caution in patients with a history of bronchospasm.
Further management should be as clinically indicated or as recommended by the national poisons centre, where available.
Contraindications
Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) is contraindicated in patients with severe milk-protein allergy or who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to either fluticasone furoate, vilanterol or any of the excipients.
Special Precautions
Deterioration of disease: Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol should not be used to treat acute asthma symptoms, for which a short-acting bronchodilator is required. Increasing use of short-acting bronchodilators to relieve symptoms indicates deterioration of control and patients should be reviewed by a physician.
Patients should not stop therapy with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol in asthma, without physician supervision since symptoms may recur after discontinuation.
Asthma-related adverse events and exacerbations may occur during treatment with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol. Patients should be asked to continue treatment but to seek medical advice if asthma symptoms remain uncontrolled or worsen after initiation of treatment with Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta).
Paradoxical bronchospasm: Paradoxical bronchospasm may occur with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing. This should be treated immediately with a short-acting inhaled bronchodilator. Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) should be discontinued immediately, the patient assessed and alternative therapy instituted if necessary.
Cardiovascular effects: Cardiovascular effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias e.g. supraventricular tachycardia and extrasystoles may be seen with sympathomimetic medicinal products including Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta). In a placebo-controlled study in subjects with a history of, or an increased risk of, cardiovascular disease, there was no increase in the risk of, cardiovascular events, serious cardiovascular events, or adjudicated cardiovascular deaths in patients receiving fluticasone furoate/vilanterol compared with placebo (see Adverse Reactions). However, fluticasone furoate/vilanterol should be used with caution in patients with severe cardiovascular disease.
Patients with hepatic impairment: For patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment, the 100/25 micrograms dose should be used and patients should be monitored for systemic corticosteroid-related adverse reactions (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Systemic corticosteroid effects: Systemic effects may occur with any inhaled corticosteroid, particularly at high doses prescribed for long periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids. Possible systemic effects include Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, decrease in bone mineral density, growth retardation in children and adolescents, cataract and glaucoma and more rarely, a range of psychological or behavioural effects including psychomotor hyperactivity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression or aggression (particularly in children).
Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol should be administered with caution in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis or in patients with chronic or untreated infections.
Hyperglycaemia: There have been reports of increases in blood glucose levels in diabetic patients and this should be considered when prescribing to patients with a history of diabetes mellitus.
Pneumonia in patients with COPD: An increase in pneumonia has been observed in patients with COPD receiving fluticasone furoate/vilanterol. There was also an increased incidence of pneumonias resulting in hospitalisation. In some incidences these pneumonia events were fatal (see Adverse Reactions). Physicians should remain vigilant for the possible development of pneumonia in patients with COPD as the clinical features of such infections overlap with the symptoms of COPD exacerbations. Risk factors for pneumonia in patients with COPD receiving fluticasone furoate/vilanterol include current smokers, patients with a history of prior pneumonia, patients with a body mass index <25 kg/m2 and patients with a (forced expiratory volume) FEV1<50% predicted. These factors should be considered when fluticasone furoate/vilanterol is prescribed and treatment should be re-evaluated if pneumonia occurs.
Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) 200/25 micrograms is not indicated for patients with COPD. There is no additional benefit of the 200/25 micrograms dose compared to the 100/25 micrograms dose and there is a potential increased risk of systemic corticosteroid-related adverse reactions (see Adverse Reactions).
The incidence of pneumonia in patients with asthma was common at the higher dose. The incidence of pneumonia in patients with asthma taking fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 200/25 micrograms was numerically higher compared with those receiving fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/25 micrograms or placebo (see Adverse Reactions). No risk factors were identified.
Excipients: Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: There have been no studies to investigate the effect of Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) on driving performance or the ability to operate machinery. A detrimental effect on such activities would not be anticipated from the pharmacology of fluticasone furoate or vilanterol.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Fertility: There are no fertility data in humans. Animal studies showed no effect of vilanterol or fluticasone furoate on fertility (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Pre-clinical Safety Data under Actions).
Use in Pregnancy: There has been limited pregnancy exposure in humans.
Animal studies have shown reproductive toxicity after administration of beta2-agonists and corticosteroids (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Pre-clinical Safety Data under Actions).
Administration of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol to pregnant women should only be considered if the expected benefit to the mother is greater than any possible risk to the foetus.
Use in Lactation: There is limited information on the excretion of fluticasone furoate or vilanterol or their metabolites in human milk.
However, other corticosteroids and beta2-agonists are detected in human milk (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Pre-clinical Safety Data under Actions). A risk to breastfed newborns/infants cannot be excluded.
A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.
Adverse Reactions
Clinical trial data: Data from large asthma and COPD clinical trials were used to determine the frequency of adverse reactions associated with Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta). In the asthma clinical development program a total of 7,034 patients were included in an integrated assessment of adverse reactions. In the COPD clinical development program a total of 6,237 subjects were included in an integrated assessment of adverse reactions.
With the exception of pneumonia and fractures, the safety profile was similar in patients with asthma and COPD. During clinical studies, pneumonia and fractures were more frequently observed in patients with COPD.
These adverse reactions are listed by system organ class and frequency. The following convention has been used for the classification of adverse reactions: Very common: ≥1/10, Common: ≥1/100 to <1/10, Uncommon: ≥1/1000 to <1/100, Rare ≥1/10000 to <1/1000, Very rare <1/10000. (See Table 2.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Description of selected adverse reactions: *Pneumonia (see Precautions): In two replicate 12 month studies in a total of 3,255 patients with COPD (mean post-bronchodilator screening FEV1 45% of predicted, standard deviation (SD) 13%) who had experienced a COPD exacerbation in the previous year, there was a higher incidence of pneumonia (6%-7%) reported in patients receiving the fluticasone furoate (at strengths of 50, 100, and 200 micrograms)/vilanterol 25 micrograms combination than in those receiving vilanterol 25 micrograms alone (3%).
Pneumonia which required hospitalisation occurred in 3% of patients receiving Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) (all strengths) and in <1% of patients receiving vilanterol. In these studies, nine fatal cases of pneumonia were reported. Of these, seven were reported during treatment with Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta)200/25 micrograms, one during treatment with Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta)100/25 micrograms and one post-treatment with vilanterol monotherapy.
In SUMMIT, a multi-centre, randomised study (HZC113782), 16,568 subjects received fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/25 micrograms, fluticasone furoate 100 micrograms, vilanterol 25 micrograms, or placebo for a mean of 1.7 years. Subjects had moderate COPD (mean post-bronchodilator screening FEV1 60% of predicted, SD 6%) and a history of, or an increased risk of, cardiovascular disease. The adverse events of pneumonia are noted in the table as follows. (See Table 3.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

In an integrated analysis of 11 studies in asthma (7,034 patients), the incidence of pneumonia (adjusted for exposure, due to low numbers and limited number of patients on placebo) seen with Fluticasone fuorate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta)100/25 microgram strength (9.6/1000 patient years) was similar to placebo (8.0/1000 patient years).
There was a higher incidence of pneumonia in the 200/25 microgram strength (18.4/1000 patient years) compared to the 100/25 microgram strength. Few of the pneumonia events led to hospitalisation with either strength, and there were no observed differences in the incidence of serious events between the two treatment strengths.
**Cardiovascular events (see Precautions): For the SUMMIT study (see description previously), cardiovascular adverse events are noted in the table as follows. (See Table 4.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

**Fractures: In two replicates 12 month studies in a total of 3,255 patients with COPD the incidence of bone fractures overall was low in all treatment groups, with a higher incidence in all Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) groups (2%) compared with the vilanterol 25 micrograms group (<1%). Although there were more fractures in the Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) groups compared with the vilanterol 25 micrograms group, fractures typically associated with corticosteroid use (e.g., spinal compression/thoracolumbar vertebral fractures, hip and acetabular fractures) occurred in <1% of the Fluticasone furoate + Vilanterol (as trifenatate) (Relvar Ellipta) and vilanterol treatment arms.
For the SUMMIT study (see description previously), fractures are noted in the table as follows. (See Table 5.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

In an integrated analysis of 11 studies in asthma (7,034 patients), the incidence of fractures was <1%, and usually associated with trauma.
Post-marketing data: See Table 6.

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
Drug Interactions
Clinically significant drug interactions mediated by fluticasone furoate or vilanterol at clinical doses are considered unlikely due to the low plasma concentrations achieved after inhaled dosing.
Interaction with beta-blockers: Beta-adrenergic blockers may weaken or antagonise the effect of beta2-adrenergic agonists. Concurrent use of both non-selective and selective beta-blockers should be avoided unless there are compelling reasons for their use.
Interaction with CYP3A4 inhibitors: Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol are both rapidly cleared by extensive first-pass metabolism mediated by the liver enzyme CYP3A4.
Care is advised when co-administering with strong CYP 3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, ritonavir) as there is potential for an increased systemic exposure to both fluticasone furoate and vilanterol, which could lead to an increase in the potential for adverse reactions (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Interaction with P-glycoprotein inhibitors: Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol are both substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). A clinical pharmacology study in healthy subjects with co-administered vilanterol and the potent P-gp and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor verapamil did not show any significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of vilanterol. Clinical pharmacology studies with a specific P-gp inhibitor and fluticasone furoate have not been conducted.
Caution For Usage
Instructions for Use/Handling: When first using the Ellipta inhaler, no need to check if it is working properly, it is ready for use straightaway and no need to prepare it for use in any special way. Just follow the step-by-step instructions.
The inhaler is packaged in a tray. Do not open the tray until the patient is ready to inhale a dose of medicine. When the patient is ready to use the inhaler, peel back the lid to open the tray. The tray contains a desiccant sachet, to reduce moisture. Throw the dessicant sachet away - don't open, eat or inhale it.
When taking the inhaler out of its box, it will be in the 'closed' position. Don't open it until the patient is ready to inhale a dose of medicine. Write the "Discard by" date on the inhaler label in the space provided.
For market with registered storage condition of 30°C: The "Discard by" date is 1 month from the date the tray is first opened. After this date, the inhaler should no longer be used.
The step-by-step instructions stated as follows for the Ellipta inhaler.
a. Read before starting: If the patient opens and closes the cover without inhaling the medicine, the patient will lose the dose.
The lost dose will be securely held inside the inhaler, but it will no longer be available.
It is not possible to accidentally take extra medicine or a double dose in one inhalation.
Cover: Each time opening this, one dose of medicine is being prepared.
Dose counter: This shows how many doses of medicine are left in the inhaler.
Before the inhaler has been used, it shows exactly 30 doses.
It counts down by 1 each time opening the cover.
When fewer than 10 doses are left, half of the dose counter shows red.
After using the last dose, half of the dose counter shows red and the number 0 is displayed. The inhaler is now empty.
If opening the cover after this, the dose counter will change from half red to completely red.
b. Preparing a dose: Wait to open the cover until ready to take the dose.
Do not shake the inhaler.
Slide the cover down until hearing a "click".
The medicine is now ready to be inhaled.
The dose counter counts down by 1 to confirm.
If the dose counter does not count down as hearing the "click", the inhaler will not deliver medicine. Take it back to the pharmacist for advice.
Do not shake the inhaler at any time.
c. Inhaling the medication: While holding the inhaler away from the mouth, breathe out as far as is comfortable.
Don't breathe out into the inhaler.
Put the mouthpiece between the lips, and close the lips firmly around it.
Don't block the air vent with fingers.
The lips fit over the contoured shape of the mouthpiece for inhaling.
Take one long, steady, deep breath in. Hold this breath for as long as possible (at least 3-4 seconds).
Remove the inhaler from the mouth.
Breathe out slowly and gently.
The patient may not be able to taste or feel the medicine, even when the patient is using the inhaler correctly.
In cleaning the mouthpiece, use a dry tissue before closing the cover.
d. Close the inhaler and rinse mouth: Slide the cover upwards as far as it will go, to cover the mouthpiece.
Rinse mouth with water after using the inhaler.
This will make it less likely that the patient will develop a sore mouth or throat as side effects.
Important: The dose-counter indicates the number of doses left. The patient should consider getting a replacement when the counter shows the number 05. When the counter shows a full solid red background, the patient must replace it.
Never try to alter the numbers on the counter or detach the counter on the front of the Ellipta inhaler. The counter cannot be reset and is permanently attached to the Ellipta inhaler.
Storage
Store at temperatures not exceeding 30°C.
If stored in the refrigerator, allow the inhaler to return to room temperature for at least an hour before use.
Following removal from the tray, the product may be stored for a maximum period of 6 weeks: below 25°C or 1 month: below 30°C.
Write the date the inhaler should be discarded on the label in the space provided. The date should be added as soon as the inhaler has been removed from the tray.
ATC Classification
R03AK10 - vilanterol and fluticasone furoate ; Belongs to the class of adrenergics in combination with corticosteroids or other drugs, excluding anticholinergics. Used in the treatment of obstructive airway diseases.
Presentation/Packing
100 mcg/25 mcg DPI 30 doses x 1's. 200 mcg/25 mcg DPI 30 doses x 1's.
Register or sign in to continue
Asia's one-stop resource for medical news, clinical reference and education
Sign up for free
Already a member? Sign in