Antiepileptic agent to control tonic-clonic (grand mal) and partial (focal) seizures.
As prescribed by the physician.
Symptoms: The toxic effects of overdosage include prolonged coma, respiratory depression and cardiovascular depression with hypotension and shock leading to renal failure. Hypothermia is common, with associated pyrexia during recovery.
Treatment: Following the recent ingestion of an overdose of a barbiturate, the stomach may be emptied by gastric lavage and aspiration. The prime objectives of management are then intensive symptomatic and supportive therapy with particular attention being paid to the maintenance of the electrolyte balance.
Several methods aimed at the active removal of a barbiturate with a long elimination half-life, eg phenobarbital have been employed and include forced diuresis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and charcoal hemoperfusion, but with the possible exception of charcoal hemoperfusion the hazards of such procedures are generally considered to outweigh any purported benefits.
Phenobarbital and other barbiturates should be used with care in children and elderly patients and in patients with impaired hepatic, renal or respiratory function and are contraindicated when the impairment is severe.
Effects on the Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery: Phenobarbital and other barbiturates cause drowsiness and patients receiving them, if affected, should not take charge of vehicles or machinery where loss of attention could cause accidents.
Include respiratory depression, sedation and occasional allergic reactions, particularly affecting the skin. Nystagmus and ataxia may occur with excessive doses, and irritability and hyperexcitability may occur particularly in children or the elderly. Folate deficiency has developed during chronic administration of phenobarbital and hypoprothrombinemia has occurred in infants of mothers who have received phenobarbital during pregnancy.
Phenobarbital and other barbiturates may reduce the activity of many drugs by increasing the rate of metabolism through induction of drug-metabolising enzymes in liver microsomes. Drugs which may be affected include carbamazepine, coumarin anticoagulants, cyclosporin, doxycycline, phenylbutazone, metronidazole, phenytoin, quinidine, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants and corticosteroids and other steroid hormones including oral contraceptives. Phenobarbital may also reduce the activity of griseofulvin although the mechanism is not entirely clear.
Store at room temperature not exceeding 30°C.
N03AA02 - phenobarbital ; Belongs to the class of barbiturates and derivatives antiepileptics.
15 mg tab:Rx;30, 60 & 90 mg tab:EDD, Rx
Tab 15 mg x 100's. 30 mg x 100's. 60 mg x 100's. 90 mg x 100's.