Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics: Cefuroxime axetil is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is rapidly hydrolyzed in the intestinal mucosa and blood to cefuroxime. Absorption is enhanced in the presence of food. Peak plasma concentrations are reported about 2 to 3 hours after an oral dose. The sodium salt is given by intramuscular or intravenous injection. Peak plasma concentrations of about 27 mcg per mL have been achieved 45 minutes alter an intramuscular dose of 750 mg with measurable amounts present 8 hours after a dose. Up to 50% of cefuroxime in the circulation is bound to plasma proteins. The plasma half-life is about 70 minutes and is prolonged in patients with renal impairment and neonates.
Microbiology: Antimicrobial Action: Cefuroxime is bactericidal and has a similar spectrum of antimicrobial action and pattern of resistance to those of cefamandole. It is more resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases than cefamandole, and therefore may be more active against beta-lactamase producing strains, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhea. However, treatment failures have occurred in patients with H. influenzae meningitis given with cefuroxime and might be associated with a relatively high minimum bactericidal concentration when compared with the minimum inhibitory concentrations or with a significant inoculum effect. Reduced affinity of penicillin-binding proteins for cefuroxime has also been reported to be responsible for resistance in a beta-lactamase negative strain of H. influenzae.