Patients w/ degree II or III AV block; severe hepatic disease, severely impaired renal function or reduced general condition. Closely observe & consider ECG monitoring in patients treated w/ class III anti-arrhythmics (eg, amiodarone) since cardiac effects can be additive. Acute central nervous & CV toxic effects. Ventricular arrhythmia/fibrillation, sudden CV collapse & death in association w/ high systemic conc of bupivacaine. Extensive or total spinal blockade resulting to CV & resp depression. Intrathecal anaesth may lead to hypotension & bradycardia. Neurological damage resulting to paraesthesia, anaesth, motor weakness & paralysis. Pregnancy & lactation. Elderly.