Temotero

Temotero

temozolomide

Manufacturer:

Hetero Labs

Distributor:

Camber
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Temozolomide.
Description
Each Capsule contains Temozolomide 20 mg.
Each Capsule contains Temozolomide 100 mg.
Temozolomide (Temotero) contains temozolomide, an imidazotetrazine derivative. The chemical name of temozolomide is 3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]-as-tetrazine-8-carboxamide.
The material is a white to light tan/light pink powder with a molecular formula of C6H6N6O2 and a molecular weight of 194.15. The molecule is stable at acidic pH (< 5) and labile at pH > 7; hence TEMTERO can be administered orally and intravenously. The prodrug, temozolomide, is rapidly hydrolyzed to the active 5-(3-methyltriazen-1-yl) imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC) at neutral and alkaline pH values, with hydrolysis taking place even faster at alkaline pH.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antineoplastic agents - Other alkylating agents.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: Temozolomide is a triazene, which undergoes rapid chemical conversion at physiologic pH to the active monomethyl triazenoimidazole carboxamide (MTIC). The cytotoxicity of MTIC is thought to be due primarily to alkylation at the O6 position of guanine with additional alkylation also occurring at the N7 position. Cytotoxic lesions that develop subsequently are thought to involve aberrant repair of the methyl adduct.
Clinical efficacy and safety: Newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: A total of 573 patients were randomised to receive either TMZ + RT (n=287) or RT alone (n=286). Patients in the TMZ + RT arm received concomitant TMZ (75 mg/m2) once daily, starting the first day of RT until the last day of RT, for 42 days (with a maximum of 49 days). This was followed by monotherapy TMZ (150 - 200 mg/m2) on Days 1 - 5 of every 28-day cycle for up to 6 cycles, starting 4 weeks after the end of RT. Patients in the control arm received RT only. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis was required during RT and combined TMZ therapy.
TMZ was administered as salvage therapy in the follow-up phase in 161 patients of the 282 (57 %) in the RT alone arm, and 62 patients of the 277 (22 %) in the TMZ + RT arm.
The hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival was 1.59 (95 % CI for HR=1.33-1.91) with a log-rank p < 0.0001 in favour of the TMZ arm. The estimated probability of surviving 2 years or more (26 % vs 10 %) is higher for the RT + TMZ arm. The addition of concomitant TMZ to RT, followed by TMZ monotherapy in the treatment of patients with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival (OS) compared with RT alone (figure).

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The results from the trial were not consistent in the subgroup of patients with a poor performance status (WHO PS=2, n=70), where overall survival and time to progression were similar in both arms. However, no unacceptable risks appear to be present in this patient group.
Recurrent or progressive malignant glioma: Data on clinical efficacy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (Karnofsky performance status [KPS] ≥ 70), progressive or recurrent after surgery and RT, were based on two clinical trials with oral TMZ. One was a non-comparative trial in 138 patients (29 % received prior chemotherapy), and the other was a randomised active-controlled trial of TMZ vs procarbazine in a total of 225 patients (67 % received prior treatment with nitrosourea based chemotherapy). In both trials, the primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) defined by MRI scans or neurological worsening. In the non-comparative trial, the PFS at 6 months was 19 %, the median progression-free survival was 2.1 months, and the median overall survival 5.4 months. The objective response rate (ORR) based on MRI scans was 8 %.
In the randomised active-controlled trial, the PFS at 6 months was significantly greater for TMZ than for procarbazine (21 % vs 8 %, respectively - chi-square p = 0.008) with median PFS of 2.89 and 1.88 months respectively (log rank p = 0.0063). The median survival was 7.34 and 5.66 months for TMZ and procarbazine, respectively (log rank p = 0.33). At 6 months, the fraction of surviving patients was significantly higher in the TMZ arm (60 %) compared with the procarbazine arm (44 %) (chi-square p = 0.019). In patients with prior chemotherapy a benefit was indicated in those with a KPS ≥ 80.
Data on time to worsening of neurological status favoured TMZ over procarbazine as did data on time to worsening of performance status (decrease to a KPS of < 70 or a decrease by at least 30 points). The median times to progression in these endpoints ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 months longer for TMZ than for procarbazine (log rank p = < 0.01 to 0.03).
Recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma: In a multicentre, prospective phase II trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of oral TMZ in the treatment of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma at first relapse, the 6 month PFS was 46 %. The median PFS was 5.4 months. Median overall survival was 14.6 months. Response rate, based on the central reviewer assessment, was 35 % (13 CR and 43 PR) for the intent-to-treat population (ITT) n=162. In 43 patients stable disease was reported. The 6-month event-free survival for the ITT population was 44 % with a median event-free survival of 4.6 months, which was similar to the results for the progression-free survival. For the eligible histology population, the efficacy results were similar. Achieving a radiological objective response or maintaining progression-free status was strongly associated with maintained or improved quality of life.
Paediatric population: Oral TMZ has been studied in paediatric patients (age 3-18 years) with recurrent brainstem glioma or recurrent high grade astrocytoma, in a regimen administered daily for 5 days every 28 days. Tolerance to TMZ is similar to adults.
Pharmacokinetics: TMZ is spontaneously hydrolyzed at physiologic pH primarily to the active species, 3-methyl-(triazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC). MTIC is spontaneously hydrolyzed to 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AIC), a known intermediate in purine and nucleic acid biosynthesis, and to methylhydrazine, which is believed to be the active alkylating species. The cytotoxicity of MTIC is thought to be primarily due to alkylation of DNA mainly at the O6 and N7 positions of guanine. Relative to the AUC of TMZ, the exposure to MTIC and AIC is ~ 2.4 % and 23 %, respectively. In vivo, the t1/2 of MTIC was similar to that of TMZ, 1.8 hr.
Absorption: After oral administration to adult patients, TMZ is absorbed rapidly, with peak concentrations reached as early as 20 minutes post-administration (mean time between 0.5 and 1.5 hours). After oral administration of 14C-labelled TMZ, mean faecal excretion of 14C over 7 days post-dose was 0.8 % indicating complete absorption.
Distribution: TMZ demonstrates low protein binding (10 % to 20 %), and thus it is not expected to interact with highly protein-bound substances.
PET studies in humans and preclinical data suggest that TMZ crosses the blood-brain barrier rapidly and is present in the CSF. CSF penetration was confirmed in one patient; CSF exposure based on AUC of TMZ was approximately 30 % of that in plasma, which is consistent with animal data.
Elimination: The half-life (t1/2) in plasma is approximately 1.8 hours. The major route of 14C elimination is renal. Following oral administration, approximately 5 % to 10 % of the dose is recovered unchanged in the urine over 24 hours, and the remainder excreted as temozolomide acid, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AIC) or unidentified polar metabolites.
Plasma concentrations increase in a dose-related manner. Plasma clearance, volume of distribution and half-life are independent of dose.
Special populations: Analysis of population-based pharmacokinetics of TMZ revealed that plasma TMZ clearance was independent of age, renal function or tobacco use. In a separate pharmacokinetic study, plasma pharmacokinetic profiles in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment were similar to those observed in patients with normal hepatic function.
Paediatric patients had a higher AUC than adult patients; however, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was 1,000 mg/m2 per cycle both in children and in adults.
Indications/Uses
Temozolomide (Temotero) is indicated for the treatment of: adult patients with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme concomitantly with radiotherapy (RT) and subsequently as monotherapy treatment; and children from the age of three years, adolescents and adult patients with malignant glioma, such as glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma, showing recurrence or progression after standard therapy.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Temozolomide (Temotero) should only be prescribed by physicians experienced in the oncological treatment of brain tumours.
Anti-emetic therapy may be administered.
Posology: Adult patients with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Temozolomide (Temotero) is administered in combination with focal radiotherapy (concomitant phase) followed by up to 6 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) monotherapy (monotherapy phase).
Concomitant phase: TMZ is administered orally at a dose of 75 mg/m2 daily for 42 days concomitant with focal radiotherapy (60 Gy administered in 30 fractions). No dose reductions are recommended, but delay or discontinuation of TMZ administration should be decided weekly according to haematological and non-haematological toxicity criteria. TMZ administration can be continued throughout the 42 day concomitant period (up to 49 days) if all of the following conditions are met: absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1.5 x 109/L; thrombocyte count ≥100 x 109/L; common toxicity criteria (CTC) non-haematological toxicity ≤ Grade 1 (except for alopecia, nausea and vomiting).
During treatment a complete blood count should be obtained weekly. TMZ administration should be temporarily interrupted or permanently discontinued during the concomitant phase according to the haematological and non-haematological toxicity criteria as noted in Table 1. (See Table 1.)

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Monotherapy phase: Four weeks after completing the TMZ + RT concomitant phase, TMZ is administered for up to 6 cycles of monotherapy treatment. Dose in Cycle 1 (monotherapy) is 150 mg/m2 once daily for 5 days followed by 23 days without treatment. At the start of Cycle 2, the dose is escalated to 200 mg/m2 if the CTC non-haematological toxicity for Cycle 1 is Grade ≤ 2 (except for alopecia, nausea and vomiting), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is ≥ 1.5 x 109/L, and the thrombocyte count is ≥ 100 x 109/L. If the dose was not escalated at Cycle 2, escalation should not be done in subsequent cycles. Once escalated, the dose remains at 200 mg/m2 per day for the first 5 days of each subsequent cycle except if toxicity occurs. Dose reductions and discontinuations during the monotherapy phase should be applied according to Tables 2 and 3. (See Table 2 and 3.)
During treatment a complete blood count should be obtained on Day 22 (21 days after the first dose of TMZ). The dose should be reduced or administration discontinued according to Table 3.

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Adult and paediatric patients 3 years of age or older with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma: A treatment cycle comprises 28 days. In patients previously untreated with chemotherapy, TMZ is administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/m2 once daily for the first 5 days followed by a 23 day treatment interruption (total of 28 days). In patients previously treated with chemotherapy, the initial dose is 150 mg/m2 once daily, to be increased in the second cycle to 200 mg/m2 once daily, for 5 days if there is no hematological toxicity.
Special populations: Paediatric population: In patients 3 years of age or older, TMZ is only to be used in recurrent or progressive malignant glioma. Experience in these children is very limited. The safety and efficacy of TMZ in children under the age of 3 years have not been established. No data are available.
Patients with hepatic or renal impairment: The pharmacokinetics of TMZ were comparable in patients with normal hepatic function and in those with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. No data are available on the administration of TMZ in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child's Class C) or with renal impairment. Based on the pharmacokinetic properties of TMZ, it is unlikely that dose reductions are required in patients with severe hepatic impairment or any degree of renal impairment. However, caution should be exercised when TMZ is administered in these patients.
Elderly patients: Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis in patients 19-78 years of age, clearance of TMZ is not affected by age. However, elderly patients (> 70 years of age) appear to be at increased risk of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.
Method of administration: Temozolomide (Temotero) hard capsules should be administered in the fasting state. The capsules must be swallowed whole with a glass of water and must not be opened or chewed. If vomiting occurs after the dose is administered, a second dose should not be administered that day.
Overdosage
Doses of 500, 750, 1,000, and 1,250 mg/m2 (total dose per cycle over 5 days) have been evaluated clinically in patients. Dose-limiting toxicity was haematological and was reported with any dose but is expected to be more severe at higher doses. An overdose of 10,000 mg (total dose in a single cycle, over 5 days) was taken by one patient and the adverse reactions reported were pancytopenia, pyrexia, multi-organ failure and death. There are reports of patients who have taken the recommended dose for more than 5 days of treatment (up to 64 days) with adverse events reported including bone marrow suppression, with or without infection, in some cases severe and prolonged and resulting in death. In the event of an overdose, haematological evaluation is needed. Supportive measures should be provided as necessary.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.
Hypersensitivity to dacarbazine (DTIC).
Severe myelosuppression.
Special Precautions
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: Patients who received concomitant TMZ and RT in a pilot trial for the prolonged 42-day schedule were shown to be at particular risk for developing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Thus, prophylaxis against PCP is required for all patients receiving concomitant TMZ and RT for the 42-day regimen (with a maximum of 49 days) regardless of lymphocyte count. If lymphopenia occurs, they are to continue the prophylaxis until recovery of lymphopenia to grade ≤ 1.
There may be a higher occurrence of PCP when TMZ is administered during a longer dosing regimen. However, all patients receiving TMZ, particularly patients receiving steroids, should be observed closely for the development of PCP, regardless of the regimen.
Malignancies: Cases of myelodysplastic syndrome and secondary malignancies, including myeloid leukaemia, have also been reported very rarely.
Anti-emetic therapy: Nausea and vomiting are very commonly associated with TMZ.
Anti-emetic therapy may be administered prior to or following administration of TMZ.
Adult patients with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Anti-emetic prophylaxis is recommended prior to the initial dose of concomitant phase and it is strongly recommended during the monotherapy phase.
Patients with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma: Patients who have experienced severe (Grade 3 or 4) vomiting in previous treatment cycles may require anti-emetic therapy.
Laboratory parameters: Patients treated with TMZ may experience myelosuppression, including prolonged pancytopenia, which may result in aplastic anemia, which in some cases has resulted in a fatal outcome. In some cases, exposure to concomitant medicinal products associated with aplastic anemia, including carbamazepine, phenytoin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, complicates assessment. Prior to dosing, the following laboratory parameters must be met: ANC ≥ 1.5 x 109/L and platelet count ≥ 100 x 109/L. A complete blood count should be obtained on Day 22 (21 days after the first dose) or within 48 hours of that day, and weekly until ANC > 1.5 x 109/L and platelet count > 100 x 109/L. If ANC falls to < 1.0 x 109/L or the platelet count is < 50 x 109/L during any cycle, the next cycle should be reduced one dose level. Dose levels include 100 mg/m2, 150 mg/m2, and 200 mg/m2. The lowest recommended dose is 100 mg/m2.
Male patients: Men being treated with TMZ should be advised not to father a child up to 6 months after receiving the last dose and to seek advice on cryoconservation of sperm prior to treatment.
Lactose: This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Use in children: There is no clinical experience with use of TMZ in children under the age of 3 years. Experience in older children and adolescents is very limited.
Use in elderly (> 70 years of age): Elderly patients appear to be at increased risk of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, compared with younger patients. Therefore, special care should be taken when TMZ is administered in elderly patients.
Side Effects
Newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Table 4 provides treatment-emergent adverse events in patients with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme during the concomitant and monotherapy phases of treatment. (See Table 4.)

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Laboratory results: Myelosuppression (neutropenia and thrombocytopenia), which is known dose-limiting toxicity for most cytotoxic agents, including TMZ, was observed. When laboratory abnormalities and adverse events were combined across concomitant and monotherapy treatment phases, Grade 3 or Grade 4 neutrophil abnormalities including neutropenic events were observed in 8 % of the patients. Grade 3 or Grade 4 thrombocyte abnormalities, including thrombocytopenic events were observed in 14 % of the patients who received TMZ.
Recurrent or progressive malignant glioma: In clinical trials, the most frequently occurring treatment-related undesirable effects were gastrointestinal disorders, specifically nausea (43 %) and vomiting (36 %). These reactions were usually Grade 1 or 2 (0 - 5 episodes of vomiting in 24 hours) and were either self-limiting or readily controlled with standard anti- emetic therapy. The incidence of severe nausea and vomiting was 4 %.
Table 5 includes adverse reactions reported during clinical trials for recurrent or progressive malignant glioma and following the marketing of Temotero. (See Table 5.)

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Laboratory results: Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia occurred in 19 % and 17 % respectively, of patients treated for malignant glioma. This led to hospitalisation and/or discontinuation of TMZ in 8 % and 4 %, respectively. Myelosuppression was predictable (usually within the first few cycles, with the nadir between Day 21 and Day 28), and recovery was rapid, usually within 1-2 weeks. No evidence of cumulative myelosuppression was observed. The presence of thrombocytopenia may increase the risk of bleeding, and the presence of neutropenia or leukopenia may increase the risk of infection.
Gender: In a population pharmacokinetics analysis of clinical trial experience there were 101 female and 169 male subjects for whom nadir neutrophil counts were available and 110 female and 174 male subjects for whom nadir platelet counts were available. There were higher rates of Grade 4 neutropenia (ANC < 0.5 x 109/L), 12 % vs 5 %, and thrombocytopenia (< 20 x 109/L), 9 % vs 3 %, in women vs men in the first cycle of therapy. In a 400 subject recurrent glioma data set, Grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 8 % of female vs 4 % of male subjects and Grade 4 thrombocytopenia in 8 % of female vs 3 % of male subjects in the first cycle of therapy. In a study of 288 subjects with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme, Grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 3 % of female vs 0 % of male subjects and Grade 4 thrombocytopenia in 1 % of female vs 0 % of male subjects in the first cycle of therapy.
Paediatric population: Oral TMZ has been studied in paediatric patients (age 3-18 years) with recurrent brainstem glioma or recurrent high grade astrocytoma, in a regimen administered daily for 5 days every 28 days. Although the data is limited, tolerance in children is expected to be the same as in adults. The safety of TMZ in children under the age of 3 years has not been established.
Post-Marketing Experience: Antineoplastic agents, and notably alkylating agents, have been associated with a potential risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and secondary malignancies, including leukaemia. Very rare cases of MDS and secondary malignancies, including myeloid leukaemia have been reported in patients treated with regimens that included TMZ. Prolonged pancytopenia, which may result in aplastic anaemia has been reported, and in some cases has resulted in a fatal outcome. Cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported very rarely.
Cases of interstitial pneumonitis/pneumonitis have been reported very rarely.
There have been reported cases of hepatotoxicity including elevations of liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, cholestasis and hepatitis.
Drug Interactions
In a separate phase I study, administration of TMZ with ranitidine did not result in alterations in the extent of absorption of temozolomide or the exposure to its active metabolite monomethyl triazenoimidazole carboxamide (MTIC).
Administration of TMZ with food resulted in a 33 % decrease in Cmax and a 9 % decrease in area under the curve (AUC).
As it cannot be excluded that the change in Cmax is clinically significant, Temozolomide (Temotero) should be administered without food.
Based on an analysis of population pharmacokinetics in phase II trials, co-administration of dexamethasone, prochlorperazine, phenytoin, carbamazepine, ondansetron, H2 receptor antagonists, or phenobarbital did not alter the clearance of TMZ. Co-administration with valproic acid was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in clearance of TMZ.
No studies have been conducted to determine the effect of TMZ on the metabolism or elimination of other medicinal products. However, since TMZ does not undergo hepatic metabolism and exhibits low protein binding, it is unlikely that it would affect the pharmacokinetics of other medicinal products.
Use of TMZ in combination with other myelosuppressive agents may increase the likelihood of myelosuppression.
Paediatric population: Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
Storage
Store below 30°C and protect from moisture.
ATC Classification
L01AX03 - temozolomide ; Belongs to the class of other alkylating agents. Used in the treatment of cancer.
Presentation/Packing
Cap 20 mg (opaque yellow cap and white body size'4' hard gelatin capsules imprinted with 14 on cap and H on body filled with off white to pale pink granular powder) x 5's. 100 mg (opaque pink cap and white body size'1' hard gelatin capsules imprinted with 15 on cap and H on body filled with off white to pale pink granular powder) x 5's.
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