Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other alkylating agents. ATC code: L01A X03.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: Temozolomide is a triazene, which undergoes rapid chemical conversion at physiologic pH to the active monomethyl triazenoimidazole carboxamide (MTIC). The cytotoxicity of MTIC is thought to be due primarily to alkylation at the O6 position of guanine with additional alkylation also occurring at the N7 position. Cytotoxic lesions that develop subsequently are thought to involve aberrant repair of the methyl adduct.
Paediatric population: Oral TMZ has been studied in paediatric patients (age 3-18 years) with recurrent brainstem glioma or recurrent high grade astrocytoma, in a regimen administered daily for 5 days every 28 days. Tolerance to TMZ is similar to adults.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After oral administration to adult patients, TMZ is absorbed rapidly, with peak concentrations reached as early as 20 minutes post-administration (mean time between 0.5 and 1.5 hours). After oral administration of 14C-labelled TMZ, mean faecal excretion of 14C over 7 days post-dose was 0.8 % indicating complete absorption.
Distribution: TMZ demonstrates low protein binding (10 % to 20 %), and thus it is not expected to interact with highly protein-bound substances.
PET studies in humans and preclinical data suggest that TMZ crosses the blood-brain barrier rapidly and is present in the CSF. CSF penetration was confirmed in one patient; CSF exposure based on AUC of TMZ was approximately 30 % of that in plasma, which is consistent with animal data.
Elimination: The half-life (t1/2) in plasma is approximately 1.8 hours. The major route of 14C elimination is renal. Following oral administration, approximately 5 % to 10 % of the dose is recovered unchanged in the urine over 24 hours, and the remainder excreted as temozolomide acid, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AIC) or unidentified polar metabolites.
Plasma concentrations increase in a dose-related manner. Plasma clearance, volume of distribution and half-life are independent of dose.
Special populations: Analysis of population-based pharmacokinetics of TMZ revealed that plasma TMZ clearance was independent of age, renal function or tobacco use. In a separate pharmacokinetic study, plasma pharmacokinetic profiles in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment were similar to those observed in patients with normal hepatic function.
Paediatric patients had a higher AUC than adult patients; however, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was 1,000 mg/m2 per cycle both in children and in adults