SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA) is available for oral administration as tablets containing 64.25 mg sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and metformin hydrochloride equivalent to: 50 mg sitagliptin as free base and 500 mg metformin hydrochloride [SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA) 50 mg/500 mg] or 1 g metformin hydrochloride [SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA) 50 mg/1 g].
SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA): SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA) combines two antihyperglycemic agents with complementary mechanisms of action to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: sitagliptin phosphate, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, and metformin hydrochloride, a member of the biguanide class.
Sitagliptin phosphate: Sitagliptin phosphate is an orally-active, potent, and highly selective inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) enzyme for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The DPP-4 inhibitors are a class of agents that act as incretin enhancers. By inhibiting the DPP-4 enzyme, sitagliptin increases the levels of two known active incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, leading to reduced hepatic glucose production. This mechanism is unlike the mechanism seen with sulfonylureas; sulfonylureas cause insulin release even when glucose levels are low, which can lead to sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and in normal subjects. Sitagliptin is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of the enzyme DPP-4 and does not inhibit the closely-related enzymes DPP-8 or DPP-9 at therapeutic concentrations. Sitagliptin differs in chemical structure and pharmacological action from GLP-1 analogues, insulin, sulfonylureas or meglitinides, biguanides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and amylin analogues.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Its pharmacologic mechanisms of action are different from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with type 2 diabetes or normal subjects (except in special circumstances, see Metformin hydrochloride under Precautions) and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. With metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may actually decrease.
SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA) contains sitagliptin phosphate and metformin hydrochloride.
Sitagliptin phosphate: The chemical name of sitagliptin phosphate is 7-[(3R)-3-amino-1-oxo-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazinephosphate (1:1) monohydrate.
The empirical formula is C16H15F6N5O• H3PO4• H2O and the molecular weight is 523.32.
Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate is a white to off-white, crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder. It is soluble in water and N,N-dimethyl formamide; slightly soluble in methanol; very slightly soluble in ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile; and insoluble in isopropanol and isopropyl acetate.
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4H11N5•HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68.