Sitagliptin and metformin: Co-administration of multiple doses of sitagliptin (50 mg b.i.d.) and metformin (1000 mg b.i.d.) did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of either sitagliptin or metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Pharmacokinetic drug interaction studies with SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA) have not been performed; however, such studies have been conducted with the individual components of SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA), sitagliptin and metformin.
Sitagliptin phosphate: In drug interaction studies, sitagliptin did not have clinically meaningful effects on the pharmacokinetics of the following: metformin, rosiglitazone, glyburide, simvastatin, warfarin, and oral contraceptives. Based on these data, sitagliptin does not inhibit CYP isozymes CYP3A4, 2C8, or 2C9. Based on in vitro data, sitagliptin is also not expected to inhibit CYP2D6, 1A2, 2C19 or 2B6 or to induce CYP3A4.
Population pharmacokinetic analyses have been conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes. Concomitant medications did not have a clinically meaningful effect on sitagliptin pharmacokinetics. Medications assessed were those that are commonly administered to patients with type 2 diabetes including cholesterol-lowering agents (e.g., statins, fibrates, ezetimibe), anti-platelet agents (e.g., clopidogrel), antihypertensives (e.g., ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, hydrochlorothiazide), analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., naproxen, diclofenac, celecoxib), anti-depressants (e.g., bupropion, fluoxetine, sertraline), antihistamines (e.g., cetirizine), proton-pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole), and medications for erectile dysfunction (e.g., sildenafil).
There was a slight increase in the area under the curve (AUC, 11%) and mean peak drug concentration (Cmax, 18%) of digoxin with the co-administration of sitagliptin. These increases are not considered to be clinically meaningful. Patients receiving digoxin should be monitored appropriately. The AUC and Cmax of sitagliptin were increased approximately 29% and 68%, respectively, in subjects with co-administration of a single 100-mg oral dose of SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE (JANUVIA) and a single 600-mg oral dose of cyclosporine, a potent probe inhibitor of p-glycoprotein. The observed changes in sitagliptin pharmacokinetics are not considered likely to be clinically meaningful.
Metformin hydrochloride: Glyburide: In a single-dose interaction study in type 2 diabetes patients, co-administration of metformin and glyburide did not result in any changes in either metformin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Decreases in glyburide AUC and Cmax were observed, but were highly variable. The single-dose nature of this study and the lack of correlation between glyburide blood levels and pharmacodynamic effects make the clinical significance of this interaction uncertain.
Furosemide: A single-dose, metformin-furosemide drug interaction study in healthy subjects demonstrated that pharmacokinetic parameters of both compounds were affected by co-administration. Furosemide increased the metformin plasma and blood Cmax by 22% and blood AUC by 15%, without any significant change in metformin renal clearance. When administered with metformin, the Cmax and AUC of furosemide were 31% and 12% smaller, respectively, than when administered alone, and the terminal half-life was decreased by 32%, without any significant change in furosemide renal clearance. No information is available about the interaction of metformin and furosemide when co-administered chronically.
Nifedipine: A single-dose, metformin-nifedipine drug interaction study in normal healthy volunteers demonstrated that co-administration of nifedipine increased plasma metformin Cmax and AUC by 20% and 9%, respectively, and increased the amount excreted in the urine. Tmax and half-life were unaffected. Nifedipine appears to enhance the absorption of metformin. Metformin had minimal effects on nifedipine.
Drugs that reduce metformin clearance: Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use.
Other: Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE + METFORMIN HCl (VELMETIA) the patient should be closely observed to maintain adequate glycemic control.
In healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of metformin and propranolol, and metformin and ibuprofen were not affected when co-administered in single-dose interaction studies.
Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins and is, therefore, less likely to interact with highly protein-bound drugs such as salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, and probenecid, as compared to the sulfonylureas, which are extensively bound to serum proteins.